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Edited by Rev. E. M. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 


(\ II. Woodwabd. Exchange Buildings. Station Road 

Jl m . 1917 


No. OXXIII. Junk, 1915. 

Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire : By G. Bathurst Hony, M.B.O.U. 1 

The Mammals of Wiltshire: By G. Bathurst Hony 15 

Old Sarum and Sorbiodunum : By Professor F. Haverfield, 

LL.D., D. Litt., F.S.A 22 

Notes on Salisbury Cathedral : By The Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, 

Sub-Dean 30 

Huish and the Doynels 58 

Notes 100 

Wilts Obituary 114 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c 120 

Additions to Museum and Library 134 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1914 135 

List of Officers and Members of the Society 138 

No. CXX1V. June, 1916, 

The Sixty-Second General Meeting at Devizes 147 

Huish and the Doynels (Continued) 156 

The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury (New Sarum) 

between 1225 and 1612 : By Fanny Street, M. A., F.R.Hist. Soc. 185 
The Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes of Wiltshire : By G. Bathurst 

Hony, B.A 258 

Wilts Obituary 263 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 280 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors 299 

Wiltshire Illustrations and Pictures 304 

Wiltshire Portraits 337 

Additions to Museum and Library 312 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1915 315 

No CXXV. December, 191.6. 

The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury (New Sarum) 

between L225 and L612 : By Fanny Street, M.A., F.R.Hist. Soc. 

(Continued) 319 

The Sixty-Third General Meeting at Devizes •"-''' s 

The Original Bederoll of the Salisbury Tailors's Gild : ByC. Haskins 375 

A Forgotten Hospital at [Great] Bedwyn 380 

"Tw<» Surveys of the Man our of Broad H in ton, 1708/9 and 17.M " : 

Communicated by Mrs. Stoey Maskelyne 382 

Notes 392 

iiral Bistory Notes 102 

Wilts Obituary K)6 

Recenl Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, (fee. 119 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors 

Wiltshire Portrail ... 188 
Addil ions bo M useum b ad I .ibran 


No. CXXVI. June, 1917, 

Elias de Derham's Leadenhall in Salisbury Close, 1226—1215 433 

Return for the Hundred of Westbury, 1643 445 

East Wiltshire Mosses : By C. P. Hurst 449 

Marlborough Land and Fresh Water Mollusca : By C. P. Hurst 465 

The Purchase of the Brooke Collection 474 

Bronze Implements of theBronze Age found in Wiltshire, not previously 

Recorded, Supplementary Inst (Feb., 1917) : By the Rev. E. H. 

Goddard 477 

The Mediaeval Tithe Barn, Bradford-on-Avon. Report on the Work 

of Repair 485 

A Bibliography of Wiltshire Zoology : By G. B. Hony, B.A 491 

Notes 499 

Wilts Obituary 507 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 516 

Additions to Museum and Library 521 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1916 523 

Index to Vol. XXXIX 527 


Fig. 1— Leadenhall, Salisbury, North-East, 433. Fig.2 — Leadenhall, South 
Side, 433. Fig. 3.— Leadenhall from North, showing North Door and 
South Window, 433 Fig. 4.— Leadenhall, Interior, West End, 433. Fig. 
5.— Leadenhall, Salisbury. Interior Elevation of Gable, 436. Fig. 6 — 
Leadenhall. Plans, 436. Fig. 7.— Leadenhall, Salisbury. South Window, 
436. Fragment of Bronze object of unknown use found at Dinton, and 
Socketed Bronze Celt, 480. The Barton Barn, Bradford-on-Avon. N. 
Side, 488. The Barton Barn, Bradford-on-Avon. Plan and Details, 488. 

No. cxxin. 

JUNE, 1915. Vol. XXXIX, 




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REV. E. H. GODDA11D, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

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No. CXXIII. JUNE, 1915. Vol. XXXIX. 



Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire : By G. Batburst Hony, 

M.B.O.U 1 

The Mammals of Wiltshire: By G. Batliurst Hony 15 

Old Sarum and Sorbiodunum : By Professor F. Haverfield, LL.D., 

D.Litt., F.S.A 22 

Notes on Salisbury Cathedral : By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, 

Sub-Dean 30 

Huish and the Doynels 58 

Notes , 100 

Wilts Obituary 114 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 120 

Additions to Museum and Library 134 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1914 135 

List of Officers and Members of the Society 138 

Devizes : — C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 




June, 1915. 

By G. Bathurst Hony, M.B.O.U. 

Since the appearance of the Rev. A. 0. Smith's Birds of Wiltshire 
in 1887 many new county records have naturally occurred. I now 
propose to give the more interesting of those I have collected, some 
of which have been published before, but many are now published 
for the first time. Perhaps the presentation of these in a collected 
form may cause other records to be brought to light. 

Smith records the occurrence of 235 species, but he was too wont 
— to use his own words — to " give the prisoner the benefit of the 
doubt." For the present, the following nine species must be placed 
in brackets as being admitted on insufficient evidence, or not being 
genuine wild birds, though facts may come to light which will put 
some of them on a sound footing. 

Unsatisfactory Records Admitted in Smith's Birds of Wiltshire. 

[Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martins). — Our Wiltshire 
specimen seems to be better authenticated than any other English 
record. It is in the collection formed by the late Mr. James 

1 This paper is practically a reprint of one which appeared in " British 
Birds" vol. VII., p. 281 — 290. I have brought it up to date as far as possible, 
but have not thought it necessary to specify the alterations. The nomen- 
clature followed is that of the New Edition of the " B.O.U. List of British 
Birds." This list has been drawn up by a committee of the British Orni- 
thologists Union, and the nomenclature has been revised and brought up 
to date. I have to thank the Editors of British Birds for permission to 
reprint, the Rev. D. P. Harrison, of Lydiard Millicent, for several additional 
records, and Mr. A. H. Evans for revising the proofs.— -G. B. H. 

2 Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire, 

Kawlence, at Bulbridge, Wilton ; he received ifc from Mr. Pope, of 
Kingston Deverill Farm, who said it was killed during rook shooting 
at Longleat Park. TJie exact date is unknown, but the brother of 
the present owner, writing to The Standard of September 30th, 
1897, says : " I hunted up the son of the late Mr. King, who stuffed 
the bird in our collection, and he informs me that as a lad he has 
a very clear recollection of the bird coming to his father in the 
flesh for preservation from Longleat ... it made a great 
impression on both his father and him." This specimen does not 
appear to have been known to either Howard Saunders or J. H. 

[Golden-winged Woodpecker (Colaptes auratus) was not ac- 
cepted by Newton in Yarrell (II., 486). The recent Hand-List of 
British Birds says, "The specimen said to have been shot in Wilts 
in 1836 was no doubt due to importation."] 

[Desert Buzzard (Buteo desertorum) was not admitted by 
Saunders (Manual, p. 322).] 

[Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Egyptian Goose (Alopochen 
cegyptiacus), and Spur- WINGED Goose (Plectropterus gambensis) were 
undoubtedly escaped birds.] 

[King-Eider (Somateria spectahilis) was included on the strength 
of the following note from the Rev. G. Marsh: "The King Duck 
in my collection was killed in Wilts." This evidence is certainly 
not sufficient as no other data are given.] 

[Cayenne Rail (Ar amides eayennensis) was obviously an escaped 
bird, and was included against the advice of Prof. Newton, in spite 
of the fact that the author states in his preface : " to whose (Prof. 
Newton's) opinion, on all matters relating to birds, I have long 
been accustomed to bow with implicit obedience."] 

[Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) was undoubtedly an escaped 

Additional Species. 

There are thirteen additions to the county list, thus making the 
new total 239. In the following pages M.C.N.H, and W.A.M. are 

By G. Bathurst Sony, M.B.O. U. 3 

used to represent the Marlborough College Natural History Society's 
Report and this Magazine respectively. 

White Wagtail (Motacilla alba). — I saw one at Woodborough 
on April 26th, 1912 (Bull B.O.C., XXXII.). It is probably usually 
present on migration but overlooked. 

British Willow-Titmouse (Parus b. klcinschmidti) was recorded 
by C. J. Alexander from Little Bedwyn (Brit. B„ IV., p. 147). 

Fire-crested Wren (Begulus ignicapillus). — Mr. J. G. Millais 
tells me that when at Marlborough College, he shot a fine male 
with a catapult in Savernake Forest on Oct, 10th, 1881, It is 
now in his collection. 

Woodchat-Shrike (Lanius senator). — There are no less than 
four records of this bird having been seen in the county. One in 
Savernake Forest on June 6th, 1884, and one near Salisbury in 
1872 (M.G.KH., 1888). One was seen at Wishford on May 31st, 
1898 {Field, Aug. 24th; the editor doubted this record). Finally 
the Eev. Percy Harrison saw one near Aldbourne on June 13th, 
1906 {W.A.M., XXXV., p. 150). The first of the above records 
was of a bird seen by Mr. H, A. Macpherson. He made (at the 
time) a rough sketch of it in coloured chalks, which he found cor- 
responded exactly with the plate in Dresser's Birds of Europe. 

Marsh-Warbler (Acrocephalus palusiris). — A full account of the 
nesting of this bird near Stapleford, in 1900, was given by Mr. H. S. 
Hall in the Zoologist for Dec, 1900. It has also almost certainly 
bred near Marlborough for two or three years. 

Greenland Falcon (Hierofalco i. candicans). — Lord Kadnor — at 
Dr. Penrose's request — recorded an immature example which was 
shot near Downton in April, 1906 (W.AJL, XXXVL, p. 487). 

Velvet-Scoter (CEdcmia fused). — One was shot at Mildenhall 
(near Marlborough) by Mr. Barnes on October 28th, 1885 (M.C. 
N.H. 1885) ; and a young bird was shot by Mr. Dell near Marl- 
borough Mill on October 14th, 1889 (ib, 1889). 

Fulmar Petrel {Fidmarus glacialis), — An immature specimen 
was picked up near Marlborough during a storm in Oct., 1897 
(M.C.KH. 1897.) 

b 2 

4 Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire. 

[Little Stint (Tringa minuta). — " One seen Feb. 9th, 1886 " 
{M.G.N.H.). This evidence is certainly not sufficient to include it.] 

[Yellowshank (Totanus flavipes). "A specimen, shot by Mr. 
Carey Coles at Winterbourne Stoke, in 1908, has been preserved 
by Mr. White, and is now in the possession of Mr. Carey Coles" 
(W.AM., XXXV., p. 508). At my request Mr. E. A. Rawlence 
(who wrote the above note) took this specimen to the British 
Museum, and on examination by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, it turned out 
to be an undoubted Redshank. (See also W.AM., XXXVIII., p. 

White -Wing ed Black Tern (Hydrochelidon hucoptera). — The 
Eev. A. P. Morres saw five at Britford on April 30th, 1889 (Zool y 
1889, p. 393). 

Lesser Tern (Sterna minuta). — Dr. Penrose tells me he saw 
one in the Park at Rood Ashton on April 19th, 1912. {Bull, B.O.G. 
XXXIL, p. 152.) 

Ivory Gull (Pagophila eournea).—Mr. E. Cambridge Phillips 
tells me that one was killed near Chippenham about 1840 and was 
the gem of the late Dr. Burly's collection at Chippenham. 

Pomatorhine Skua (Stercorarius pomarinus). — Mr. H. W, 
Robinson records an immature specimen which was shot at Sher- 
stone about thirty years ago, and is .preserved in a farmhouse at 
Common Wood (Brit. B., VIII,, p. 150). 

Long-tailed Skua (Stercorarius longicaudus) , — Mr. J. Ward 
(late of Blackland) tells me that one was picked up dead at Calstone 
in May, 1881. On skinning it he found shot marks in it. I have 
seen the bird in his collection. 

Additional Breeding Species. 

There are not many new breeding-records for the county, but 
those recorded are of some interest. The nesting of the Marsh- 
Warbler has been mentioned above. 

Tree-Sparrow (Passer montanus). — A nest with two eggs on 
May 14th, 1890 (M.C.N.H., 1890). 

By G. Bathurst Bony, M.B.O. U. 5 

Blue-headed Wagtail (Motacilla flava). — A full account of 
its breeding at Marlborough in 1907 was given in British Birds, L, 
p. 89. Ifc nested again in the same place iu 1909 (M.C.N.H., 1909). 

Dipper (Cinclus c. britannicus). — Has nested at Castle Combe 
since 1897 ( W.A.M., XXXIII., p. 65). Nested at Lacock in 1913 
(Brit. B., VIL, p. 230). 

[Pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa atricapilla).—Dr. Hammond 

Hiufcon tells me that he took two eggs out of a clutch of six at 

Warminster in 1884. The nest was built in a hole in a foreign 

Great-crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus). — A pair nested in 
North Wilts in 1914 ( W.AM. XXXVIII., p. 641), 

[Common Sandpiper (Totanus hypoleucus). — Mr. G. Dent writes : 
Probably breeds on the Kennet (near Marlborough) ; it is seen 
every spring, and this year(1912) my brother saw the old birds with 
young ones only just able to fly." Again, Mr. Harrison is prac- 
tically sure that it breeds at Lydiard Park as he always sees a pair 
there during June and July.] 

Eedshank (Totanus totanus). — Nested at Downton, 1907 
(W.AM., XXXV., p. 150). 

Additional Eecords of Barer Visitors. 

We now come to the records of rare visitors since the publica- 
tion of (or unknown to the author of) the Birds of Wiltshire. 

Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus). — Dr. Hinton writes that it has 
been seen in Great Ridge Wood near Hindon " more than once " ; 
while Mr. Talbot described to me a pair of birds seen at Lacock 
Abbey in May, 1913, which must have been the present species 
(see also W.AM., XXXVIIL, p. 641). 

Lesser Eedpoll (Acanthis I. cabaret). — Three breeding-records 
have been published (M.C.N.H., 1905 ; Brit. B., III., p. 161 ; Field, 
June 15th, 1912), and Dr. Hinton tells me that he took eggs near 
Warminster, "when I was a boy" (about 1885). 

6 Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire. 

Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) . — One shot at Kockley on Dec. 
7th, 1889 {M.C.N.H.), and another at Bowden Hill in Jan,, 3904. 
Small flock seen at Littlecote in Dec, 1909, (Brit. B., III., p. 305), 
and a flock of twenty was seen in Savernake Forest in March, 1910' 

Snow-Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis).— Mr. Rawlence tells me 
of two shot at Bishops Down about 1908 ; the " fine specimen " 
recorded from Winterbourne Stoke ( W.AM., XXIV., p. 130) turns 
out to be a semi-albino Corn-Bunting ! 

Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor). — There is a specimen 
shot at Wylye (no date) in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury, 
and Mr. Harrison saw one in Braydon Wood in January, 1912. 

Waxwing (Ampelis garrulus). — A pair were seen and the male 
was shot at Downton on Dec. 24th, 1903. It is now in the Black- 
more Museum ( W.AM., XXXIV., p. 340). One was shot in Braydon 
Wood on Dec. 31st, 1913 {Brit B., VII, p. 264, and W.AM,, 
XXXVIII., p. 642). 

Pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa atricapilla) . — Frequently reported 
on migration, usually in spring. 

Ring-Ouzel (Turdus torquatus). — Often on migration. [A nest 
with eggs and young was reported as having been found near 
Marlborough in 1887, and another with eggs in 1901 (M.C.N.H.); 
but I am told on good authority that the second (and possibly also 
the first) of these records was based on a partially white Blackbird.] 

Black Redstart (Phamicurus titys). — Mr. J. G. Millais tells 
me that he saw a fine adult male on the Downs near Marlborough 
in the spring of 1881. A young male was seen at Downton on 
March 13th, 1910 {W.AM., XXXVL, p. 488, and Brit. B., Ill] 
p. 368). One was seen near Britford on Nov. 6th, 1912 {WA.M., 
XXXVIII., p. 107). 

Dipper (Cinclus c. britannicus). — Frequently reported in winter. 

Hoopoe (Upupa epops). — One was seen near Marlborough in 
Dec, 1878 {M.C.N.H.) ; Dr. Hinton tells me of one shot near 
Warminster in 1881 ; one was shot near Trowbridge in April, 1909 


By G. Bathurst Hony, M.B.O. U. 7 

{Devizes Gazette, May 3rd, and Field, May 26th, 1900); Mr. J. Wild 
tells me that one was seen at Lacock some years ago, and that one 
was shot at Edington about thirty years back. 

Little Owl (Carine noctua). — I have records of fourteen since 
1907 ; it is fast spreading into the county. 

Scops Owl (Otus scops). — There is a specimen in the Devizes 
Museum (mounted on the head of a Euff!) labelled "Shot at 

Bough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus), — " One Overton 1866 " 
(M.C.N. H.) ; a young male was trapped at Fonthill at the 
end of Dec, 1884 (Field, Jan. 3rd, 1885); Mr. A. Bankes writes 
that a female was killed in the same place on Feb. 18th, 1885, and 
there is a specimen in the Devizes Museum shot on the Hurdecott 
Estate (no date). 

Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo). — Mr. A. Bankes tells me that 
a male was killed in Ridge Wood, Hindon, on September 16th, 
1887. One was shot at Aldbourne in October, 1911, and there is 
a pair in the Devizes Museum from Savernake (no date). 

White-tailed Eagle (Haliaetus albicilla). — One was seen at 
Salisbury on January 31st, 1897 (Salisbury Journal, Feb. 6th, 1897). 
One was shot in Grovely Wood in March, 1905 ( Wilts County 
Mirror, May 3rd, 1905), and another at Marden on February 24th, 
1909 — now in the Devizes Museum (Marlborough Times, March 
6th, 1909, etc.). 

Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus). — One was seen near 
Braydon on October 28th, 1905 (W.A.M. XXXIV., p, 432). In 
the Devizes Museum there is a case containing a female and a 
young bird shot on the Hurdecott Estate — no date (reported in 
W.A.M., XXXVI., p. 486, as a male Marsh Harrier) ; and another 
containing a male shot near Winterslow, in 1858. 

Hen-Harrier (Circus cyaneus). — One was shot on Erchfont 
Downs on Dec. 30th, 1879 (M.C.N.H.), and one was seen at 
| Downton on April 29th, 1912 (Bull, B.O.C, XXXII). 

Kite (Milvus milvus). — A male was shot at Fonthill in Nov., 

8 Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire. 

1896 (Field, Nov., 28th, 1896), and there is a specimen in the 
Blackmore Museum shot at Cholderton (no date) . 

Honey- Buzzard (Pernis apivorus). — A specimen in the Devizes 
Museum was shot in the West Woods near Marlborough in 1885. 
This is supposed to be the specimen recorded by Smith (Birds of 
Wiltshire, p. 91), but he gives the date as 1855. 

Little Bittern (Ixobrychusminutus). — Mr. E. Cambridge Phillips 
writes that "a male was killed at Whetham, near Came, and until 
recently was in my brother's collection at Chippenham." 

Bittern (Botaurus stellaris). — I have records of no less than 
twenty-four, of which twenty-one are of later date than Smith's 
book; viz., five in 1892, one in 1897, seven in 1900, three in 1902, 
one in 1903, three in 1908, and one in 1914. 

Sheld-Duck (Tadorna tadorna). — A male was seen at Potterne 
in the winter of 1897 (W.AM. XXIX, p. 197). 

Gad WALL (Anas strepera). — One was shot on Jan. 7th, 1893, 
near Stockton House on the Wylye (W.A.M., XXVIL, p. 184). 

Garganey (Querquedula querquedula). — A pair were seen at 
Downton on April 15th, 1911, and on April 28th, 1912, (Bull B.O.C., 
XXX. and XXXIL). 

Shoveler (Spatula clypeata). — Mr. Eawlence tells me of one 
shot at Bishopstone about 1904 ; and Mr. Harrison tells me that 
he shot a female at Braydon in Oct., 1912, and the keeper then 
told him he had occasionally seen the same species in other years. 

Tufted Duck (Nyroca fuligula). — Mr. Ward mentions that one 
was shot on the Avon near Lacock in January, 1901, and one was 
seen near Stitchcombe on April 2nd, 1910 (M.C.N.K). 

Scaup Duck (Nyroca marila). — Mr. E. Cambridge Phillips 
writes that he shot a female at Eowden about 1858, and another 
was shot on the Canal near Hungerford on Dec. 6th, 1896 

Goldeneye (Glaucion clangula). — Mr. Ward has one shot at 
Blackland in Jan., 1885, and Mr. Eawlence tells me of one shot 
at Britford (no date). 

By G. Bathurst Hony, M.B.O. U. 9 

Common Scoter ((Edemia nigra). — One was killed at Marl- 
borough during the fog on the night of April 2nd 1911 (M.C.KH. 
and elsewhere). 

Goosander (Mergus merganser). — Mr. Cambridge Phillips writes 
that one was shot near Oalne about 1858, and the Rev. P. C. E. 
Jourdain tells me of one shot on the Avon, near Lacock Abbey, on 
Dec. 24th, 1892. 

Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carlo), — One was seen at Salisbury 
in Sept., 1896 {Field, Sept. 19th, 1896). Some twenty-five ap- 
peared at Marclen on Oct. 2nd, 1902 (Devizes Gazette, Oct. 7th, 
1902), and Mr. Picket, the bird-stuffer, of Salisbury, writes that a 
" Shag or Cormorant " was shot at Britford in 1902. 

Gannet (Sula hassana). — A young one was seen five miles 
from Amesbury on Nov. 16th, 1909 (Field, Nov. 27th, 1909). Mr. 
J. H. Gurney does not mention any Wiltshire specimens in his 
list of Gannets inland (The Gamut), although four cases are given 
in Smith's book. 

Storm-Petrel (Thalassidroma pelagica). — One was picked up 
at Panterwick on Oct. 14th, 1881 (M.C.N.H.), one was shot on 
Eushall Down on Nov. 20th, 1893 (Devizes Gazette, Nov. 30th ; 
Field, Dec. 2nd, 1893), the Salisbury Journal of Nov. 17th, 1894, 
records one picked up in that city, and another was picked up at 
Edingtoh on Dec. 4th, 1909 (W. A.M., XXXVI. , p. 487). 

Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa). — One 
was picked up dead in Groveley Wood on Oct. 10th, 1896 (Field, 
Oct. 17th, 1896). 

Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). — One was picked up 
on Mere Down on May 6th, 1888 (Field, May 19th, 1888) ; Mr. 
Ward tells me of one picked up near Calne on Sept. 1st, 1899 ; 
Mr. Pickett received two males and a female from Bishopstone 
about 1904 ; one was picked up at Wootton Bassett on Aug. 29th, 
1910 (Field, Sept. 13th, 1910), and Mr. McNiven tells me of 
another on the same date near Alton Barnes. 

Great-crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatas). — One was seen on 
Braden Pond on April 3rd, 1912 (W.AM., XXXVIL, p. 615). 

10 Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire. 

Great Northern Diver (Colymbus immer). — One was shot by 
Dr. Blackmore near Salisbury some years ago. 

Eed-throated Diver {Colymbus stellatus). — One was picked up 
injured at Wylye in the beginning of Feb., 1909 — it is now in the 
Devizes Museum ( W.A. M., XXXVL, p. 140). 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse (Syrrhaptes paradoxus). — A covey of 
about twenty was seen for several days previous to May 20th, 1888 
(Field, June 2nd, 1888). 

Oystercatcher (Hwmatopus ostralegus). — One was picked up 
dead on the Downs near Marlborough in 1904 (M.C.WH.). 

Cream-coloured Courser (Cursorius gallicus). — There is a 
full account of one which was shot on the Downs above Erlestoke 
on Oct. 10th, 1896, in the Zoologist for Nov., 1896, and in the 
W.A.M., XXIX, p. 70. 

Dotterel (Eudromias morinellus) , — Two were shot at Totter- 
down about 1900 ; two at Chitterne on Sept. 8th, 1905 ; four were 
shot out of eight at Codford on Sept. 15th, 1904, and another at 
the same place on Sept. 8th, 1905. Mr. M. Vaughan hears that 
it is sometimes seen on the Plain in the second week in May. 

Einged Plover (JEgialitis hiaticula). — Two were shot at 
West Kennet in 1883 (M.G.N.H), and Mr. Ward shot one at 
Blackland in June, 1889. 

Euff {Machetes pugnax) . — A Eeeve was shot at Eamsbury on 
Dec. 22nd, 1879 (M.C.N.H.). 

Knot {Tringa canutus). — An injured female was caught in 
Salisbury on Feb. 27th, 1906 (Zool, April, 1906), 

Dunlin {Tringa alpina). — One was shot near the Eiver Eay 
on January 24th, 1907 (W.AM., XXXV., p. 150). 

Grey Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius). — Mr. Cambridge 
Phillips tells me of one at Burytown Blunsdon and another at 
Holt (no dates). One was shot at the end of Sept., 1899, at 
Collingbourne Ducis (M.G.N.H). Mr, Ward shot one at Calstone 
(no date), and in the Devizes Museum are three (one in full sum- 
mer plumage), shot near Down ton (no date). 

By G. Bailmrst Hony, M.B.O. U, 11 

[Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus).— One recorded 
from Marlborough in 1869 (Birds of Wiltshire, p. 450) turns out 
to be a Grey Phalarope (M.C.N.H., 1904).] 

Whimbrel (Numenius phceopus). — One was caught wounded 
on August 20th, 1877, and on May loth, 1890, five were seen and 
two shot on the Downs near Kennet (M.C.N.H.). 

Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago), — Two nests were found 
near Marlborough, 1909 (M.C.N. H. and Brit. B., III., p. 29), and 
Mr. Vaughan tells me it almost certainly nested at Milton in 1913. 
Dr. Penrose recorded an exceptionally early nest at Downton, 
March 15th, 1912 (Brit. B., V., p. 336. 

Black Tern (Hydrochelidon nigra). — Mr. Cambridge Phillips 
tells me of one at Chippenham in 1858 ; a pair were seen at 
Eamsbury Park on May 16th, 1901 (M.C.N.H.), and several were 
seen at Amesbury in Aug., 1911. 

Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus). — I saw one on the 
Downs above Alton White Horse on April 23rd, 1910. Mr. 
Harrison tells me of an adult pair which haunted Swindon Sewage 
Farm for more than a month in Dec, 1906, and that he has more 
than once seen immature birds passing over. 

Kittiwake Gull (Bissa tridactyld). — One was found dead in 
Savernake on Feb. 5th, 1890, and a young one was shot on the 
Canal Eeservoir near Wolf hall on July 17th, 1890 (M.C.N. H). 

Common Guillemot ( Uria troille). — The Blackmore Museum 
has a specimen shot at Amesbury in 1888. 

Little Auk (Alle alle).— -"Two, one about 1855" (M.C.N.H.). 
One at Winterbourne during 1912 "wreck " (Brit. B„ VI., p. 69), 
and Mr. Eawlence tells me that one was picked up in Grovely 
Wood on Dec. 11th, 1912. 

Puffin (Fratercula arctica). — Six or seven were seen and one 
killed by wire, on Nov., 20th 1893, after a three days' gale from 
the north, at Codford St. Mary ( W.A JL, XXXVIL, p. 185). 

Great Bustard (Otis tarda). — A female was shot on Feb. 4th, 
1891, near Chippenham (Field, Feb. 28th, 1891). 

12 Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire. 

Little Bustard {Otis tetrax). — One was put upon Sept. 27th, 
1897, between Koche Court and Over Wallop on Salisbury Plain 
(Salisbury Journal, Oct. 16th, 1897), and "one was moved a fort- 
night since on Salisbury Plain, near Market Lavington " (Field, 
Nov. 6th, 1897; — presumably the same bird. Mr. James Flower, 
of Chilmark, has one killed there about 1905 or 1906, and a male 
in summer plumage was shot at Avebury on April 26th, 1909 
{ W.A.M., XXXVI, p. 143). 

Spotted Crake (Porzana porzana) . — Mr. Ward has one killed 
by telegraph wires at Cherhill in May, 1887, one was killed in 
Marlborough on April 1st, 1890, and another on Aug. 2nd, 1896, 
in a similar manner (M.C.N.H.). Finally Mr. Harrison tells me 
that he has twice seen this bird at Lydiard Millicent, viz., on Oct. 
22nd, 1906, and on Oct. 13th, 1911. 

Black Grouse (Lyrurus tetrix). — A Greyhen was killed against 
wire near Warminster on April 8th, 1906 (Field, April 14th, 1906). 
The Hand-List of British Birds says " some . . . Wilts," but on 
what authority I know not. (In a footnote to my paper the 
authors of the " Hand-List " say : — " See Saunders, Manual, 2nd 
ed, p. 493 ; we had no later information. — Eds.") 

Quail (Coturnix coturnix), — Many 1893 (Field, Sept. 30th, 
Oct. 7th, and Nov. 18th, 1893). Nest with ten eggs at Aldbourne 
in June, 1907 (W.AM., XXXV, p. 318), eight in Sept, and Oct., 
1909 (Bull. B.O.G.). Some reported in autumn, 1913. 


List of the birds which have occurred in Wiltshire. Those 
known to have nested in the county are marked by an asterisk, 
while those in square brackets are included in Smith's " Birds of 
Wiltshire," but are not admitted by the present writer. 

*Raven. Rose-coloured Starling. 

Hooded Crow. Golden Oriole. 

*Carrion Crow. ^Hawfinch. 

*Rook. ^Greenfinch. 

*Jackdaw. ^Goldfinch. 

"^Magpie. Siskin. 

*Jay. Twite. 

Chough. *Lesser Redpole. 

^Starling. ^Linnet. 

By G. Bathurst Hony, M.B.O.U, 





*House Sparrow. 
*Tree Sparrow. 
*Corn Bunting. 
^Yellow Bunting. 
*Cirl Bunting. 
*Reed Bunting. 
Snow Bunting. 
*Wood Lark. 
*Sky Lark. 
*Tree Pipit. 
*Meadow Pipit. 
*Blue-Headed Wagtail. 
*Yellow Wagtail. 
*Grey Wagtail. 
*Pied Wagtail. 

White Wagtail. 
*Tree Creeper. 
*Great Titmouse. 
*Blue Titmouse. 
*Coal Titmouse. 
*Marsh Titmouse. 
Willow Titmouse. 
*Long-tailed Titmouse. 
*G olden Crested Wren. 
Fire Crested Wren. 
Great Grey Shrike. 
Woodchat Shrike. 
*Red-backed Shrike. 

^Spotted Flycatcher. 
(*?) Pied Flycatcher. 
*Willow Warbler. 
*Wood Warbler. 
^Grasshopper Warbler. 
*Reed Warbler. 
*Marsh Warbler. 
*Sedge Warbler. 
^Garden Warbler. 
*Lesser Whitethroat. 
*Dartford Warbler. 

*Mistle Thrush. 
*Song Thrush. 
(*?)Ring Ouzel. 
* Whin chat. 


Black Redstart. 
*Hedge Sparrow. 
*Sand Martin. 
*N ightjar. 


*Green Woodpecker. 
*Great Spotted Woodpecker. 
■^Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. 

[Black Woodpecker]. 

[Golden-w T inged Woodpecker]. 
* Wryneck. 

Hawk Owl. 

Little Owl. 

Eagle Owl. 
"^Long-eared Owl. 

Short- eared Owl. 

Scops Owl. 
*Barn Owl. 
*Tawny Owl. 

Gyr Falcon. 

Greenland Falcon. 
^Peregrine Falcon. 


Red Footed Falcon. 
*Rough Legged Buzzard. 
^Common Buzzard. 

[Desert Buzzard]. 

White Tailed Eagle. 

Marsh Harrier. 
^Montagu's Harrier. 
*Hen Harrier. 

*Sparrow Hawk. 

Honey Buzzard. 


White Stork. 

Glossy Ibis. 

^Common Heron. 

Squacco Heron. 

Night Heron. 

Little Bittern. 


Notes on the Birds of Wiltshire. 


Whooper Swan. 
*Mute Swan. 

Grey Lag Goose. 

White Fronted Goose. 

Bean Goose. 

Barnacle Goose. 

Brent Goose. 

^ Canada Goose]. 

Egyptian Goose]. 

Spur- winged Goose]. 

* Mallard. 






Common Pochard. 

Ferruginous Duck. 

Tufted Duck. 
Scaup Duck. 
Long Tailed Duck. 
Common Eider. 
[King Eider]. 
Common Scoter. 
Velvet Scoter. 

Red- breasted Mergarser. 
Storm Petrel. 

Leach's Fork-Tailed Petrel. 
Wilson's Petrel. 
Manx Shearwater. 
Fulmar Petrel. 
~*Great Crested Grebe. 
Sclavonian Grebe. 
Red-Necked Grebe. 
Black-Necked Grebe. 
-* Little Grebe. 
Great Northern Diver. 
Black-Throated Diver. 
Red-Throated Diver. 
* Wood Pigeon. 
*Stock Dove. 
Rock Dove. 
^Turtle Dove. 
Pallas's Sand Grouse. 
Oyster Catcher. 
*. Stone Curlew. 
Cream Coloured Courser. 

Ringed Plover. 

Golden Plover. 




Curlew Sandpiper. 

Purple Sandpiper. 
(* ?) Common Sandpiper. 

Wood Sandpiper. 

Green Sandpiper. 
■^Common Redshank. 


Grey Phalarope. 

Red-Necked Phalarope. 

Bar-Tailed God wit. 

Common Curlew. 


Great Snipe. 
^Common Snipe. 

Jack Snipe. 

Black Tern. 

White- Winged Black Tern. 

Common Tern. 

Arctic Tern. 

Lesser Tern. 

Little Gull. 

Black-Headed Gull. 

Common Gull. 

Herring Gull. 

Lesser Black-Backed Gull. 

Great Black-Backed Gull. 

Kittiwake Gull. 

Ivory Gull. 

Great Skua. 

Pomatorhine Skua. 

Arctic Skua. 

Long-Tailed Skua. 


Common Guillemot. 
Little Auk. 

*Great Bustard. 
Little Bustard. 
*Land Rail. 
Spotted Crake. 

* Water Rail. 
[Cayenne Rail]. 

* Moorhen. 

Black Grouse. 
Red Grouse. 

* Partridge. 

*Red- Legged Partridge. 


By G. Bathurst Hony. 

The object of the present paper is rather to obtain more precise 
information as to our Wiltshire mammals than to impart it. There 
are many species, particularly of Bats, which have been recorded 
from all the surrounding counties, but not from Wiltshire, or per- 
haps a single example has been obtained here. Such a state of 
affairs can only be accounted for by saying that no one has yet 
worked at our mammals. I have here collected most of the pub- 
lished records in order to draw attention to their paucity. The 
Dormouse is the only addition I have been able to make. I should 
specially like to thank the Eev. E. H, Goddard, of Clyffe Pypard, 
for many notes of interest. 

In the following pages " Generally distributed " must of course 
be taken to mean in suitable localities only, and even then it is 
in some cases perhaps too wide a term, and is used simply owing to 
lack of definite information. M.C.N. H.S. and W.AM, are used to 
represent the Marlborough College Natural History Society's Report 
and the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 
respectively. The order and nomenclature followed is that of the 
new British Museum Catalogue of the Mammals of Western Europe ; 
these names may seem strange in many cases, but they have been 
revised strictly in accordance with the International Code for 
Zoological Nomenclature, which is the only way of reaching uni- 

Order Insectivora. 

Family Talpidae, 
Mole (Talpa europaea). — Generally distributed. 

Family Soricidae. 
Common Shrew (Sorex aranens).— Generally distributed. 
Lesser Shrew (Sorex mimUus). — One was picked up in Saver- 
nake Forest on October 29th, 1910 (M.C.NH.S.) ; I picked up a 

16 The Mammals of Wiltshire. 

dead one at Tidworth on Dec. 11th, 1914, and the Rev. D. P. 
Harrison thinks he has seen it at Lydiard Millicent. This animal 
is probably as widely distributed in the county as the last, but it is 
overlooked, and the actual number of individuals is probably com- 
paratively small. I have recently examined some owl pellets 
from Savernake and found the remains of four of these creatures 
as compared with thirty of the last. 

Water Shrew (Neomys fodiens) .—The M.G.N.H.S. for 1883 
contains four records of this animal, viz., one was found on October 
4th near Marlborough ; one was seen offPoulton Bridge on October 
24th ; one was found dead at Mildenhall on November 24th ; and 
the miller there said he had seen one a few days before. Another 
was picked up near Preshute in October, 1895 (M.C.N.H.S.), and 
Mr. Goddard tells me he saw one many years ago at Heddington. 
This animal again is probably to be found in suitable localities all 
over the county. 

Family Erinaceidae. 

Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). — Generally distributed. 

Order Chiroptera. 

Sub- order Microchiroptera. 

Family Bhinolophidae. 

Greater Horseshoe Bat {Bhinolphus ferrum-eauinum.) — The 
late Major G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton recorded one from Great 
Cheverell on June 20th, 1910 {Zoologist, 1910, p. 307), 

Lesser Horseshoe Bat (Bhinolphus hipposideros) . — This bat 
was first recorded in England by Montagu {Trans. Linn. Soc. London 
IX., p. 163), who found several in an old building at Lackham in 
1804. The British Museum contains one from Devizes and two 
from Zeals. J. G. Millais says that he has seen one from 
Marlborough {Mammals of Great Britain and Ireland., vol. I., p. 31), 
One was killed at Clyffe Pypard in 1903 ( W .A.M., XXXIII, 169) ; 
and the Bev, J. E. Kelshall writes {Zoologist, 1887, p. 93) " I have 
a white specimen from the collection of the late Mr. Sloper of 
Devizes" — this may or may not have been a Wiltshire specimen. 

By G. Bathurst Hony. 17 

Family Vesper tilionidae. 
Whiskered Bat (Myitis mystacinus) . — There is a specimen in 
[the British Museum from Pewsey; and Barrett-Hamilton (History 
of British Mammals, vol. L, p. 160), says : — " .... Wiltshire, 
where Jenyns found it commoner than P. pipistrellus at Bath. 1 
. . . May be regarded as common in all worked counties except 
in the East." 

[Natterer's Bat (Myotis nattereri) .— il Absolutely no records 
for Wilts but almost certainly there." (Barrett-Hamilton History 
of British Mammals, vol. L, p. 160.)] 

[Daubenton's Bat (Myotis daubentonii).—" Not known in Wilts 
... but there can be little doubt that it will be found in all 
of them." (Ibid, p. 144.)] 

Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) .—Generally distributed. 

Noctule (Nyctalus noctula) .—Generally distributed. 

Long-Eared Bat (Plecto$us auritus) .— Generally distributed. 
Mr. Goddard tells me it is common at Clyffe Pypard. 

Barbastelle (Barbaslella barbastellus).—A fine adult male was 
knocked down with a stick in broad daylight on January 1st, 1869, 
at Salisbury (H. P. Blackmore, Zoologist, 1869, p. 1558). The 
British Museum possesses a male, presented by the Be v. E. H. 
Goddard, from Clyffe Pypard, on May 10th, 1908 (W.A.M., 
XXXV,, p. 508). 

Order Carnivora. 
Family Canidae. 
[Wolf (Canis lupus).—- Extinct in Great Britain. Mr. Goddard 
ihas kindly drawn my attention to the two following passages relating 
to wolves in this county, The first (1328) runs "The said land, 
pasture, wood, and rents (in Couelesfeld) are held by the sergeanty 
of taking wolves with the King's dogs at the King's expense when 

1 Jenyn's actual words, however, were :— •" ... in shops and houses 
in Bath " (Proc. Bath Nat. Hist. & Ant. Field* Club. vol. II.) ; Barrett- 
;Hamilton must have been under the impression that Bath was in Wiltshire. 

G. B. H. 

18 The Mammals of Wiltshire. 

they come within the forest of Claryndone in Co. Wilts," [Wilts 
Inquisitiones Post Mortem from the Reign of Edward III., p. 36). 
Again (Ibid., p. 96), in 1333, "The tenements (in Coulsfeld 
Loueraz) are held of the King in chief by the service of hunting a 
wolf or wolves with the King's dogs through the whole county of 
Wilts, if any can be found in the county." 1 It thus appears that 
even in 1333 wolves were doubtful inhabitants of the county,] 

Fox ( Vulpes vulpes). — Generally distributed. Savernake Forest 
seems to possess a breed of tree foxes, for when hunting there foxes 
are continually put out of trees ; and on March 31st, 1914, 1 found 
a litter of cubs in a hollow tree, the entrance hole of which was 
fully 7 feet from the ground. 

Family Mustelidae. 

Badger (Meles meles). — Seems to be maintaining its numbers. 
Mr. Goddard writes : " All along the north escarpment of the chalk 
hereabouts, Clyffe Pypard, Cleveancy, Highway, etc., and I have no 
doubt continuously on either side, there 'are many badgers. I 
should think fifty must have been killed here alone in the last 
thirty years — probably more." I should be specially glad of any 
information about the status of this animal in the county. 

Otter (Lutra lutra). — Is decreasing in numbers. 

[Pine Martin (Martes martes). — J. G. Millais (Mammals of 
Great Britain and Ireland, vol. II., p. 77) writes : " Exterminated 
as long ago as the end of the seventeenth century in Wilts."] 

Stoat (Mustelx erminea) . — Generally distributed. 

Weasel (Mustela nivalis). — Generally distributed, 

[Polecat (Mustela putorius) . — The Devizes Museum contains a 

pair killed in the Castle Street Meadows, Salisbury, in 1855, and 

one presumably killed in Savernake Forest (no date). One was 

trapped between Great Bedwyn and Chisbury in 1885 (M.G.H.N.S). 

"A few certainly linger in North Wiltshire" (J. G. Millais,. 

1 In 1321 William Mitchell held a messuage and land at Middleton Lillebon 
(Milton Lilborne), Co. Wilts, of the King in capite, by the serjeanty of 
keeping his Wolf-dogs (Blount, "Ancient Tenures" p. 258). 

By G. Bathurst Hony. 19 

Mammals of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. II., p, 96. — 1904), but 
Mr. Millais can give me no later information, and I think we must 
now call it extinct in the county. 1 ] 

Order Rodentia. 
Sub-Order Duplicidentata. 
Family Leporidae. 
Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). — Generally distributed. 

Hare (Zepus europaeus). — Generally distributed, but off the 
Downs is much scarcer since the passing of the Ground Game 

Sub-order Simplicidentata. 
Family Muscardinidae. 

Dormouse {Muscardinus avellanarius) . — Mr. G. Dent tells me 
that he found a nest and saw the animals at Whernham Gorse, 
near Martinsel, in the spring of 1909. Mr. Goddard thinks that 
he has heard of this animal in Savernake Forest, but cannot be 
certain ; likewise Mr. Meyrick, of Marlborough, has no certain 

Family Muridae. 

Bank Vole {Evotomys glareolus).- — Generally distributed. 

Field Vole (Microtus agrestis). — Generally distributed. 

Water Vole (Arvicola amphibius). — Generally distributed. 

Wood Mouse {Apodemus sylvaticus). — Generally distributed. 

[De Winton's Field Mouse {Apodemus flavicollis). — Mr. 
Harrison described to me some " yellow mice " from Lydiard 
Millicent which I think must belong to the present species, but 
he has not yet succeeded in obtaining specimens for me. 1 have 
no doubt that the species will ultimately turn up in the county.] 

Harvest Mouse {Mycromys minutus). — Was first noticed in 
England by Montagu in Wiltshire, though the first published 
account of it was in Gilbert White's Natural History of Selborne. 

1 Since this paper has been in print I am told that a correspondent remem- 
bers seeing a Polecat bolt from a rabbit hole in a small covert on Mauditt's 
I Park Farm, near Malmesbury, about the year 1872. — E. H. Goddakd. 
C 2 

20 The Mammals of Wiltshire. 

Overlooked, probably generally distributed, but getting scarcer. 

[Black Rat (Epimys rattus). — Probably completely exterminated 
in Wiltshire.] 

Brown Rat (Epimys norvegicus). — Generally distributed. 
Many white rats were killed in the neighbourhood of Hilmarton 
some forty years ago (W.A.M., Vol. XXVII., p, 102). 

House Mouse (Mus musculus). — Generally distributed. A great 
many white mice were killed at Calstone in 1893 (ibid), and I saw 
one at Bishops Cannings some years ago. 

Family Sciuridae. 
Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) . — Generally distributed, but much 
scarcer lately. A few years ago almost all the squirrels in North 
Wilts disappeared quite suddenly, probably as the result of some 
disease. Round Woodborough there has been a very marked de- 
crease even in the last seven years, while Mr, Goddard writes that 
at Clyffe Pypard they are now " scarcer than badgers.'" 

Order Ungulata. 
Family SvAdae. 
[Wild Boards scrofa). — Now extinct in Great Britain. Wild 
Boars, however, existed in Wiltshire till about the end of the six- 
teenth century, perhaps later. Some were killed in Savernake 
Forest about 1540, as we see from the following extracts from the 
account books of Edward Seymour of Wulfhall (WA.M., XV, p. 
173). " Paid to Morse and Grammatts for helpyng to take the 
wylde swyne in the Forest 4d. ; & for 8 hempen halters to bind 
their legs 4d. ; . . . & others for sekying wylde swyne in the 
Forest 2 days 2/6." In Grovely there were " 300 fallow deer and 
and a number of wild boars " in Elizabeth's time ( WA.M., XXXII. , 
p. 297) ; again, Sir Richard Grobham (who died in 1629, aged 78) 
" slew a wild boar in Grovely Woods, which was the terror of all 
the neighbourhood" (WA.M., XXXV., p. 310).] 

Family Cervidae, 
Red Deer (Cervus elephas) . — Those in Savernake Forest are true 
descendants of genuine wild deer of this county. 

By G. Bathurst Hony. 21 

Fallow Deer (Dama dama) % — Semi-domesticated in Savernake 
and many parks. Introduced, probably, by the Eomans. Those 
in Eushmore Park are " of the breed of the old Chase deer " (Pitt- 
Eivers in King John's House, p. 21.) 

Eoe-Deer (Capreolus capreolus). — There is abundant evidence 
that it nourished in this county in prehistoric and Eoman times, 
but I only know of one later record. Pitt-Eivers mentions {King 
John's House, Tollard fioyal, p. 22) that he found " several frag- 
ments of roe-deer " (bones) amongst the rubbish in the tower of 
that building, which dates from the earlier part of the 13th century. 
This evidence of the existence of the Eoe in Cranborne Chase 
in post Eoman times, seems to have escaped notice hitherto, The 
Eoe was reintroduced into the Blackmore Vale, in Dorset, in 1800, 
and occasionally wanders within our boundaries. W. H. Hudson 
records seeing one in Great Eidge Wood, Hindon (A Shepherd's Life 
p. 302). 

It will be seen from the above that (counting the Fallow Deer, 
which is semi-domesticated) there are thirty-one species of mammals 
recorded from this county. It is almost certain also that two or 
three more bats, and probably De Win ton's Field Mouse (Apodemus 
| flavicollis) , will eventually be added to this list, while it is possible 
that the Polecat has been removed too soon. 

I need hardly mention that I should be very grateful for any 
information (negative as well as positive) about mammals in Wilts, 
and I should be happy to receive any specimens for identification. 
I should also be glad if anyone who has an owl tree in his neigh- 
bourhood would send me a supply of pellets, for no man knows 
the small mammals of a district as well as the owl which lives on 



By Professor F. Haverfield, LL.D., D.Litt., F.S.A. 

[Reprinted^ with a few additions, from The English Historical Review, 
Vol. xxx., No. cxvii., January, 1915.] 

Old Sarum is perhaps the most famous of the " villes mortes " 
of England, and it has good ground for its reputation. Even in 
Roman times it was an inhabited place, which our antiquaries, ever 
since Camden, have agreed to identify with the Sorbiodunum or 
Sorviodunum of the Antonine Itinerary, 1 and it was — as indeed it 
almost visibly is to this day — a meeting place of Roman roads. Then 
comes a blank ; the site reappears as an English settlement of some 
slight importance towards the year 1000, and for two centuries after 
the Norman Conquest it could boast of a stately cathedral and a 
castle built in stone. It has now long lain desolate, but huge mounds 
and ditches mark its ruin ; its outer fosse is 100 feet deep and 
150 feet wide, and from the high chalk ridge on which it stands 
its central mound breaks the sky-line of the landscape for miles 

The earlier English antiquaries of the twelfth and following 
centuries do not seem to have recognized Old Sarum as a Roman or 
an ancient place. Geoffrey of Monmouth and Henry of Huntingdon 
allude to it, but no one would infer from their references that they 
connected it with any special historic past. A little later, John of 
Salisbury uses Severia for Sarum and Severiana provincia for 
Wiltshire, but the appellation does not seem to have been given 
with any idea that it had been a Roman place ; probably it is only 
a jesting latinization of the two first syllables of its name 

1 The name occurs only in the Itinerary, but there twice. On p. 483-4 the 
manuscripts spell it Sorviodunum, or the like, while on p. 486-13 they give 
Sorbioduni (one manuscript Sorbidoni). The older editors and most English 
writers prefer Sorbiodunum ; some later scholars adopt the v. The Peutinger 
Table mentions a place Sorviodorus in Raetia ; otherwise, no Celtic place- 
names seem to be known that begin with sorb- or sorv-. Sir John Rhys 
tells me that he can find no philological reason for giving a preference to 
either of the forms. (See Postscript.) 

Old Sarum and Sofhiodunum. 23 

Searobyrig. 1 But if the medieval writers failed to add a chapter 
of conjecture to what was known about Old Sarum, moderns have 
supplied the want. In particular, they have tried to fill the gap, 
or at least a part of the gap, between the Eoman age and the end 
of the tenth century. Thus Guest, in his papers on the English 
Conquest, classes Old Sarum with Cirencester as two stout fortresses 
which helped the Briton to stay the invader. John Kichard Green, 
who developed many of Guest's suggestions, emphasizes in more 
detail how in the early sixth century " the fortress of Sorbiodunum 
or Old Sarum guarded the valley of the Avon and blocked the way 
io Salisbury Plain. Arms (he tells us) must have been useless 
against such a stronghold, and, though the Britons were put to 
flight before its investment, its reduction was probably due rather 
to famine or to want of water than to the sword." He connects 
this sie^e with the statement in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that in 

o o 

-552 Cynric routed the Britons at Searobyrig, and thereby obtains 
a date for the fall of the fortress. 2 

The views of Guest and Green as to the details of the English 
Conquest no longer dominate students as they once did, nor is the 
narrative of the Chronicle now accepted as a sure guide to English 
history before 600 ; it is now recognized that, as for example, Mr. 
H. M. Chad wick has rightly observed, no contemporary records of 
the sixth century have been preserved, and it is more than probable 
that none such were ever kept. But an attempt to rescue the 
importance of Old Sarum, in the spirit of the older writers cited 
above, has been made by the Anglo-Saxon scholar just named. 
Mr. Chad wick 3 urges that while the date of the battle of Salisbury 
may be given amiss by the Chronicle, the fact of the battle may 
he correct ; there may have been a genuine tradition of it, which 
the Chronicle embodies. In support of this he points out that 
Old Sarum was quite unimportant till near A.D. 1000, being 

1 Once each, in his Policraticus (vi. 18, viii. 19). Hence probably Higden 
Polychr. i. 49 ; Lhuyd, Comment. Brit. fo. 15 ; Leland, Collectanea, ii. 397 
and elsewhere. From Leland it passed to later antiquarian writers. 

2 Guest, Origines Celticae, ii. 188 ; Green, Making of England , pp. 91,92. 

3 Origin of the English Nation, p. 23. 

24 Old Sarum and Sorbiodunum, 

indeed before that overshadowed by its near neighbour Wilton, It 
is not likely, therefore, that a wholly invented battle would be 
assigned to Old Sarum. On the other hand, the name Sorbiodunum 
shows, he thinks, that " fortifications of some kind existed in or 
before Eoman times, and ... we might naturally expect 
that the natives would try to make a stand there." 

I confess, I should have thought that if large prehistoric earth- 
works existed at Old Sarum, they might well have inspired a fiction 
that a battle had once been fought in them, and that Mr. Chad wick's 
argument really comes to nothing. But I wish here to notice 
another point. I cannot help thinking that these references to 
Old Sarum, and indeed others which I need not detail, rest at 
bottom on a misconception of the character of the Eoman Sorbio- 
dunum. It was, I believe, a far smaller place than has mostly 
been assumed. The only evidence that is quite trustworthy in the 
matter, that of archaeological finds, is very significant. These finds 
are extraordinarily few. Of structural remains in situ there is — 
with one doubtful exception, to be noted below — not a vestige. 
Nobody now believes, with the late Mr. Wright, that the earthworks 
are in any part Eoman, or with the late Mr. Eoach Smith, that 
he detected in 1876 a " fine fragment " of Eoman masonry standing 
as the Eoman builder set it. 1 The Eoman remains of Sorbiodunum 
consist, so far is at present on record, of a few small objects, jusl 
enough to prove that buildings stood on the site and that men 
dwelt in them in the Eoman age. 

The first writer — and almost the last — who mentions Eomai 
finds is the author of the Antiquitates Sarisburienses, Edward 
Ledwich, in 1771. 2 He describes and figures the following coins, 
all (he says) of copper : he does not give the sizes : — 

1 Thomas Wright, Wanderings of an Antiquary p, 313 ; C. Koacb Smitl 
Archceol. Journ. xxxiii. 295. 

2 The book appeared in two editions, 1771 and 1777, which differ only in 
title page. Both are anonymous ; the author was the Irish antiquary, 
Edward Ledwich (1738 — 1823) who was resident in Wiltshire for a short 
time in early life. His authorship has been recognised for some time ; it 
is, for instance, given in the British Museum Catalogue (1890). It is, how- 
ever, ignored in the Dictionary of National Biography, and Gough {Brit. 
Topogr. ii. 319) gave the name as Lechiot — perhaps his printer read 

By Professor F. Haverfield, LL.D., D.Litt,, F.S.A. 25 

1. Hadrian— cos. in felicitas avg.s.c. Probably Cohen 607. 

2. Septimius Severus— victoriae brit. Cohen 726, but copper instead 
of gold. 

3. Septimius Severus— part, Cohen 372, but copper 
instead of silver. 

4. Carausius— fidelitas psr (galley with mast, 4 rowers and 4 oars). 
Perhaps Webb 668 (felicitas rsr), misread. 

5. Constantius II— victoria avgvstorvm. Cohen 237, but copper 
instead of gold. 

6.— Julian— vota pvblica (Anubis). Apparently the obverse of Cohen 
116 and the reverse of 117. 
7. — Valentinian II— vot v mvlt x. Cohen 68. 

8. Theodosius — concordia avgg. Cohen 6. 

9. Honorius— victoria avgg md. Cohen 44, but copper instead of gold. 

The list is curious since no less than four out of the nine coins are 
otherwise known only in gold or silver. Had Ledwich's specimens 
been gold or silver, it is most unlikely that he would nob have noted 
it. On the other hand, it is equally unlikely that one small set of 
nine coins should contain four varieties in copper which are' other- 
wise known only in the more precious metals. It is not, however 
necessary to disbelieve in the list altogether ; probably Ledwich. 
deciphered the legends and devices of the coins with the aid of 
some coin-manual, somewhat conjecturally and without due regard 
to the metals mentioned in it. The only other "Roman" objects 
recorded from Old Sarum before the present century are a spoon 
and a padlock, found before 1857, 1 and perhaps themselves not 

The excavation of the site undertaken in 1909 by Mr. (now Sir) 
W. H. St. John Hope and Colonel Hawley on behalf of the London 
Society of Antiquaries has added to this tiny list, but has, so far, 

dw into ch and ch into ot, for Gough knew, or at least corresponded 
with, Ledwich, and can hardly have been unaware of his authorship. The 
fact is clearly stated in a letter from Ledwich to H. P. Wyndham which 
has been printed in the Wiltshire Notes and Queries (Dec. 1914, No. 88, p. 
187) since my article in the Engl. Historical Revieiv went to press. In 
this letter, written from Ireland, 8th Oct., 1790, Ledwich says : "above 
twenty years ago, while chaplain to a regiment, I spent not a few agreeable 
days in your county and its capital Salisbury. There ... I writ the 
following brochures, Antiquitates Sarisburienses and Salisbury Guide . . ." 
I am indebted to Mr. Goddard for calling my attention to the passage. 

1 Wiltshire Archceol. Mag., iv., 249. 

26 Old Sarum and Sorbiodunum. 

added little. The whole fruits of the four years seem to amount 
to eight or nine coins, all of the later empire, and all reported as 
illegible except a Maximian, some potsherds, a bronze fibula, a 
bronze armlet, and other metal trifles, a quern from Andernach, 
some tiles and painted wall-plaster, and lastly a bit of wall in situ 
which seemed (but could not be proved) to be Roman. The tiles 
and wall-plaster point to the existence of some more or less civilised 
dwelling-house, and the net result of the whole list is to show that 
Old Sarum was an inhabited site in Roman times. But the list is 
short, and it is not surprising that the excavators, downcast at the 
scantiness of Roman finds, ventured on the theory that the Roman 
Sorbiodunum may have been situated below Old Sarum at the 
village of Stratford-sub-Castle, where a Roman road crossed the 
Avon on its way to Dorchester, and where water and shelter would 
have been more plentiful than on the hill. 1 However, the village 
seems to have yielded absolutely no Roman remains, and it is 
therefore in even worse case than Old Sarum, where the tiles and 
painted wall-plaster do actually prove some sort of dwellings. 
Besides, the surface at Old Sarum has been horribly disturbed by 
post-Roman work : the Castle mound and ditch alone have obliter- 
ated six or seven acres, and the rest of the site has been much 
altered by levelling. Unless, therefore, the original Roman 
buildings were exceedingly extensive and substantial and their 
inhabitants very numerous, one would not look for many remains 

The truth more probably is that Old Sarum was a small place, a 
posting-station or a hamlet with a couple of houses. There were 
many tiny places in Roman Britain. Even of the inhabited spots 
of which we know the names, quite a large proportion must have 
been tiny. Even cross-roads did not necessarily involve large 
towns at the crossings. Seventeen miles east of Old Sarum, the 
Roman road from it to Silchester, part of an important route, 
intersects the Roman road from Winchester to Cirencester; there 
was no town or village at the crossing ; so far as we know, there 

1 For the finds see Proceedings of the Soc. of Antiq. of Lond. xxiii. 151, 
517 ; xxiv. 57 ; xxv. 101. 

By Professor F. Haverfield, LL.B., D.Litt., F.S.A. 27 

was not even a house at all. At Yenonae (High Cross), nine miles 
north of Rugby, the Fosse Way and Watling Street cross. Despite 
the importance of both roads, the remains definitely recorded from 
the spot hardly rival those of Old Sarum. Nor was the junction 
of roads at Old Sarum so very serious. We sometimes read that 
six ways met here. The fact is that the main road from London 
and Silchester to Dorchester and Exeter ran through it or just 
outside it, and was joined by a branch from Winchester, and that is 
all that is certain. It is possible, as has been often conjectured, that 
a branch ran off westwards to the lead mines on Mendip, but the 
traces of this road are extremely unsatisfactory anywhere within 
thirty miles of Salisbury, and the existence of another road, marked 
by Codrington and others as running north across Salisbury Plain 
to Marlborough, is altogether improbable. 

Sorbiodunum, then, was not the kind of place to develop into a 
stronghold, Roman or post-Roman. It remains to ask whether 
the fortifications assumed by the writers cited above could be 
survivals from pre-Roman days. This is not impossible. The 
name Sorbiodunum, whatever its first half means, ends in a Celtic 
word which denotes either a fortification or a hill or a fortified 
hill, and the actual hill of Old Sarum is one which prehistoric men 
might well have occupied. It would not, however, follow that the 
camp was a very strong one. Of the eight British sites (excluding 
Sorbiodunum) which can be identified with Romano-British names 
ending in -dunitm, only one, the Celtic capital Camulodunum 
(Colchester), shows traces of strong pre-Roman defences, and one, 
Maridunum(now Carmarthen), holds a defensible position, and was 
doubtless a Celtic tribal centre before the Romans came. Most of 
them — Segedunum (Wallsend), Cambodunum (Slack), Margidunum 
(East Bridgeford, Nottinghamshire), Branodunum (Brancaster), 
Moridunum (Seaton)— -one would not naturally suspect of having 
ever been hill forts, while the eighth, Uxellodunum (overhanging 
Maryport), has a splendid site but no trace of pre-Roman occupation. 

At Sorbiodunum itself there is, as yet, little sign of pre-Roman 
life. A part, indeed, of its mounds and ditches have been judged 
older than the Roman ; the outer defences have even been assigned 
to the Bronze Age. This is a point on which we must await the 

28 Old Sarum and Sorbiodunum, 

evidence of further excavation. As yet, only one cutting has been 
taken through any part of the outer defences which could illustrate 
the matter, and the meaning of this trench is not quite clear. It 
appears, as Sir W. Hope and Mr. Montgomerie very kindly tell me, 
that the Norman wall has here been found standing 17 feet high, 
with a bank of made ground against its outer face. This outer 
bank contains two lines of ancient turf-surface which suggest that 
there was, first, a bank of earth about 4 feet high above the un- 
touched chalk ; then this was raised to 8 feet high, and finally the 
earth was piled up to 17 feet. The first and second stages in this 
process seem earlier than the Norman wall, but it is as yet im- 
possible to say whether they are to be connected with the English 
or with the Eoman age, or with earlier men. The age of the third 
is quite uncertain, and as the earth behind the wall has not yet been 
explored, conjectures are clearly undesirable. Nor, indeed, would 
it be safe to argue from one section. It may be remarked, however* 
that nothing prehistoric or pre-Boman seems to have been recorded 
from the spot, save one neolithic celt found some time ago and 
three neolithic flakes dug up in the recent excavations. 1 Moreover, 
the vast external fosse exceeds the prehistoric scale of fortification 
as certainly as it exceeds the Eoman. 2 Whatever early earthworks 
were here must have been slight enough to be obliterated by the 
later Norman structures. On the whole, it would seem that 
Sorbiodunum cannot be used as a factor in reconstructing the 
history either of Eoman or of early post-Boman Britain. 

Dr. Henry Bradley, one of the editors of the Oxford English 
Dictionary, and a very high authority on early English philology, 
put forward some years ago a conjecture about the derivation of 

1 The celt is in the Blackmore Museum ; Goddard, Wiltshire Archceol. 
Magazine^ xxxviii. 325. An inscribed gold British coin (ver) is alleged to 
have been found here, but the provenance seems doubtful ; Journ. British 
Archceol. Assoc, xv. 297. 

2 Maiden Castle, in Dorset, is perhaps the most colossal of the prehistoric 
fortresses of southern Britain, but its defences at their greatest do not seem 
to exceed 60 or 65 feet from crest of rampart to bottom of corresponding 
ditch. Cadbury, six miles north of Sherborne, is almost as astonishing, but 
it contains no fosse to rival Old Sarum. 

By Professor F. Haverfield, LL.D., D.Zitt, F.S.A. 29 

the names Searobyrig and Sorbiodunum or Sorviodunum (English 
Miscellany presented to Furnivall, 1901), about which he has been 
kind enough to write to me more fully. He is careful to describe 
it as only a conjecture, or series of conjectures, but it may be noted 
here. He thinks that the hill of Old Sarum may have been named 
after the Avon which flows in the valley deep below it and that 
this river may in Celtic times have borne the name Sorvios or 
Sorvia, " gentle." This form would naturally have passed in early 
English into something like sicre; it may, however, have already 
in Eomano-British times have lost its i and changed its o into a. 
It would then have become Sarva and he points out that the 
Eavennas lists a Sarva among British rivers (p. 437. II). 1 Now 
the name Sarva (he adds) is exactly the form we want to account 
for Searo-. This series of conjectures, each of them possible in 
itself but each only conjecture, would go to shew that Sorviodunum 
was the true orthography. Sorbio- (he says, if it kept its i, would 
naturally have yielded not Searo- but Syrfe). 

I cannot held thinking that another factor beside pure phonetic 
change may have been at work here. Searo often occurs in Anglo- 
Saxon in composition with other words and is, of itself, a familiar 
Anglo-Saxon word ; it may have been introduced into the early 
name of Sarum by the same common process as that by which the 
sailor re-names Bellerophon as "Billy Euffian." There are other cases, 
1 believe, in which Eomano-British place-names taken over by the 
English were altered to fit familiar English words or names, instead 
of following the normal phonetic changes. This explanation I 
should apply (for instance) to Speen, near Newbury, in Berkshire. 
It is absolutely impossible to separate Speen from the Eomano- 
British " Spinse," mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary ; it is equally 
impossible (according to Prof. Skeat, Berkshire Place-names, p. 112) 
to connect the two phonetically. The fact I take to be that the 
early English found the name " Spinae," or some similar form, and 
wilfully modified it to agree with one of their own words. 

1 The reading is, however, not certain. Of the three best MSS. of the 
Raven nas, two have Sarna and I should myself have given this the prefer- 
ence on the account of MS. authority. Previously, those who have troubled 
themselves about the item in Eavennas have taken Sarva or Sarna to be a 
mis-spelling of Sabrina, the Severn. 


By the Rev. Chr. Words worth, Sub- Dean. 

The following Inventories of plate, &c, in Salisbury Cathedral 
Vestry (a) in 1624-5 — the last year of K. James L, when Dr. J. 
Davenant was Bishop and J, Bowie was Dean — and (b) in 1685 
(subsequently to the Interregnum and the Restoration) were un- 
fortunately unknown to Mr. J. E. Nightingale, when he issued his 
fine volume of Church Plate of Wilts, royal 8vo, Salisbury, 1891, 
in which he devoted pp. 1—11, 233—245, with Plates L— IV., 
to Salisbury Cathedral Plate. 

The former " Inventary " of the two now published is preserved 
in a volume of Collectanea written on folio paper and bound 
in parchment some years after the Restoration but not later than 
1697, in which year it was given by the Rev. Francis Horton 
(Canon Resid. 1674 — 97) to Canon Isaac Walton. It contains 
copies of Communar's (and other) accounts by Chancellor Drake 
and others, with miscellaneous items relating to the property of 
the Cathedral, extracted, at least in part, from a certain " Liber 
olim dictus Blew." 


of such Implements and Goods 

as were in y e vestry 

Feb. 18, 1624. 

(1) Imprimis One Silver Cup gilt with a Cover of the same weighing 

28 ounces and i. 

(2) One Silver Chalice gilt with a Cover of the same, weighing 24 ounces 

and f . 

(3) One Lesse Silver Chalice gilt with a Cover of ye same weighing 20 

ounces and \. 

(4) One Silver Plate white, weighing 4 ounces and half a Q r . 

(5) One Silver Flagon given by Dr. Barnston weighing 58 ounces. 

1 Collections from Accounts, &c, a folio book, given by Fra. Horton to 
Canon I. Walton in 1697, p. 81 (" 61 " in old pagination). The Bursar, who 
is responsible for the common property, or Communa Canonic or urn is 
known as Communaris. 

Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 31 

(6) One other Flagon given by Dr. Barnston, weighing 57 ounces and \. 

(7) One Silver Stoop Pot given by Mr. Low weighing 37 ounces and f . 
(8, 9) Two Silver Rods in y e keeping of y* Virgers. 

(10) One Damask Cloth for y e Comunion Table of the Gift of M r . Painter. 

(11) A Cloth of Tissue for the Comunion Table. 

(12, 13) Two Old Diaper Cloths) , _, — . _ , , 

(14) One fine Diaper Cloth j for ** Comunion Table. 

(15) One Pulpit Cloth of Red Velvet and Silver. 

(16) One Pulpit Cloth of Branches and Scutchions. 

(17, 18) Two Flagon potts for y e Comunion, y e one a Pottle, y e other a 

Quart, of Tinne. 
(19, 20) One Black Velvet Cushion with 4 Black Tassells of Spanish 

silk, of y e Gift of M rs . Barnston, with a yellow Buckeram case. 
(21, 22) Two Long Cushions of cloth of Gold and Red Velvet, lined with 

(23,-26) Foure long Cushions of Blew Velvet and Tissue lined with 

mingled Serge. 
(27—29) Three old long Cushions of Purple Tissue lined w th Leather. 
(30) One old Cushion of Blew velvet, square. 
(31 — 34) Foure old Long Cushions of Carpet worke. 
(35) One Long Cushion branched with Green, and 3 yards of Gold lined 

with Greene. 
(36 — 41) Five [" old "struck out] Square Thrum Cushions. 
(42) 1 One old Cushion of Red Damask embroidered w th Gold. 
(43,44) Two Tissue Cushions with flowers green and red, lined'with 

green Durance. 
(45 — 47) Three Crimson Taffata Cushions with Tassells. 
(48) One long Crimson velvet Cushion with Tassells, lined with Blew 

China Satten. 
(49, 50) Two Long Cushions with Tassells of Branched velvet Black 

and Red, lined with Blue Satten of China. 
(51 — 55) Five Green Cloth Cushions. 
(06 — 59) Foure Hangings of Yellow Sarsenet, and Two Curtains of 

Yellow Sarsenet for y e Bishop's Seat. 

(60) A faire Cloth of Turky worke for y e Chapter House. 

(61) One old Turky Carpet Cloth, w ch lyeth before M r . Dean. 
(62—64) Three new Yellow Silk Curtains. 

(65) A Pall or Burial Cloth of Blew and Red Velvet, with the Garter 

fringed about. 
(66, 67) Two old Curtaines of Red Sarsenet, and Yellow Lyons. 
(68, 69) Two Blew Taff'ata Cloths lined with Fustion. 
(70) One paire of Candlesticks of Brass. 
(71—73) _Three old Haircolour Silk Cloths for the Formes at the 

Comunion Table. 

(74) One old Square Thrum Cushion. 

(75) One Old Square Darnix Cushion. 

(76) One old Square Cushion of Tapistry. 

1 p. 82 (" 62 " old incorrect numbering). 

32 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

Notes on the " Inventary " of 1624 — 5. 

(1), (2) These are no doubt the silver gilt chalices or large 
Oommunion Cups with covers, cir. 1600, with Elizabethan strap- 
work bands. 

(5), (6) Dr. J. Barnston, founder of a short-lived Hebrew Lecture 
at Brasenose, Oxford, Chaplain to Lord Chancellor Egerton, was 
Eector of Everley, Preb. of Bishopston, 1600 — 1645 ; Canon Resid. 
and Locum Tenens to Dean Mason, 1634. Cf, Wilts K & Q., i„ 23, 
'72-3. He gave these flagons in 1610. They are now gilt. 

(6), (30) &c. Some of the " old " pulpit cloths and cushions may 
not impossibly have been made from remnants of old copes or vest- 
ments discarded in Bp. Jewel's time. The Treasurer's inventory 
of 1536 contained among cloths for the high altar at least one item 
which dated from the early part of the fourteenth century. C. 
Wordsworth, Salisbury Ceremonies, p. 167, art. xviij, § 3. 

(7) This silver stoup-pot is figured by Mr. Nightingale, and faces 
p. 9 of his book. It bears the hall mark of 1606 ; its surface is now 
gilt. It bears the initials of J. Lowe, one of the counsel for 
Salisbury Cathedral. 

(8), (9) One of the silver rods, verges, or staves, bears a dove, 
the other a lamb, at its summit. There is also a later silver staff 
inscribed near the handle " Hunc Baculum in usum Cancell[arii] 
Ecclse Sarum dedicauit Michael Greddes Ll.D. ejusdem Ecclse 
Cancellus et Canonus AD. 1712." It was at one time borne by the 
** Pulpit Verger," It is surmounted by the arms of the University 
of Oxford. The third verger at the present day has a wooden 
(ebony) staff surmounted by a silver fleur-de-lys. 

(10) Thomas Paynter, Preb. of Woodford, 1581 ; of Slape, 1582 ; 
and Ship ton, 1587 — 1614, vir diligentissimus et ecclesim Sar. bono 
natus, is said to have paid special attention to the preservation and 
arrangement of the Cathedral muniments (W. H. Jones, Fasti, 418). 

(15), (16) Pulpit Cloths. Canons Horton and Walton's folio 
Collection from Accounts and Liber olim dictus " Blew " contains 
on pp. 43 — 46 (old numbering) a curious list of fees of officials of 
the Cathedral 3 Oct., 1672. Porter and Bedell received 6s, Sd. 
apiece " pro Panno Nigro Pulpitali," and the Clerk or Sexton, CEditmis 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean. 33 

Ecclesice, received 5s. "pro Dimid. Panno Nigro Pulpitali," or 10s. 
if it were of velvet (serico villoso). The Belfry Sexton (CEdituus 
{Jampanilis) had a fee of Is. for blowing the organ at a funeral 
taking place " temporibus exprecatoriis " (out of service time). 
" Mortinola " occurs as the latin for the passing-bell. The senior 
virgifer had Is. "pro Cantu Funebri ad chorum." It will be re- 
membered that the Cathedral choir went over to Bemerton to sing 
at George Herbert's funeral. The payments to the Church Sexton 
of the Cathedral and to the Porter and Bedell are curious. These 
: officials had been accustomed to have a perquisite of cloth in early 
! times. Great rolls of cloth were spread from the Lamb hostelry 
(the " Mitre-house," or " Florentine's corner,") past " the chains " to 
the west door of the Cathedral, and so to the high altar, the throne, 
and the treasury, or vestry, when Bp. Ki, Beauchamp came (perhaps 
barefoot) for enthronement in 1451. One section of the out-of-door 
portion of such cloth was given to be distributed among the poor, 
another was the perquisite of the Porter, while of the third section 
one moiety was the perquisite of the Bedell, the remainder of the 
out-of-door cloth being shared by the Sexton's and Porter's grooms 
{garciones). See Salisbury Ceremonies, p. 127. 1 It seems probable 

1 Dean Pierce's Miscellanea (p. 69) contains an extract from a record of 
the fees paid to "ministers " of the Cathedral on account of the distribucio 
panni on occasion of the "Installation" of Edmund Audley as Bishop, 
7th April, 1502. This included the following items ; — 

To the Porter {Janitor) for 50 yards {virgatae) of cloth (at 4c?. per 
yard) 16s. 

To the Bedell and to the Grooms of the Sacrists and of the porter, 130 
yards between them £2 3s. 4d 

The Altarists, among them [80 yards] £1 6s. Sd. 

Among the Sacrists, 65 yards, .£1 Is. 8d. 

To the Sub-Treasurer, 36 yards, 12s. 
According to the arrangements carried out at Bp. Beauchamp's enthrone- 
ment, 5th May, 1451, the Bedell was to have one-half (apparently 65 yards), 
and the garciones or grooms were to share the other half of the cloth spread 
within the limits of the Cathedral cimiterium. The Altarists' cloth was 
that which extended from the west door, through the nave (which is 76J 
yards long), up to the door of the choir. There were six " interior " or 
"antient" altarists to share it. The Sacrists' portion was the cloth from 
the choir door to the high altar and thence to the throne. The Subthesau- 
rarius had the 36 yards from the throne to the altar in the treasury. The 

34 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

that when funeral sermons came into vogue, 1 in Tudor times, or 
later, Pulpit-Cloths were provided at the charge of the estate of the 
deceased. Such cloths, if used in the nave of the Church, may 
very probably have become the perquisite of the Doorkeeper and 
Church Sexton, or of the Bedell, and it may have been the duty 
of one or other of these ministri to drape the desk, &c. } with 
hangings. The cloth (practically new) was sometimes of con- 
siderable value (as we shall see in the inventory of 1685) and 
might, not unnaturally, be sold for another funeral, or hired out, 
somewhat as a doctor's or other academic gown, or court dress, 
may be hired for an occasion from the robe-maker's. In the parish 
of St. Edmund's, Salisbury, in the Commonwealth time, an order 
was made in vestry to fix the " dues at burialls." Among these 
charges were payments to their sexton "for making a grave in the 
church yard and setting his stools, Is. The same, for passing y e 
great Bell one hour, 6c?., and for laying the Pulpitt cloth when there 
is a Sermon at the Bury all 6d." A.D. 1651 ; Churchwardens' Accounts 
(edd. Swayne and Straton, 1896, p. 266). In that city-parish "one 
Jmbrodered pulpitt clothe " of silk was acquired (or retained) as 
the property of the Church, being made out of " the Kope. Trans- 
lated by wm. Parsons to a pulpet cloth & a cushen, this yeare 
1598," and there it remained until it was "sould by Mr. Abbott 
vpon Accompte" in 1647, but then only to be replaced in April,, 
1649, by " 1 new Pulpit cloth of purple vellett" and a cushion of 
the same. There was also at St. Edmund's a " purple serge and 
silk frenge vallence round about the pulpit" in 1659 (u. s. pp. 
374-5). Although our Cathedral does not appear to have acquired 
a black pulpit cloth of its own, we must infer that the funeral gear 
when given was claimed by the Masters of the Fabrick or some 
such officials, probably for the funds of the Cathedral fabric, and 

Porter's 50 yards of cloth was that on which the Bishop walked from the. 
Lamb Hotel to the chain. The new Bishop himself directed the distribution 
to the poor — their portion being the cloth from the chain to the entrance of 
the cimiterium or consecrated " Litton." {Ceremonies, u. s., p. 127.) 

1 Sir N. H. Nicolas gives instances of funeral sermons ordered or desired 
in 1463 (every parish in Devon . . . Wilts, &c, for Humphrey Stafford, 
Earl of Devon's soul); in 1521 (at Sir T. Wyndham's requiem), and in 1538 
(for Sir W. Pelham, Sussex). Testamenta Vetusta, pp. 301, 582, 682. 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean, 35 

that the Porter and Bedell received 13s, M. between them as a 
money compensation for their lost perquisite, probably at the rate 
which the undertakers had been accustomed to pay them for the 
rich pulpit cloth. The Church Sexton received 5s. or 10s. for his 
moiety of the other black drapery the hanging of cloth or velvet. 
The claimants to the other moiety may have been garciones or 
altarists (not holding patents of office), so (not improbably) such 
claim may have lapsed. 

(17), (18) Flagon potts of tinne. The use of tin for vessels 
(fialae stagneae) for bringing wine and water to the altar (of St. 
Nicholas, and that of St. Thomas the martyr) was not unknown in 
the thirteenth century. Salisbury Ceremonies, pp. 181-2. Pewter 
and glass were in use at the latter altar in 1389 (quinque phiole 
de pewdre, Item ij olle de pewdre, quarum vtraque de vno pynto 
pro aqua, ij candelabra enea parua; Item vij olle vitree magne, 
pro pane conseruando." id. p. 299.) 

(43), (4*4) Durance. Shakespeare makes his Prince Hal use 

this word in both its senses (K. Hen. IV., i., 2. Cf. Comedy of 

Errors, iv., 2). (lvi.) — (lvix.). Cf. Dr. Legg's Canterbury Inventories. 

(65) The G-arter. Was this pall taken from the Beauchamp 

Chantry ? Cf. note (6), (30), &c. 

(70) Candlesticks of brass. "Brass Candlesticks pro Altari " 
were purchased for 10s. by the Clerk of the Fabrick in 1660. 
When Cosmo the Third, de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, visited 
Salisbury Cathedral from Wilton on a week-day after Easter week 
in May, 1669, when Dr. Brideoak, the Dean, officiated, there was 
a violet cloth on the altar and the two brass candlesticks, 1 Perhaps 
the silver gilt candlesticks, presented by Sir Kobert Hyde in 1663 
(Nightingale, p. 10) were reserved for use at the time of celebrations 
of the Eucharist. 

(71) — (73) These hair-colour silk cloths were presumably 
houseling-cloths. 2 In earlier generations hair cloths were generally 

1 Travels of Cosmo the Third, Grand Duke of Tuscany, through England, 
during the Reign of King Charles II., 1669. (Translated from the MS. 
Narrative written by Count Lorenzo Magalotti.) 4to. London, 1821. 
Quoted by Benson and Hatcher, Salisbury, pp. 458 — 9. 

2 See Dr. J. Wickham Legg's English Church Life from 1660 to 1833 
(1914), p. 56. 

D 2 

36 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

used as altar coverings. 1 Thus " two here clothis " were among 
" parcels " left by the King's Commissioners In the church of 
St. Denys, Stanford-in-the-Vale, ahout Oct., 1552. There were 
" four heeris to lay upon the altars " at St. Christopher le Stocks 
in 1488. At the Kestoration, in 1660—61, £1 18s. Qd. was spent 
on other " Formes for y e Communion." "Wine, pro integro Anno, 
31. 4s. Id." (Drake's Collection, p. 90). 

(75) Darnix, "An inferior kind of damask, wrought of silk, 
wool, linen thread, and gold, in Flanders," and more especially at 
Dorneck, i.e., Tournay. Dr. Kock and Mr. Maskell. Textile Fairies 
(South Kensington, 1876), p. 72. 

It may be borne in mind that when some of the Parliamentarian 
soldiers raided the Cathedral early in August, 1644, the stolen 
plate was returned by the Parliament, although the raiders were 
allowed to share the loot of copes, surplices, tippets, hoods, &c. 2 

The List of Benefactors ' 
to Salisbury Cathedral Church and Library. 

A folio volume of Miscellanea collected principally by Dr. T. 
Pierce, Dean of Salisbury 1675 — 1691, and in part in connexion 
with his dispute with Bp. Seth Ward, is preserved in the Cathedral 
Muniment House, or Upper Treasury. It is bound in old brown 
calf, tied with strings which originally were variegated in five 
colours. Among the contents which, so far as I am aware, have 
not been heretofore described, are an Inventory of Plate and 
Ornaments of the Cathedral, 1685 (printed below) a List of Bene- 
factions to the Library and the Fabrick and Furniture of the 
Cathedral, compiled in 1676 (here printed as our next document), 
a Prayer for the Dedication Day (likewise printed here), and the 
method of Procedure at a Pentecostal Synod or Chapter, and other 
memoranda. There is a rough index at the beginning, and at the 
other end of the volume is Dean Pierce's account of annual Profit 
(Proficua) and Expenses in the "Deanry," A.D. 1675 — 91. 

1 See Cuthbert Atchley {Altar Linen), Trans, of St. Pauls Ecclesiol. Soc. 
iv. pp. 152 — 5. 

2 A Perfect Diurnal, Aug. 5 — 12, 1644, cited by Benson and Hatcher, 
Salisbury, p. 397. 


By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean. 37 


Drawn up in A.D. 1676. 

1 Catalogus Benefactorum 

in amplissima Hac Ecclesia B. M. Sarum aut aliquamdiu commorantium, 
aut exinde prodeuntium, aut aliorum quorumcunque, qui Symbola sua 
contulerunt in Fabricam Ecclesiae, et speciatim Bibliothecae,sive augendam, 
sive ornandam, sive in tuto conservandam. In cuiusmodi Beneficentiae me- 
moriam gratam perpetuamque, Decretum est a Decano & Capitulo anno 
Salutis Reparatae 16 [h.e. A.D. 1676], ut ipsa Nomina Benefactorum omni 
sere perenniora in hoc Albo sive Registro legenda prostent. 

2 Optimorum Virorum qui sive Fabricam sive Bibliothecam Ecclesiae B. 
Mariae Sarum Beneficijs ornarunt, Memoriae & Honori Columnam hanc 
satis rudem, sed gratijs & obsequio venustatam erigi curavit Deccmus & 
Qapiiulum, 1676. 

Memoria justorum in benedictionibus. 

1. 3 Briands [Duppa], Cicestrensis primo, dein Sarum [A.D. 1641—60], 
postremo Winton Episcopus, erigendo Organo pneumatico legavit [A.D. 
1662] £500. 

2. Humphredus [Henchman] Episcopus Sarum [1660—1663] Tabulatum 
opus pone SS. mensam, auro et pigmentis venustatum, necnon cancellos 
earn circumcingentes, erigi curavit suis sumptibus. 

3. Edvardus [Hyde], Comes de Clarendon, peristromata de serico villoso, 
fimbrijsque aureis intertexta dono dedit ornandae Altaris parti orientali : — 

4. Robertus Hyde, summus Anglias Justitiarius, marmore albo nigroque 
distinxit pavimenta infra Altaris septa : addidit etiam Candelabra duo 
deaurata £62. 

5. Jacobus Hyde, M.D., duas patinas deauratas dedit. 

6. Dr. [Johannes] Barnston Canonicus olim Residentiarius [A.D. 1634 
— 45] duo Oenophora (Lagenas vocant) argentea dono dedit. 

7. Dr. [Johannes] Sellick Praebendarius [de Rotescamp, 1660 — 90] pelvi 
deauratae oblationibus recipiendis antiquae (ex cujus autem dono nondum 
compertum) augendae dedit £20. 

8. Brigetta, Relicta Johannis Earles nuper Sarum Episcopi [qui obijt 
A.D. 1665], pallam una cum f rontibus, necnon pulvinum SS. Altari : pulpito 
etiam vestem pulvinumque segmentis aureis sericoque intertexta inme- 
moriam mariti dono dedit. 

9. Capitulo procurante & Decano, Calici uni deaurato Eucharistico 
noviter auro superinducto, alter ex argenteis quibusdam vasis mutilatis 
fabricatus additur. 

10. Uxor Gul. Wenslow, nuper Vicarij Choralis pulvinum dedit de 
Tramaserico albo, acu pictum regijs insignibus, alijsque figuris adornatum. 

1 Dr. T. Pierce's Miscellanea, p. 72. 3 p. 73. 3 p. 73, col. a. 

38 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral, 

11. Alexander [Hyde] Episcopus Sarum [A.D. 1667] legavit Biblia 
Polyglotta Waltoniana, Hammondi Annotationes in Novum Testamentum 
cum quibusdam alijs libris. 

12. Richardus Bailey, Mercator Londinensis, in memoriam [Ric. Bailey] 
patris sui, Decani Sarum [A.D. 1635—166*7] dedit Bibliothecse £40 ; quibus 
empti sunt libri, quorum singulis est inscriptum Decani nomen atque 
insignia Gentilitia. 

13. Richardus Watson, Sanctos Theologies Professor, Prsebendarius de 
Bitton [ab anno 1671], vestem Sacerdotalem (Capam vulgo dictam.) necnon 
Origenis Adamantij opera 2 Voluminibus comprehensa [ed. Rothomagi, 
1688] dono dedit : Bill a autem indentata promisit Bibliothecse Sarum Libros 
suos, reservato sibi singulorum usu durante vita sua naturali. 

14. Rodolphus Sanderson, prebendarius [de Netheravon, 1662—80] dedit 
in usum Bibliothecse £7 10s. 

15. Dr. [Thomas] Locky, prebendarius [de Alton Australi, 1660—72], in 
usum ejusdem £2. 

16. Johannes Stephens, Succentor [1660—75] dedit £10. 
17. ! Henricus Whitehead, armiger, £2. 

18. Johannes Evelin, miles, £10. 

19. Thronus Episcopalis, expensis Sethi [Ward] Episcopi [ab. A.D. 1667]. 

20. Stallum Decani, expensis Rodolphi [Brideoake] Decani [1667—75]. 

21. Stalla autem Archidiaconorum & Oanonicorum necnon pavimenta 
Presbyterij conjunctis omnium expensis, uti videre est in libro Capitulari 
dicto Greenhill 16. — strata sunt erecta et ornata. 

22. Edoardus Lowe, LL.D. & Miles [Vicarius generalis Episcopi Saris- 
buriensis, A.D. 1671—82] stallum Cancellariatus [Diocoeseos] suis sumptibus 
erexit ornavitque ; addidit etiam Bibliothecse £5. 

23. Johannes Drake, Richardi [Drake, ab anno 1663] Cancellarij f rater 
germanissimus, dono dedit £5 ; cum quarum 4 compara 2 sunt Biblia SS. in 
Altari collocata: reliqua pars cessit in Scamnum inter Altaris septa 
augmento autem addito, uti videre est in computis Fabricse, £5. 

24. Humphredus Hyde de Kingston, Armiger, legavit Ecclesise Sarum £5. 

25. Administrator bonorum Doctoris [Johannis] Priaulx, Archidiaconi 
Sarum [A.D. 1671—74] in fratris memoriam dedit £2. 

26. Dr. [Gulielmus] Lloid, Canonicus [1667— 80], prseter Henrici 8 vi vitam 
per [D. Edwardum] Baronem Herbert [de Cherbury, A.D. 1672 editam] 
dedit £2. 

27. Jacobus Long de Drayton, Baronettus, dedit in usum Fabricse £20. 

28. Dr. Richardus Clayton, Canonicus, moriens [A.D. 1676] dedit in 
usum fabricse £20. 

29. Mr. Richardus Hill [1666—95] Alam (quam vocant) australem Ec- 
clesise Cathedralis, ab introitu ad Suggesti Gradus, lapidibus quadratis 
stravit expensis suis circiter £60. 

30. Henricus [Hyde] Comes de Clarendon [1638—1700], Pavimenta 
Nauis Ecclesiae Cathedralis ab occidentali Jntroitu, sedilia noviter erecta 
pertingentia quadratis lapidibus ornavit £105. 

1 p. 73, col. b. 2 Compara : (sic). 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Bean. 39 

31 (a). Ornatissimus D ns Stephanus Fox, Eques merito Auratus [A.D. 
1665], Famulusque Regis in incertis etiam certissimus, eoque nomine nobis 
non sine summo semper honore, serisque posteris memorandus, Sedilibus 
in Navi Ecclesiae construendis, munificentissima eademque pientissima 
manu dedit septem supra ducentas libras ;— £207. 

31 (6). Sedilia autem disponuntur in Tabula quadam. Salva semper 
Episcopo, Decano reliquisque Dignitarijs et Canonicis, de tempore in tem- 
pus potestate electiva, suo cuique ordine, et secundum uniuscujusque 
Dignitatis prserogativam, prout uxoribus eorundem melius videbitvr ex- 

32. Mr. Galfridus Daniel [prope Marlbourgh] legavit supremse volun- 
tatis Testamento £2. 

33. 1 Mr. [Edmundus] Sly, prsebendarius [de Durnford] hujus ecclesiae, 
[1663— 1677] legavit in usum Bibliothecae £5. 

34. Henricus Coker, Miles in Fabricam ecclesiae £10 tradidit in manus 
M ri Ward, qui nondum in usum Fabricse earn summam exsolvit, £W. 

35. 2 Thomas Pierce, S.T.P. Decanus Sarisburiensis [1675 — 1691] Legavit 
supremse voluntatis testamento in usum Fabricse Hujus Ecclesiae £100. 

3 According to y e Act of Parliament for Alteration of certain Holydays in 
K. Hen. 8's Time, A.D. 1536, The Dedication of Churches is to be celebrated 
■on y e first Sunday in October forever & upon no other day. The Thanks- 
giving on w ch day is a Translation or paraphrase of y e latin one of Queen 
Eliz., 1560. 

O ETERNAL & Almighty God, who art y e Resurrection & y e Life of 
of all y e believe in Thee, & who art always to be praised in all thy 
Works and Benefits, We give y ee most humble & hearty thanks for all thy 
Benefits & Blessings convey'd unto us by ye pious Founders of this Church, 
w ch was dedicated (as on this day) to thy Name & Service ; & by all other 
our Benefactors who have contributed herein to thine Honour & Worship 
Humbly beseeching y ee to grant, that we, using these thy Blessings to y e 
Advancement of thy Glory, may together with thine Elect receive a perfect 
Consummation of Blisse & Joy in thy Kingdom. And this we beg at thy 
Hands even for Jesus Christ his sake our only Advocate and Mediator. 

Notes on the List of Benefactors, A.D. 1676. 

It is not quite clear whether Dean Pierce intended the book of 
Miscellanea, (in which the list occupies p. 73 with parts of pp. 72 
and 74,) to be the " Album sive Registrum" of which the elegant 
latin exordium makes mention, or whether it was only a rough 

1 p. 74. 
2 This last entry was written with blacker ink than the rest of the list of 
Benefactions, and in a hand which I think may be that of the Rev. W. 
Powell, subcommunar. 

3 Pierce's Miscellanea, p. 6. 

40 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

draught; for some more elaborate Donation-Book. It will perhaps 
be recollected that Dr, John Wordsworth, the late Bishop, when 
holding his Visitation of the Cathedral in 1888, drew attention to 
the 24th statute of Bp. Eoger de Mortival, who (when requiring 
in 1319 that the names of Abbots and Abbesses,who gave a choral 
cope on occasion of coming to Salisbury to receive the customary 
benediction from the Bishop of the Diocese, should be recorded) 
directed that " the names of all who confer any valuable gift upon 
the Cathedral Church should, together with the nature of their gift, 
be entered in detail in the register of the Church, in order that their 
memorial may be specially kept in the roll of Benefactors of the 
same." My brother desired that such names should be "entered 
in a perpetual kalendar, either under the days of their death, or 
under any other day specially connected with their memory." 

No. 1. In 1667 the chapter decided to send for Mr. Harris, the 
organ -builder, to repair the organ. Begist. Skitter, Johnson, &c. p. 35. 
Bp, Duppa's Organ was superseded by the organ built by Benatus 
Harris in 1710, of which there are engravings in the Cathedral 
Library and at the Municipal Offices, &c. The Fabrick Account o 
1660 — 61 includes disbursements for bringing the Organ fro 
Hampton and unloading it : also £120 " to Mr. Johnson for y 
Organ." For Song Books, £15, Kaile about y e Communion Table 
£7. Wainscot for y e Consistory, Silkman's Bill pro Throno LJpis 
copi, £5 16s. Formes for y e Communion, £1 18s. 6d, Pricking 
Song Books, £1 13s. 4d., &c, &c. 

No. 3. These velvet hangings, with gold fringe, are mentioned 
as (x) (xi) in the Inventory of 1685, Nos. 3, 4, 5, 11, 24, the gift 
of the Hyde family, here recorded, give colour to the opinion ex- 
pressed in Benson and Hatcher's Hist, of Salisbury, p. 459, n., in 
which the Kev. E. E. Dorling concurs, that these were chief at 
least among " the loyal gentry of that diocese " who anonymously 
employed workmen, sometimes on the inside, and at other times 
on the outside, of the Cathedral, " during the whole time of the 
Civil Wars and the King's exile," as Dr. Walter Pope has stated 

in his Life of Bishop Seth Ward, chap, x., Cassan's Lives of Bishops \ 

of Sarum, iii., 72-3. 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean. 41 

No. 7. The almsdish re-made by T. N. in 1672 out of an older 
basin, enlarged to a diameter of 22§ inches, by Dr. John Sellick's 
gift, bears the inscription " Cum Substantia Honora Dominum." 

No. 8. " Mrs. Bridget Earles " was made sole legatee by her 
husband's (Bp. J. Earle's) laconic nuncupative will. (Cassan, Bps. 
of Sarum, iii. 24). He was taken ill and died at the Master's 
" Lodging," Univ. Coll., Oxon, having had to attend as Chaplain 
when the King and Queen's courts went thither on account of the 
Plague in London and Westminster, A water-colour portrait of Mrs. 
Earle was procured by Bishop Wordsworth, and now hangs in 
" Bp. Burgess' Room" at the Palace. 

No. 9. See p. 43, item (v.). cf. Reg. Shuter, Johnson, &c, p. 34, 
" de permutatione Poculi Encharistici," 11 Oct., 1667. 

No. 10. Tramasericum or tranwserica, i,e., " tissue," — " pannus 
qui stamina ex lino, tramam vero ex serico habet ; tissu dont la 
trame est de soie et la chaine de lin (Ugutio)." Maigne d'Arnis^ 
Lexicon Manual. Wensley was altarist at the Restoration in 1660. 
(Regist, Shuter, &c, p. 7.) 

No. 11. Bp. Brian Walton's Polyglot, 6 vols, (in 7), folio, 1655-7. 
Dr. H, Hammond's Annotations on the N. T., ed. 2, folio, 1659. 

No. 13. Dr. Watson's gift of a cope in 1671 instead of cope- 
money (or " cape-money," as some of the later dignitaries wrote 
the word), carried out the intention of Abp. Laud and his Com- 
missary, expressed at the Visitation of Salisbury Cathedral in 1634. 
(Wilts N. & Q., i., p. 70). The Dean and Chapter recorded their 
thanks to their fellow prebendary for the 2 vols, of Origen " et pro 
Capd Sacerdotali." Regist. Shuter Johnson and Greenhill, p. 57, 
A.D. 1672, The promised books were duly fetched from Pewsey, 
where Dr. Watson had been rector, by Mr. F. Horton in 1685, 55s. 
being paid in expenses, and in 1686 the joiner charged £12 14s. 10d 
for making 4 new desks, and bookcase, for the Cathedral library. 

No. 16. Succentor Stevens had the charge of Homington parish 
in 1667. 

No. 18. Sir John Evelyn, of Wilts, first cousin to the diarist. 

No. 20. The desk of Dean Brideoak's stall, with well-carved 

42 e / Notes, on Salisbury Cathedral. 

ends representing trees and clasped hands, a rebus on his name, is 
preserved in the Morning Chapel, 

No. 23. Dr. Kawlinson prints the inscriptions on the memorial 
slabs in the north aisle of the Cathedral commemorating several 
members of Chancellor Ki. Drake's family, and among them John 
Drake, his " f rater germanissimus" who for sixty-live years " walked 
with God — Pede quidem claudo, arrecto Corde — " and died of fever 
on the morrow of Michaelmas 1678. {Antiquities of Salisb. and 
Bath Abbey, p. 62.) Considerable amounts were paid for painting 
and gilding "ye Raile " and making "y e Lower Raile" in 1662—3, 
(" cutting Stars for y e Canopy over the Organ, 3s. 4d,). In Nov., 
1667, £1 was spent on " Common prayer Book with Fillets and 
Strings, for y e Communion Table " : and in Sept., 1668, £6 13s. M. 
for "Anthem books in part." {Walton's 4to. p. 303). 

No, 31 (a). Sir Stephen Fox (1627—1716), father of Stephen, 
Earl of Uchester and Henry, Lord Holland, is said to have been in 
his boyhood a chorister of the Cathedral. He assisted Charles to 
escape after "Worcester. He managed his household in Holland, 
and among other good works he promoted the founding of Chelsea 
Hospital. He was M.P. for Westminster in 1679 ; and for Salisbury 
in 1661 and in 1714—16. 

No, 31 (&). This refers to the allotment of seats printed on pp. 
48 — 50, whence the note " Salvd semper . . . expedire " is 

No. 32. The Daniel family occupied a house on the site of the 
old Giibertine Priory of St. Margaret, to the south of Marlborough, 
and now the property of R. W. Merriman, Esq. 

No. 34, Sir H, Coker, a Commissioner under the Corporations 
Act. " Mr. "Ward " was perhaps Seth Ward the younger, one of 
the Bishop's nephews, whose pre-election, c. 1676, to a residentiary 
canonry caused disappointment to DeanPierce's friend and old pupil 
Cornelius Yeates, Vicar of St. Mary's, Marlborough, and occupies 
a place in the Appendix to the Dean's Vindication of the King's 
Sovereign Rights. Mr. Yeates was collated to Bishopstone prebend 
in Bp. Burnet's time, 1691 — 6, and to the Archdeaconry of Wilts 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean. 


1696—1720, which Canon Ward had held in 1675—81, as his 
younger brother, Thomas Ward, also did in 1687 — 96, 

The Latin order and form of prayer In Commendationibus 
Benefactorwm is printed in the Parker Society's Liturgies and Oc- 
casional Forms of Prayer set forth in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
edited by W. K. Clay, 1847, p. 432, from Eeg. Wolf's edition of 
1560, intended for use in Colleges at the end of every term. The 
collect runs thus: — "Domine Deus, resurrectio & vita credentium, 
qui semper es laudandus, tarn in viventibus, quam defunctis, 
agimus tibi gratias pro fundatore nostro .N. ceterisque bene- 
factoribus nostris, quorum beneficiis hie ad pietatem & studia 
literarum alimur : rogantes ut nos his donis ad tuam gloriam recte 
utentes, una cum illis ad resurrectionis gloriam immortalem per- 
ducamur. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen." 

Salisbury Cathedral Inventory, A.D. 1685, 

1 An inventorie of y e Comunion Plate & other y e choicest goods belonging 
to y e Cathedral Church of Sarum, now in y e keeping of y e Vestry-Sexton 
Edward Ghillo, or his mother y e Widow Ghillo in his behalf for w h security 
ought to be given by y e 11th statute de Rebus Eccltsiae conservandis ; &c, 
by y e 57 th de Thesauro do Fabrica. 


Plate and Goods. 


At first 


(i.) (ii.) 

2 Silver Patens gilt 

30 ounces & \ 


14 6 

9 9 


1 Silver Bason gilt 

80 ounces & \ 


4 6 

6 14 3 


2 Silver Bowles with \ 
Covers gilt j 

52 ounces & i 


12 6 

15 15 


1 Silver Yewer 

37 oun : & £ 


3 6 

9 6 3 


1 Silver Flagon 

58 oun : 



14 10 


1 Silver Flagon 

57 oun : \ 



14 7 6 


1 pair of Silver Candle- \ 
sticks gilt J 

119 oun. : \ 


15 6 

35 17 

435| ounces. 


The velvett hangings for^j 
y e Alter w th Gold Lace, 

The Cloth of Gold be- \ 



hind y e Communion 
table with gold fringe J 




3 6 

Dean Pierce's Miscellanea, p. 127. 


Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

Item No. 

Plate and Goods. 




(xvii.) (xviii.) 


(xxii. — xxiv.) 

(xxv.) (xxvi.) 

(xxix.) (xxx.) 
(xxxi.) (xxxii.) 


The Cloth of Tishue Carpett for the\ 
Comunion Table J 

A Cloth of Tishue Carpett for the ) 
Comunion Table I" 

A Pulpit Cloth of Gold & a Cushion of y*\ 
same given by Bp. Earle's Relict [c. 1665] J 

A Pulpit Cloth & Cushion of wrought velvett 

A Carpet of silk & silver, usually layd before \ 
the Judges, with a cushion of y e same j 

2 velvet Cushions wrought w th Silver & Gold ) 
given by Capten Davy j 

One mohair Tishue Cushion 

One white Satten Cushion, w th y e King's 
Armes, wrought in gold & silke on it 

One old silk Cushion, w ch wants mending 

Three Damaske table clothes, where of one 
was given by Dr. Drake [Chanc. of Cath- 
edral, 1663—81] 

2 Damaske napkins 

One pair of brasse Candlesticks [1660 — 61] 

One large brasse Sconce 

2 lesser Sconces of Pewter 

2 Surplices given by Dr. Drake 























This Inventorie was made by M r Frome and M> George Low in ye pre- 
sence of y e Dean & Chapter, and these values were taken by Mr.Naish & ye 
s d Mr Low, goldsmiths, about y e 18 th of Octob r , 1685. The thinges con- 
sidered as old are valued at no more then 3511. 9s. l\d. But considered as 
new or as they were in y ir 1 st estate they are valued at above 50011. 

Notes on the Inventory of 1685. 

Items (i.) (ii.). These silver-gilt patens are not specified in the 
earlier Inventory of Feb., 1824 — 5, bub are still extant (marked 
1661) and they were given by Dr. James Hyde (M.D,), Principal 
of Magdalen Hall. 

Item (iii.). The silver-gilt Bason does not appear in 1625. 

Items (iv.) (v.). These " Bowles/' with covers, may probably 
be the " Cup " and the larger " Chalice " of 1625, but the smaller 
chalice weighing 20J ozs., and the plate of 4| ozs. seem to have 
been among the broken plate {mutilatum, see p, 41, no. 9) possibly 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean* 45 

damaged ab the time of the raid in 1644, which subsequently, in 
accordance with the Chapter Act of 1662 or that of 11th Oct., 
1667, was melted down to make a second chalice when the other 
was newly gilt. In Dec, 1667, £1 8s. was paid " for Altering y e 
old Com: Plate into a Chalice like y e former." Fabrick Account. 

Item (vi). The silver "Stoop Pot" (given by Mr. Low) has 
become an " Yewer " in 1685. It is still in frequent use. It is 
silver gilt and is described by Mr. Nightingale as dated 1606, and 
bearing the arms and initials of John Lowe, Esq., who, with 
Laurence Hyde, was counsel for the church, and was appointed 
one of the quorum in the Charter of K. James, 1612 (Wilts Plate, 
pp. 9, 10). 

Items (vii.) (viii.). The "Flagons" (Dr. Barnston's gift) may 
be identified with Nos. (5), (6), above. They are called " Oenophora " 
or " Lagenoe" in 1676, Mrs. Ghillo, 1 widow of the late Verger, 
was perhaps the widow of that name who was a " Sister " at St, 
Nicholas' Hospital. Her son, Edward, the Vestry Sexton, had 
been a chorister in 1670. He was at one time told he was not so 
efficient as his father had been. He and his mother were, appar- 
ently, not responsible for the charge of the Vergers' rods. 

Item (ix.). The large silver gilt candlesticks had been given 
since the Eestoration. 

Items (xiii.) (xix.). Jan., 1665 — 6, was paid to "Mrs. Earl's 
mayd, bringing the Altar-cloth and cushion, and Pulpit-cloth and 
cushion, her Gift, £1." Fabrich Account (Walton's 4to., p. 301). 

Items (xiv.) (xv.). As to Pulpit-cloths, see p. 33. Dr. J, C. Cox, 
while observing that in English Churches in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth there was less preaching than in previous and later 
reigns, notes that in 1593 the churchwarden of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields was presented "before Mr. Doctor Stanhope for not 
having a pulpett cloth," and that in the ensuing year £4 were 
accordingly expended on " 3f yards of blacke velvett with frindge 
and Buckram," with a further payment of 24s. " for ye flowers 
thereon ymbroidered." Dr. Cox gives other instances of the prices, 
materials, and colours of pulpit hangings {Churchwarden^ Accov nts, 

1 The name is variously spelt " Ghillo," " Gillo," and " Gillow." 

46 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

Mowbray, 1913, pp. 157-8). In the receipts of the Fabrick Account 
of the Cathedral for 1664 — 5 one item is " Of an vnknown Person, 
who desires to have it Laid out on a Crimson Velvet Cushion for 
y e Pulpit, £2," 

Items (xvii.) (xviii.) I have not found any further reference to 
Capt. Davy. 

Item (xxvii.) Two brass candlesticks are mentioned in 1625 as 
No. (70). It seems, however, that these had been lost, for the 
Fabrick Account of 1660 — 61 includes the payment of 10s. for 
" Brass Candlesticks pro Altari." (Walton*s Quarto, p. 295). 

Item (xxiii.) Oct. 1662, " For y e Branch, £8/' 1 

No mention is made in the foregoing inventory of the cope which 
had been given in 1672 by Dr. K. Watson and accepted by the 
Chapter. 2 Possibly the Gillow family had not the charge of the 
cope-chest. Copes were retained "in continuous use in Durham 
Cathedral and in Westminster Abbey until the middle of the 18th 
century," (J. 0. Coop, in Harford and Stevenson's Diet. P. Book, 
p. 248). They may perhaps have been disused at Salisbury in the 
time of Dean T. Greene, 1757 — 80, or somewhat earlier, when wigs 
and snuff prevailed. 


It seems probable that the nave of Salisbury Cathedral was used 
for preaching in Jacobean times, as an inscription, in large Roman 
letters, " What, not one hour ? " (referring to St Matt., xxvi., 40) 
was painted on the unpolished Purbeck main shaft of one of the 
pillars to the preacher's left hand on the south side, where the 
pulpit in the nave was then set (i.e., at the feet, probably, of the 
elder Earl William Longespe's monument as now placed). 

At the time of the Plague of London K. Charles II. with his 

1 On " Branches " for candles, see Dr. Wickham Legg's Engl. Church Life 
(1914) pp. 144—5,209. 

8 See above, p. 41. It appears not merely that the levying of "cope- 
money" was resumed immediately after the Restoration, £76 being collected 
in 1660 — 61 and carried to the Fabrick Account, but that the cope-chest was 
made ready, buckram being purchased for it (Is.) in Sept., 1663. ( Walton's 
Quarto, p. 298.) 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean. 47 

Queen and courb stayed at Salisbury from the end of July to 
September, 1665. Chancellor Richard Drake has recorded — in 
a book of accounts, &c, which Canon Francis Horton passed on 
to Canon Isaac Walton (the son of the Piscator Izaak) in 1697 (p. 
144), that when the King was at Salisbury the Canons Residentiary 
preached their morning sermons in the presbytery, 1 and the 
Prebendaries, taking a Sunday Turn, preached in the afternoon in 
the nave. 

A few years later in Bp. Seth Ward's time, fixed seats were put 
up in the nave, in 1676-7 (Fabrick Account, p. 97) and in 1677 the 
Bishop, Dean, and Chapter appointed an Order of Seats or Sittings 
for Inhabitants of the Close. 

Two copies of this list of sittings are now extant in late seven- 
teenth century collections preserved among the Cathedral muni- 
ments : — 

(a) On f. 9 of the folio volume of Collectanea written (as we 
have mentioned) mainly in the handwriting of Isaac Walton (son 
of Piscator "Izaak") in which the Canon signed his name in 1697. 

(b) On pp. 362-3, the concluding pages of a quarto book of 
Collectanea, which likewise belonged to the younger Walton when 
he was Canon Residentiary (1678 — 1719), and which he intended 
to bequeath to Dean Young, who, however, predeceased him, and 
he therefore left it to Dean Younger, who lived until 1728. Sub- 
sequently (cir. 1757 — 88) it passed into the hands of a Canon 

j named William Bowles (not, of course, the poet), and so in 1788 
\ to Dean J. Ekins, and in 1808 — 1826 to Canon C. Ekins. It is 
! now deposited in the Cathedral Library, and having Walton's 
i name on the vellum back, is known as "Walton's quarto Collection." 
This 4to volume consists of transcripts by a clerkly though not a 
j scholarly hand from Chancellor Drake's Collections which are in 
I the Cathedral Muniment Room. Drake, who was Residentiary 
I Canon and Communar, &c, as well as Chancellor (cir. 1663 — 81), 
| evidently intended to include the list of sittings in his own col- 
lection, as he made it 2 the last item in a table of contents. But 

1 "Inter" (or, as Walton writes it in his own folio MS. Collections, f. 5 b 
intra) Septa Altaris Inferiora" or, as we should say, in the choir pulpit. 

2 " The Order of Seats in y e Church appointed by y e Bp. Dean & Chapter. 
A° Dr7i 1677." 


Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

it does not now appear in that dilapidated and much-used set of 

folio sheets which I have tied up in a portfolio in the Muniment 

Koom. The list of seats was intended to occupy either p. 128, 

which is blank, or perhaps did occupy p, 129, which may have been 

lost or mislaid, as the two leaves which now follow and are (almost) 

blank are lying loose in the cover, and are marked 129 — 132 in 

recent pencilling. Drake's list, thus lost, was, presumably, the 

•archetype of both (a) and (b). Oar text is printed from (&) with 

some corrections, or variants, from {a). 

1 A°Dn'i] 

1677. [ This Order of y e Seates within the Cathedral Church of Sarum 
is appointed by y e Rt. Rev d . y e Lord Bishop & y e Dean & Chapter 
for y e Inhabitants of y e Close. 2 


On the South Side. 
The Lord Bishop .... 

The Dean & (" Chapter " corr. to) Chanter 
The Chancello r & Archdeacon of Sarum 
Canon Hill, Horton, Lloyd . 
Sub-Dean & Sub- Chanter 
S r . Tho: Mompesson & M r . Windham . 
M r . Chafin & Mr. Hill .... 
M r . Harris, MX Ashley, & M r . Heirst . 
D r . Turberville, M r . Gardiner, & M r . Hawles 
M r . Swanton k Mr. Stephens 
M rls . Davenant, M lis . Miller & M ris Prince 
M ris . Sambrook, Eastchurch, and Johnson 
M li8 . Langford, Woodford 
M ,is . Cole, Frome, Edmonds . 

Vicars and Laymen's) 
Wives . . J ' 

"Women Servants of Churchmen & 
Gentry two Back- Seates behind y ,n 
14. School Mistresses on y e So. Side, 
M rs . Marsh &\ 
M rs Curry ) 


- 19 




10 . 18.26 



1 Canon Isaac Walton's 4to MS. Collection, pp. 362-3. 
2 There is evidence that seats in the Cathedral were occasionally assigned 
by capitular authority at an earlier date, for Drake's summary of the contents 
of a Register (Shuter's Chapter Acts.), now lost, contains, among other en- 
tries, " Assignacio Sedilis Magistrse Sadler, &c, ;p. 34." See January, 
1632-3, as well as other references at pp. 14, 16, 17, 26, 28 (cir 1626—30) in 
the same register. For an Order of Pews in the Parish Church of Corsley 
(1635) see J. Wickham Legg, English Orders for Consecrating Churches, H. 
Bradshaw Soc. 1911, pp. lxiii., lxiv. ; Miss Maud F. Davies, Life in an 
English Village, 1909, pp. 295—8. 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean. 49 

On the Order of Seats on South Side Salisbury Cathedral 


Nos. 7 — 10. The gentlemen to whom these seats on the S. side 
of the Nave were allotted in 1677, were, with scarcely an excep- 
tion, laid to rest within the next thirty years in the Cathedral, or 
were at least commemorated by a monumental inscription here, as 
Dr. T. Eawlinson records in Hist, and Antiq. of Salisbury {and 
Bath Abbey) with Index, 1723. 

Gabriel Ashley (generosus, al. armiger) f 1702, aet. 56. 

Thomas Gardiner, gent, f 1685. 

James Harris f 1679, set. 75 ; Thomas Harris, t 1678, set. 35. 

Thomas Hawles, Esq. f 1678. 

Edward Hearst, Esq. 1707. 

Marshall Hill, Esq. (of Line, Coll., Oxon, and Lincoln's Inn) f 1682, 

at Bath. 
Sir Thomas Mompesson, f 1701. 
Francis Swanton, gent, f 1683 ; Laurence Swanton, t 1691 ; William 

Swanton, Esq., f 1681 (he married Major Ashley's widow). 
Daubeny Turberville (of Oriel College), Royalist soldier, friend of Bp. 

Ward, " Solus Oculorum JEsculapius" (eye specialist) M.D. f 1696. 
Mrs. (Jane) Frome, daughter of Chancellor Drake and wife of Geo. 

Frome, gent. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Sambrooke, widow {nee Clungeon) t 1705. 

Notes on the "Order of ye Seates (South)." 

No. 7. Mr. Chafin (spelt " Chaffin " in the 4to) occupied the 
house (No. 11, in the Close) which Mr. Pye-Smith now inhabits, 
as Mr. Hammond informs us. 

No. 8. " Mr. Hearst " MS. {a). 

No, 9. " Mr. Gardner " MS. {a) . 

No, 10. This line did not occur in the list as it appears on fo. 9 
■of Canon I. Walton's folio collection, but a note has been added 
at the foot in blacker ink "Between the 29th and oth Insert Mr. 
Swanwick and Mr. Stephens — [Seat] 3." " Mr. Stephens " M.S. 
{b). "Mr. Stevens" MS. (a). 

No. 14. Mris. Carrey MS. {a). 
vol, xxxix. — no. cxxnr. e 

50 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral* 

On the North Side. ^^ 

1. Maior and Aldermen . . . . 20 . 21 . 22 . 23 . 

2. Common Council . I . . 

3. Knights Justices and Esq r s. . . .18.19. 

4. S r Edward Low : Chancellor) 1Q » „ n 

of y e Diocese betwixt the J iy * Z() ' 

5. Next Principall Gentlemen of y e Close 10 — 11 . 

6. Register & Proct rs of y e Lord Bp's Court 3 . 

7. The rest of Inhabitants of y c close . 2 . 

8. For the Quire-men . . . . 26 . 34 . 42 . 

9. Master & Vsher of y e Free School . 7 . 

10. Scholars of y e Free School. . . 8 . 16 . 24 . 

Towns-) 11. Majoress & Aldermens Wives . . 29 . 30 . 

women j 12. Common Councils Wives . . . 37 . 38 , 45 . 46 . 
School Mistresses 

13. On y e North side : M-. Harvey,) 9 . 17 . 25 . 23 . 41 

M ,ls . Barnwel . j 

The Officers of y e Church & of the Major are 
severally to have keys to y 8 Major and Alder- 
men and Common Councills Seates and the 
Seates of their Wives. 
*Salva semper Episcopo, Decano reliquisqueDigni- 
tariis et Canonicis, de tempore in tempus Po- 
testate Electiva,suoicuiqueOrdine,et secundum 
unius cuj usque Dignitatis Prerogativam, prout 
Uxoribus eorundem melius videbitur expedire. 
The Treasurer's Interest and Right is not hereby 
intended to be deny'd, nor the Interests and 
Rights of the two other Arch-deacons, of Wilts 
and Berks.* 

Notes on the "Order of ye Seates (North)." 

No. 8. " Quire-men " MS. (b) ; " Choir Men " MS, {a). 
* These footnotes in Walton's folio, f, 8, presumably refer to No. & 
on the North Side, where seat 19 is assigned to Chancellor Ri. Drake | 
and Archdeacon T. Lambert, the latter of whom had acted as ! 
domestic chaplain in the Cathedral to K. Charles II. ten years j 
previously. (Jones' Fasti, p. 165, n.) Possibly the other dignitaries 
mentioned in the notes were living alone. The former note 
" Salvd . . . expedire " will be recognised as occurring in the List 
of Benefactors, p. 39, above. 

By the Rev Chr Wordsworth, Sab-Dean. 51 

When Dr. Walter Kerr Hamilton, as Precentor (a few months 
before he was promoted to the bishopric), drew up the replies, 
which he and his namesake, Dr. Henry Parr Hamilton, then Dean, 
signed with the consent of the Chapter, in response to the questions 
sent by the Cathedral Commissioners in 1853, it was then stated 
that sermons in the Cathedral were at that time "always preached 
in the choir" {Report: Answers, p. 395) . This arrangement went 
on until the restoration of the whole Cathedral encouraged by him 
in his lifetime was completed by the restoration of the choir as a 
memorial thankoffering for the episcopate of Bishop Hamilton 
and for the improvement begun when he became a Canon in 1841. 

The choir was re-opened by Bishop Moberly on All Saints' Day, 
1876. The organ, which has suffered so severely from the rising 
waters in the present year, was given by Miss Chafyn Grove, of 
Zeals, at a cost of £3500, and the open choir screen was the offering 
of Mrs. Sidney Lear in memory of her late husband. Opinions 
may differ as to the appropriateness of such a screen in an English 
Cathedral Church ; but there can be no serious doubt that its 
character has tended to make the services more real and devotional 
to those who have had their places in the nave at Salisbury in the 
recent generations. At all events they could not be altogether 
oblivious of the fact that divine service was going on within the 
building and that the nave was not a mere place for sight-seers. It 
is customary now for the choir and for those who have been taking 
part in the choir-service (with the exception of a few, whose places 
in the stalls are within easy sight and hearing of a preacher in the 
nave-pulpit,) to migrate from the choir to the front seats in the 
nave immediately before the sermon is begun, There may have 
been something of a homing instinct felt among the elder residents 
when this custom was begun in Bp. Moberly 's time, for during the 
period (1869 — 76) while the eastern portion of the Cathedral was 
under restoration not only the practice of preaching in the choir, 
as noted in 1853, was discontinued, but the entire service had taken 
place in the nave. It was moreover, so far as the sermon was 
concerned, a return to an earlier custom, which was broken through 
in 1778-9, in Bp. J. Hume's time, when " the seats in the nave 

E 2 

52 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

were entirely taken away and pews (or closets as they were after- 
wards called) with galleries over them were made on each side ol 
the choir behind the stalls," somewhat like the boxes and galleries 
in an ill-lighted theatre, "and the screen at the Communion-Table 
was set back 20 feet in order to lengthen the choir." (Sarum 
■Chronology, by W. A. Wheeler, 1889, i., p. 33). 

A member of Bp. Moberly's family wrote in November, 1869 :— " Th 
canvas screen is being put up across the nave to divide it from the choir 
which is to be restored as a memorial to Bishop Hamilton. It is a pleasure 
to see the screen shutting off the Lady Chapel removed at last. It must 
be lighter and airier in the nave, where we shall now be for many years 
We have had to sit in boxes round the choir behind the stalls, and to enter 
them from staircases in the aisles. The box is small and stuffy, the ceiling 
very low, and the old red baize smells fusty to a degree. There are no 
lights in the Cathedral, so on winter Sunday afternoons there can be no 
sermons, and the Dean and the minor canon in course have each a little 
nickering candle. Every one else is in pitch darkness, unless private candles 
are brought. We never expect to see into our books in the afternoon. No 
evening service can be held in the Cathedral, and the Lent sermons have 
to be in the parish churches." Dulce Domum, by Miss C. A. E. Moberly, 
1911, pp. 225-6. 

" Until the year 1777 " (says W. Dodsworth) " only prayers were performed 
in the choir, and the sermons were delivered in the great nave, wherein was 
a range of seats on each side, detracting much from its beauty. The r J 
moval of the whole congregation in time of divine service was attended | 
with great inconvenience ; at the above period the Church underwent a 
material alteration : the seats and pulpit in the great nave were taken away, 
the Grecian ornaments of the choir l were removed, and a very indifferent 
stile of Gothic substituted ; additional seats were made in it, and from that 
time the whole service has been performed there. It remained in this state 
until the year 1789, when the present improvement commenced in whichj 
Mr. Wyatt" — in Dodsworth's opinion—" has displayed his great taste and] 
abilities in Gothic architecture." Guide to the Cathedral Church, 8vo, 1792,! 
pp. 35, 36. 

A view of the interior of the choir, looking east, by F, NashJ 
engraved by T, F, Skelton, 1814, faces p. 178 of Dodsworth's largfl 
work and shows Wyatt's stalls of Bps. Hume and Barrington'ffl 
time. The only altar was in the Lady Chapel with a " vista 'ffj 

towards it. 

1 "The stalls and screen, designed by Sir Chr. Wren, being then (in 17771 I 
deemed too gaudy, the choir was inclosed with a new screen painted if 
imitation of oak." Dodsworth's Historical Account of the Cathedral, 4t<| 
. 1814, p. 177. 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub- Dean. 53 


Salisbury Cathedral has been in past generations liable to serious 

floods. In February, 1635, the officiants rode on horseback into 

the choir to perform divine service. There was a flood again in 

1637. In 1675 — 87 Bp. Ward's scheme for making the Avon 

navigable from Christchurch to Crane Bridge, under the Act of 

1664, was pressed forward, but an attempt to revive the scheme 

by a fresh act was thwarted by the Hampshire men in 1698. In 

1726 the water in the Cathedral rose so rapidly during divine 

service that a pulpit for preaching was erected in the choir, the 

water in the body of -the church being nearly a foot deep. At this 

time in the reign of George I. prayers were read in the choir and 

the sermon was (usually) preached in the nave. (W. A. Wheeler,. 

Sarum Chronology, 1889, i., pp. 19 — 26). More recently, about 

,1824, in the time of George IV., the late Mr. J. Harding remem- 

I bered the Cathedral being more than once flooded with water to 

i the depth of several inches over the nave and the aisles- But he 

I never recollected to have seen it reach the level of the choir, though 

1 the water was standing underground a little below the pavement of 

I the S.E. choir transept. Mr. Wheeler mentions that the Close 

!, was flooded to the doors of the Cathedral on 17th January, 1841. 

\ On April 25th, 1846, hailstones lay 2 feet deep on the north side 

; of the Cathedral for two hours or more, and 26th November, 1852, 

! the water came up in pools in the Cathedral and the Chapter 

House. On the eve of Epiphany in the present year (1915), at 

7.45 a.m., every path to the Cathedral was flooded, and water was 

bubbling up in the nave and western transepts, so that, being on 

duty, I walked through 8 inches of water at the west front. In 

the afternoon the water was higher, and readied a depth of 5 inches 

to 13 ino.hes on the raised gravel of the Broad Walk from Harnham 


The choir was closed for alterations in November, 1869, till 
1st November, 1876, In 1878-9 the nave and aisles were restored, 
and on May 29th, 1879, a Diocesan Choral festival, very largely 
attended, was held in the Cathedral. Since that day the choir 

54 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

has been (normally) in constant use, and while I write (after 
Epiphany, 1915) the nave is disused, though gradually drying 
after the flood. 

Our little punt, which formerly amused my nephews and nieces 
on the Palace pond, was taken from St. Nicholas' Hospital on 
January 4th, through Harnham Gate, and Mr. Hammond, our 
Chapter-Clerk, plied in it on the choristers' meadow and elsewhere 
on the western side of the Close. Some years ago the punt had 
disported itself in Bishop Poore's Hall within the Palace, and one 
of the late Bishop's children had a memorable time of enjoyment 
upon one of the old dining-tables, impersonating Robinson Crusoe 
on his island, while the punt doubled the parts of " two-canoe " 
and ship. The Palace is usually the first, and occasionally the 
only building, to suffer when the springs are rising abnormally ; 
and after it the Wardrobe and South Canonry follow presently. 
The King's House has suffered great mischief, the wooden blocks 
of the floor in the drill hall being forced up by the spring of water 
and mud. The houses S.W. of Harnham Gate, and then the lower 
rooms in the Deanery and Leadenhall, and the undercroft of the 
North Canonry, with the cellarage in other parts of the Close, are 
flooded. Several of the occupants of Devaux Place were on the 
present occasion forced to leave their houses, as was Mr. Pearce, 
the second verger, with his family. Mrs. Wyndham, at Devaux 
House, and the four tenants of St. Nicholas on St. John's Isle, or 
Harnham Bridge, no less than the denizens of Fisherton, have 
realised the truth of old Leland's words about the Avon, when 
swollen by snow from North Wilts and the waters of Pewsey Yale, 
that " Saresbyri and much ground therabout is playne and low, and 
as a pan or recey ver of moste parte of the water of Wyleshire/' and 
that it stands " exceding low and cold, and the ryver at rages cam(e) 
into it " and no mistake ! (Itinerary, i., pp. 259, 268, ed. L. Toulmin 
Smith, 1907). 

The Avon overflowed the lowest part of St. John's Isle in the 
present month of January, 1915, but the ancient Chapel of St. 
John the Baptist has escaped any visible damage thus far. Here, 
on the northern bank of St. Nicholas' channel, the twin chapels 

By the Rev. Chr. Wordsivorth, Sub- Dean. 55 

have suffered no harm, and that of St. Nicholas lias been used 
daily for divine service, although we watched the river tearing 
away at our boat-house and the water creeping foot by foot over 
the lawn till it stood in . the shallow rain catch-pit outside the 
south door of the chapel, within 2 inches of the door sill ; and the 
flags in the ante-chapel show darker and broader stains than usual, 
where carpets had begun to show a trace of dampness. The rooms 
in this house (the Master's Lodging) and hospital have remained 
high and dry, and whereas in many seasons we feel the want of 
cellarage, for the convenience of storage in this house, we are now 
thankful to Mr. Young, the builder, who remodelled our rooms 
under Mr. Crickmay's direction in 1886. We could not wish for 
a repetition of the scene witnessed in the eighteenth century on 
one St. Nicholas's feast, in December, when the river rose in the 
old kitchen, which formerly stood near what is now my study, and 
put out .the fire at which two cooks from the towu were cooking 
for the community and their invited guests. 

The water began to appear in the Palace on the evening of 
Thursday, December 17th, 1914, when the Bishop thought it wiser 
not to use Bishop Poore's Hall for the candidates for ordination, as 
there was a little water above the concrete floor in the north part 
of it. Next morning the gardeners had brought large inverted 
flower pots to,, raise a dwarf bookcase above the level of the lower 
steps by which one descends from the level of the large entrance 
hall, This expedient served only for a time. When I next visited 
that part of the Palace early in January the whole ancient hall 
was like a noble plunge-bath, Eobinson's Crusoe's island was itself 
submerged, and the water, 25J inches deep, overflowing through 
the open door in a rivulet running into the scullery passage. A 
stranger who came well-booted, like the Homeric heroes, and whom 
I guided through Harnham Gate by the Broad Walk past the west 
front until we reached the temporary bridge of planks which led 
through the north porch and up to the step of the south choir 
isle, remarked — as he stopped to look at the choristers' cricket 
eld, then submerged, and to wash off from his long boots the 
mud which he had brought from the camp near Amesbury (where 

56 Notes on Salisbury Cathedral. 

the floods bad swept away three of his poor comrades), " What a 
grand place for curling ! " But the grass had begun to re-appear 
by the end of the week before a slight frost congealed the surface 
of the diminished pools. For ten days the Cathedral Library, over 
the eastern cloister, could not be heated because the stoke-hole was 
flooded, and the pump and hose were fully occupied in pumping 
from 2 to 4 inches of water from the aisles and nave into the 
cloisters, and for several successive days first through the cloister 
door and then through a window (from which some of the glass 
had to be taken out) into the N.E. channel of the Close. The water 
rose again to a height of 2ft. Sin. in the stoke-hole, already men- 
tioned, near the cloister and chapter-house, in February, 1915 ;. 
but it has been pumped out a second time, and by March 4th the 
fire was once more burning merrily. The cathedral organ (one of 
the greatest sufferers from the recent floods) was in part used again 
on Sunday, February 28th, and the whole of it on March 4th. 

The effect of the reflection of the roof and windows of the interior 
of the nave in the sheet of water within was portrayed in the 
illustrated papers, and brought many visitors to the west and north 
doors and across the planks on Wednesday, January 6th. The paving 
about the middle of the nave was observed to be some 2 inches higher 
than its level at either end. The removal of the chairs from the nave 
has shown the true architectural proportions of the building as 
seen in eighteenth century engravings, a fact which was not lost 
to some artistic eyes, and we may hope that sketches were satis- 
factorily completed, to show the arcades more nearly as Elias de 
Derham planned them, than they have been seen for several 
generations. James Biddlecombe's drawing of 1754, engraved for 
Peter Hall's Picturesque Memorials of Salisbury, 1834, plate vi., 
shows the nave devoid of seats ; and the fon t, 1 near the west end. 
I wonder whether this place at the west end of the cathedral nave 
between the tombs or effigy of the younger W. Longespe and the 

1 The Fabrich Account for July, 1662, shows that £2 12s. was paid after 
the Restoration for " carrying y e Font from London." There were further 
expenses connected with the font in Aug., 1662 — " nullibi autem compared 
quid pro Fonte sit solutum." ( Walton's Quarto, p. 297.) 


By the Rev. Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean. 57 

so-called "Boy Bishop" to the north and the tombs or coffin slabs 
of Bishops Roger and Josceline de Bohun (brought from Old 
Sarum) on the south, was the site of the medieval "fontes " also. 
The printed Sarum Processionale rubric (1502, &c.) directs that 
the Easter Fire was to be blessed on Easter Even " at the column 
on the south side near the Font," the illustrated editions, more 
particularly those of 1517 — 1558, show the little fire blazing, in a 
shallow brazier with a foot, to the right hand of the celebrating 
priest, and the acolyte with holy-water and the thurifer next it, as 
shown in Salisbury Ceremonies (Oamb., 1901), p. 82. 



The following notes may be of service towards a history of Huish 
when it comes to be written. They consist of such references to 
the place or to its successive owners as are readily discoverable, for 
the most part in print, without discussion of the many difficulties 
in their interpretation and without any pretence to completeness. 

On the printed Pipe Eoll (ed.Eev. Joseph Hunter) of 31 Henry I, 
that is to say, for the period from Michaelmas, 1129, to Michaelmas, 
1130, occurs the entry (p. 22) : — 

Wiltescira . . . Et in pardonis per brevia regis . . . Roberto 
duisnello . xx.d. 

The name is right, and the county is right, but there is a further 
entry on the same roll (p. 41) which may render it less certain 
that, in the person of this Robert, we have found a direct ancestor 
of the name at Huish : — 

Hantescira . . . Et in pardonis per brevia regis . . . Roberto 
Duisnello . x.s. 

The reason for hesitation is as follows. In that truly delightful 
book "The King's Serjeants & Officers of State" Mr. J. H. Round 
explains (pp. 92 et seq.) that " About the middle of the 12th century, 
if not indeed rather earlier, Robert Doisnel was holding at least 
five manors by the service of performing its duties," viz., of the 
office of a marshalship at court; that by his carta of 1166 William 
Fitz Audelin claimed to hold, by the same service, " all the land 
of Robert Doisnel which had not been subinfeudated " (viz., less a 
knight's fee in Essex and a quarter fee held by John Gernun) as 
given to him in marriage with Juliana, Robert's daughter and 
heir ; that Juliana died childless, whereupon, in 1199, her collateral 
heirs (Warbleton and Munceaus) fined for the inheritance ; and 
that, in 1205, the senior of them did so obtain the lands which 
belonged to the serjeanty, in Hampshire, Cambridgeshire and Essex, 
less land (in Essex) which Juliana had given to the Hospitallers. 

Huish and the Doynels. 59 

Now there seems to be sufficient evidence that the Doynels of 
later date in Wiltshire held no lands outside the county, and it is 
reasonable accordingly to suppose — since both the entries above 
must be taken to refer to one and the same person — that it is 
Robert Doisnel, the marshal himself, who is pardoned, in 1130, 10s. 
in respect of his lands in Hampshire, and one sixth that amount 
in respect of his land in Wiltshire, of which latter, however, 
there is, frankly, no further trace. 

On the printed Pipe Eoll (ed. Pipe Eoll Soc, vol. 6) of 9 Henry II., 
that is to say for the period from Michaelmas, 1162, to Michaelmas, 
1163, occurs the entry (p. 47) : — 

Wiltescira . . . Idem vicecomes reddit compotum de firma de 
Hiwis - terra Roberti Doihnel(m Chancellor's Roll Dunnel). In thesauro 
l.m. argenti. 

The entry apparently does not recur. I am unable to explain it. 
It is the last entry on the roll for Wiltshire. In the previous entry 
the sheriff accounts for the " farm of Westberi . terra Escaett'." In 
the case of the farm of Hiwis, however, it is not described as an 
escheat but as the laud of Robert Doihnel. The sum accounted 
for, one mark, looks like a fixed payment. It might refer to the 
scutage of the previous year, imposed on all knights and assessed 
at one mark; but in an entry, two from the end of the same roll, 
the sheriff does account for the scutage, and calls it so, of Adam 
de Port, and it is not even certain that land, held as we have reason 
; to believe Hiwis was held, was liable to scutage at all. If it were 
a regular payment due in respect of Hiwis it would recur, which 
| it does not, on subsequent rolls; nor was it a payment on account, 
: for although the words Et quietus est are absent (as they are in the 
; ; entry relating to the farm of Westberi) the sheriff does not confess 
| to further indebtedness with the phrase Et debet ... It might 
be suggested that Kobert was recently dead, leaving an heir in 
(minority; that the wardship of this heir was granted away; and 
that the sheriff accounts for the issues in the interval between the 
death and the grant. It is consistent with the dates, as reckoned 
from the lower part of the pedigree, where the filiation is ascertain- 
able and dates are known, that there should be a Kobert, born 

60 Huish and the Doynels, 

about; 1128, dying in 1163, and leaving an heir born about 1158 : 
— and the pedigree of course stands, whatever becomes of the ex- 
planation, seeing that id is quite immaterial — for the pedigree — 
once the heir is born, how long the father may survive the birth , 
but upon this theory the period of the sheriff's possession must 
have been brief, for the sum is small. 

Thus all that this entry, in the absence of reliable interpretation, 
tells us, is that in 1162-3 the connexion, in some form, of Doynel 
with Huish had begun. It does not seem worth while labouring 
the point that here at any rate we cannot be encountering the 
Marshal. He was in all probability already long since dead, even 
though the entry ante-date Fitz Audelins' carta by a couple of 
years, and whereas a long line of Doynels held Huish, the Marshal 
left only female issue to survive him. 

In the Liber Feodorum, or Book of Fees, there occurs (at p. 148&. 
of the printed edition of it known as Testa de Nevill) a list of 
Wiltshire Serjeanties, of which no original can be found (that is to 
say the original document from which the list was transcribed into 
the Liber Feodorum is no longer in existence) which can with great 
confidence be assigned to the year 1198. 

In this List there are two entries which concern us: — 
Robertus Duinel [tenet] in Hywis ij carucatas et valent lx s - 

Robertus Doynel [tenet] in Estgrafton dimidiam carucatam et 
valet XV s - 

Here for the first time we find the tenure of Huish distinctly 
stated. The tenant there is included in the list of Wiltshire 
Serjeants, while the nature of his serjeauty will shortly appear. 
Further we discover by these entries that not only was a Robert 
Doynel holding in Huish by serjeanty-service, but in East Grafton 
also there is a serjeant of the same name. But in Domesday both 
these places are entered and each of them was then held by a 
Richard Star mid, as one of the King's Serjeants ! It is surely 
very remarkable and of no slight interest — even if the details 
escape us, though we fail to ascertain how for Sturmid there comes 
to be substituted Doynel, and though the nature of Sturmid's 

Hidsli and the Boynels. 61 

personal service, whether the same as Doynel's or not, may remain 
unknown — to have a tolerable certainty that, from the beginning 
of things these particular acres were associated with so distinctive 
a tenure. 

In spite of the fact that, when we first meet with them together, 
Huish and East Grafton are alike held by a Robert Doynel, they 
followed entirely distinct lines of descent. This first becomes 
apparent by an entry on the Pipe Roll of 12 John. Meanwhile 
there is an entry on the Pipe Roll of 5 John (Michaelmas, 1202, 
to Michaelmas, 1203) which may be taken to refer to Huish alone: — 

Wiltescira . . . De finibus et scutagiis militum de quarto scutagio. 
Idem vicecomes reddit compotum ... Et de j. m. de Roberto 
Doisnell', pro serjanteria. Et de v. m. de Ricardo Ruffo pro eodem. Et 
de mj. m. de Fulcone de Alnov de feodo. j. militis. Et de .x. m. . . . 
Et de .j. m. de Matlieo Turpin pro serjanteria. Et de .ij. m. de Waltero 
Esturmi pro eodem. Et de .xx. s. de Willelmo de Anesie pro eodem . . . 

The entry on the Pipe Roll of 12 John (Michaelmas, 1209, to 
Michaelmas, 1210), already referred to, introduces us to a Warin 
as well as a Robert Doynel. The list, it may be stated, is made 
up, with the exception perhaps of the lady at the end, of Ser- 
jeants : — 

Wiltescira . . . De finibus et scutagiis Ybernie. Idem vicecomes 
reddit compotum de .xxx. m. de Elya Croc pro eodem. Et de xx. m. de 
Matlieo Turpin pro eodem. Et de. xx. m. de Andrea Mobert pro eodem. 
Et de. c. s. de Roberto Doisuel pro eodem. Et de. c. s. de Warino 
Doisnel pro eodem. Et de .xxxv. m. de Galfrido de Pourton pro eodem. 
Et de .xx. m. de Waltero Esturmi pro eodem. Et de c. m. de Albreda 
des Boterels pro eodem. In thesauro liberavit. Et quietus est. 

We next have recourse to the Reel Book of the Exchequer, and 
there (Rolls edit., vol. 2, pp. 486 and 487), in a list headed " Nomina 
illorum qui tenent per serjanteriam in hoc comitatu " (scilt. Wilts) 
we find Robert Doynel and Warin Doynel distinguished as holding 
Hiwis and (land in) Grafton respectively, 

It might be supposed generally that the Red Book and the Ziber 
Feodoritm alike consist of faithful copies of original returns, thus 
preserved for reference by the Exchequer officials. In the case of 
the latter the accident of the continued existence of such originals, 
in considerable quantity, facilitates its study. In the case of the 

62 Huish and the Doynels. 

Bed Book, in the absence of such originals, there is little safety 
without a detailed enquiry into each list as a whole, j The particular 
list we are concerned with can fairly confidently be assigned, if a 
genuine return at all, to the year 1212, or thereabouts. We have 
just had evidence at any rate that in 1209-1210 both Eobert and 
Warin Doynel were alive. The additional information about them 
furnished by the Bed Book is as follows : — 

Robertus Doisnel [tenet] Hiwis per serjanteriam marscalcie. 

Warinus Doisnel [tenet] iiij hidas in Greftone per serjanteriam 

The editor in a note informs us that in the Warin Doynel entry 
" marscalcie is a later addition in MS." (it is as a matter of fact an 
interlineation), and after an inspection of the MS. I am not at all 
sure that the same statement is not true of the Robert Doinel 
entry. This is an apt illustration of the vice wbich permeates 
the Red Book entries. They were precedents — copies, indeed, for 
the most part — but liable to be enriched with annotations in the 
office, which were liable to be incorrect. In the particular in- 
stances above it can be advanced with great confidence that, in 
neither case, had the serjeanty the remotest connection with the 
Marshal's office. 

In a farther list entered no less than thrice in the Liber Feodorum 
(pp. 147^., 149a., and 149ai>., of the printed Testa de Nevill) and 
in the Red Book (Rolls edit., pp. 460-462) the notion of the con- 
tinued existence of a Doynel marshalship is developed in a different 
form. Of this list there is another MS. in existence, a duplicate 
of the version at p. lAQa.b. of the Liber Feodorum (under the official 
reference S ^ formerly K. F. ^ ) which reads : — 

Robertus Doinel tenet unam hidam per serjantiam. 
Warinus Puvinel [tenet] x. solidos terre per serjantiam. 
Robertus Duuiniol ut sit Marescallus 
" Puvinel " is a quite natural and proper misreading for 

Huish and the Doyncls. 63 

"Duuinel." Warin and Robert Doynel were, we know, contem- 
poraries in 1210, and Warin survived to 1235, while other names 
in it suggest that the list cannot have been drawn up before 1220 : 
but Robert Doynel, the Marshal, died, as we have seen, between 
1130 and 1166, at the latter of which dates his son-in-law was in 
possession of his marshalship. The list, therefore, is not a faithful 
copy of any original return : it is a compilation, as many, or most, 
of these Red Book lists probably are : but it bears witness to the 
tenacity of the Exchequer memory and confirms the theory that 
some part of the endowment of the Doynel Marshalship— long since 
divided, qua the lands, between Warbleton and Munceaus — did lie 
in Wiltshire. 

From this point on there are no entries belonging in common to 
the two serjeanties, and I propose, accordingly, to desert Huish for 
the moment and to interpolate here such few facts as I have 
gathered relating to the latter (Grafton), if for no other reason in 
order to establish what was the precise service due to be rendered 
in respect of it. 

There is a writ on the Close Roll, dated 23 August, 19 Henry III, 
1235, to the sheriff of Wilts, to enquire how much land " Warinus 
Doynel " held and by what service and who is his next heir, and 
meanwhile to collect the crops in the said land, so that nothing be 
removed. On the 29th September following there is a further 
writ to the same sheriff, which recites that the king at the instance 
of Friar Robert Bacun had granted to him the ward of the land 
which was of Warin Doynel, who held of the king in chief, and the 
marriage of the daughters and heirs of the said Warin, confer •endum 
uni ex suis cui voluerit, and orders him (the sheriff) to cause the 
said Friar Robert to have full seisin of the land which was of the 
said Warin in Grafton and of the said heirs. There are other 
notices of this Robert Bacun on the Close Rolls from which and 
i divers mentions in the volumes of the Oxford Historical Society it 
! appears that he was a Dominican or Black Friar of Oxford and 
| died in 1248. 

In the Liber Feodorum there is an entry (p. 1436. of the Record 
| Commission edit.) as follows: — 

64 Huish and the Doynels. 

Ricardus Boxman tenet dimidiam hidam terre in Grafton pro esse in 
botellaria domini regis. 

The list in which this entry occurs begins at p. 139&. and is 
headed " Hec sunt feoda militum in comitatu Wiltes." An original 
of it is in existence and it belongs to the year 1236. 

Further information concerning this Richard is supplied by a 
writ on the Fine Roll, dated 15 November, 28 Henry III, 1243. 
It is recited that the king has taken the homage of Richard 
Bakesman, who married Joan, sister and heir of Alice, daughter of 
Warin Duynel, in respect of the lands, &c, which the said Alice 
held of the king in chief, and the sheriff of Wilts is ordered to 
cause the said Richard and Joan to have full seisin of all the lands, 
&c, whereof the said Alice was seised in fee on the day she died, 
security having been first taken from the said Richard and Joan 
for the payment of one mark for their relief. 

Thus it appears that there were two daughters and coheirs of 
Warin Doynel, one of whom was very promptly married off by 
Friar Bacun to Richard Baxman, presumably his kinsman, if so 
the words uni ex suis are to be rendered. The only other mention 
of him that I have met with is the statement that Richard Baxman 
was on a jury, the Thursday after Michelmas 43 Henry III (2 
October, 1259), to enquire after the death of Avice de Colnmbers, 
forester in fee of Chute, &c. 

The estate and serjeanty duly appear on the Hundred Rolls: — 

Hundredum de Kynewardston. Inquisitio facta ( Vol. ii. Rec. Com. 
edit. p. 259a) apud Bedevrind in Comitatu Wyltes' ... die Sabbati 
proxima post festum Sancti Gregorii Pape, anno regni regis Edwardi 
tercio (Saturday, 16 March, 1274-5) scilicet per Adam de Hamme, 
Willelmum de Columbariis, Galfridi Drueys, Henrici Buggi, Petrum 
de Forstebur', Petrum Bacun, Stephanum Baxman . . . De feodis 
(p. 2596.) domini regis et tenencium etc. Stephanus Baxman (p. 260a.) 
tenet unamcarucatam terre in Estgrafton de rege in capite per serjantiam 
scilicet pro ducendo vinum domini regis in utribus. 

Stephen Baxman was on a jury at Marlborough, the Wednesday 
before St. Denis, 4 Edward I (7 October, 1276), and this is the 
only other notice that I have seen of him. He was followed at 
Grafton by William Baxman, presumably his brother. William 
Baxman occurs on a jury in the Hundred of Kinwardston, on the 

Huish and the Doynels. 65 

Monday before St. Simon and St. Jude, 10 Edward I (Monday, 
26 October, 1282). On the Fine Koll there is a writ dated at 
Westminster, 16 December, 6 Edward II (1312), addressed to 
the escheator this side Trent, to take into the king's hands the 
lands late of William Baxman, of Grafton, deceased. It was found 
by the consequent inquisition, taken 20 December in the same 
year (1312) that William Baxman held a messuage and a carucate 
of land of the king in chief in Grafton, by service of 6d. yearly at 
Salisbury Castle and by service of finding a horse to carry two 
bulgeas with the king's wine when the king may come to take 
venison in the forests of Savernake and Chute, at the king's 
charges while on that service. It was further found that Joan de 
Holte, son of Avice, his daughter, was his next heir, aged 27 and 
more. On the 18 January, 1312-13, there is a writ accordingly 
to the escheator to deliver to John de Holte, kinsman and heir of 
William Baxman, of Grafton, tenant-in-chief, the lands late of the 
said William, his grandfather, he having done fealty. 

I have not attempted to carry the descent further. It would 
be interesting to obtain yet another statement of the nature of 
the serjeanty, but from the three accounts of it given above it is 
clear that the first of them is perfectly correct in describing it as 
a butlery service. 

The pedigree disclosed seems to be as follows . — 

Robert Doynel [born about 1155]= 
in possession of Grafton 1198 
dead 1210 

Warin Doynel [born about 1185]= 
in possession 1210 ; died 1235 

: Richard Baxman = Joan Doynel [born about Alice Doynel 
occurs 1236—1259 I 1215] living 1243 died 1243. 

Stephen Baxman William Baxman 

1 [born about 1235]. occurs 1282 ; 

in possession 1275. died 1312. 

Holte = Avice Baxman [born about 
| 1265] dead 1312. 


John de Holte, 
born about 1285. 

66 Huish and the Doynels. 

To return to Huish. We left it in the possession, 1210-1212, 
of Robert Doynel. I suppose that this Robert was born towards the 
year 1158 and that he had a son born to him about 1188, by name 
Geoffrey. In a record of 1255, set out below, it is alleged that 
Geoffrey Doinel thirty years ago withdrew his suit to the Hundred 
court for Huish, by which it appears that Geoffrey held Huish in 
or about 1225, This is confirmed by an entry in the Liber Feodorum 
(p. 1586. Rec. Com. edit.) in a list headed (p. 158a,) "De custodiis 
serjantiis ecclesiis et aliis que sunt de donatione domini regis in 
comitatu Wiltes." The list itself is probably compiled from entries 
on Eyre Rolls for the years 1226 to 1232, and the particular entry 
belongs to one of the earlier years : — 

Galf ridus de Oynel tenet manerium de Hy wis et valet per annum c. s. 

This is the sole occasion on which I have met with the name in 
a form suggestive of a place-name origin for it. We shall come 
shortly to a local and sportive theory of its significance ; but we 
shall be wise to study rather the Pipe Roll spelling of 1130. I do 
not know what "Duisnellus " means ; but I suppose that the name 
is formed after the fashion of " Pagaiiellus " ; that ifc is a diminutive 
and stands for the " little dean," or something of that sort. 

By May, 1228, Geoffrey Doynel was dead. There is a writ on 
the Fine Roll, dated 18 May, 12 Henry III, 1228, addressed to 
the sheriff of Wilts, reciting that Richard de Derneford had made 
fine with the king in 20 marks to have the ward of the land and 
heirs of Geoffrey Doynel, who held of the king in chief by serjeanty, 
and the marriage of the said heirs and ordering him (the sheriff), 
after taking security for the said 20 marks, to cause Richard to 
have seisin of the land, saviug to Clarice, late Geoffrey's wife, her 
reasonable dower therefrom, 

Geoffrey's heir was, I suppose, born about 1218, which would 
leave Derneford in ward of the land till 1239 or thereabouts, and 
this view is confirmed by the following entries in the Liber Feodorum, 
which show Derneford in possession in 1236, but Robert Doynel, 
doubtless Geoffrey's son and heir, in possession in 1242. The first 
entry occurs (p. 143a of the Record Com. edit.) in the list already 

Huish and the Doynels. 67 

mentioned, in reference to Richard Baxman, as belonging to the 

year 1236:— 

Ricardus de Dernefofd tenet duas carucatas terre in Hywys per 
servitium inveniendi unum servientem ad haubergum. 

This is the first definite description of the serjeanty by which 
Huish was held. It belongs to a numerous class, a sub-species of 
the obligation to find a man-at-arms for the king's service in war- 
time, only barely to be classed, as it seems to me, as a serjeanty 
at all. Of the Huish serjeanty we shall find several subsequent 
definitions, all to the same effect, and all of them remote — as 
remote as the serjeanty in Grafton — from the office of the Marshal. 

The second entry occurs (p, 155 of the Eecord Com. edit.) in a 

list of the date 1242 :— 

Robertus Doynel tenet Hiwis in capite de rege per serjantiam de 
quodam hauberco ad servitium regis. 

Robert Doynel died five years later, in 1247, and the long 
minority of (his son) Silvester followed. The name " Silvester " is 
.not of frequent occurrence, and I am inclined to suppose that it 
is not merely a coincidence that the wardship of the heir was 
granted to Silvester de Everdon, bishop of Carlisle, that is to say 
it is possible, or probable, that the wife of Robert and the mother 
of his heir, otherwise entirely unknown to us, was of the bishop's 
kindred. The grant to Silvester, bishop of Carlisle, or his assign, 
■of the wardship of the land and heirs of Robert Doynel, witli the 
marriage of the heirs, is entered on the Patent Roll in December, 
1247. On the Fine Roll there is a writ dated 27 December, 
32 Henry III, 1247, addressed to Henry de Wengham and his 
<io-escheator in the county of Wilts, reciting that Silvester, bishop 
•of Carlisle, has made fine with the king, in 50 marks, for the ward 
of the lands and heirs of Robert Doynel and the marriage of the 
said heirs, viz., 15 marks payable at Easter in the 32nd year, 15 
marks at Michaelmas following, 10 marks at Easter in the 33rd 
year and 10 marks at Michaelmas following, and ordering him to 
cause the bishop to have full seisin of the said ward. 

It was probably on the occasion of his death that an extent was 
made "of the land which Robert Doynel held in chief of the king 

68 Huish and the Doynels. 

at Iwys." It is undated and the writ under which it was made is 
not forthcoming. Some two or three years later " the serjeanty of 
Robert Doinsuel for which he ought {debuit) to find," &c, was 
"arrented," but the rent of the land farmed out, as distinct from 
the land kept in hand, is found to be 40s. on that occasion, against 
33s. in the " extent," which accordingly is probably of earlier date, 
that is to say, made shortly after he had died : — 

Extenta facta de terra que (sic) Robertus Doynell tenuit in capite de 
domino rege apud Iwys in comitatu Wiltes' per sacramentum Hainonis 
de Bachampton, Roberti Burdun, Philippi de Prebenda, Philippi 
Oliver, Eadmundi de Stanton, Johannis filii Philippi, Petri Marescalli, 
Willelmi Maleweyn, Reginaldi de Berewyk, Johannis filii Ranulphi, 
Rogeri de Hore (viz., Oare a ty thing in the next parish) et Johannis le 
Nouel Qui jurati dicunt quod terra que (sic) Robertus Doynell tenuit in 
capite de rege valet per annum in dominico xl. solidos. In redditu 
assiso . xxxiij . solidos. In prato dimidiam marcam . nullam habuit 
propriam pasturam. et sic valet per annum lxxix. solidos et vhj denarios 
per totum. 
No bond land is mentioned, and the pasture, which doubtless 
there was, was not held in severalty. 

The system in accordance with which the serjeanties were 
"arrented" by Robert Passelowe and his fellows in 1249-1250 is 
described in the introduction (pp. 17-19) to Mr. bound's The 
King's Serjeants. In the case of Huish lands to the value of 40s. 
yearly had been alienated. The tenants are to pay each a J of the 
value of their tenements yearly to the serjeant, who is to pay over 
the sum, viz., 1 mark, to the Exchequer and to continue to do his 
accustomed service for the unalienated residue. This "arrentation " 
occurs in the Liber Feodorum in duplicate (Record Com. edit., p. 
1465., viz., L.T.R. Misc. ^- and -^; and p, 14:7b, of which no original 
is forthcoming), both versions are given below : — 

De serjantiis arentatis per Robertum Passelewe tempore Henrici 
regis filii regis Johannis 

Serjantia Roberti Doinsuel in Hy wis pro qua debuit invenire domino 
regi unum servientem equitem et armatum in exercitu suo in Anglia 
ad custum proprium per xl. dies alienata est in parte. 

Willelmus de Hywys tenet inde dimidiam virgatam terre que valet 
per annum v. solidos. 

Item Rogerus Doinsuel tenet dimidiam virgatam terre que valet per 
annum v. solidos. 

Huish and the Doyncls. 69 

Item Johannes de Here et Isabella uxor ejus tenent x.acras que valent 
per annum x. s. 

Item Galfridus de Wifhide et Margeria uxor ejus tenent x. acras que 
valent per annum x. solidos. 

Item Bartholomeus, films Walteri et Christiana uxor ejus tenent x. 
acras que valent per annum x. solidos. 

Et est summa dictarum alienacionum xl. s. 

Et dictus Robertus fecit inde finem pro dictis tenentibus de consensu 
eorundem videlicet per annum j. marcam. 

Ita quod quilibet dictorum tenendum respondeat eidem Roberto de 
tercia parte valoris tenementi sui per annum. Et ipse Robertus faciat 
servicium predicte serjantie pro parte sua que non est alienata. 

Serjantia Roberti Deinel in Hywys pro qua debuit invenire domino 
regi unum servientem equitem in exercitu suo in Anglia per quadraginta 
dies super custum proprium alienata est in parte. 

De eodem Roberto pro una virgata et quadraginta acris terre de 
eadem serjantia alienatis quas Willelmus de Hywys Rogerus Doinel 
Johannes de Ore et Isabella uxor ejus Galfridus de Fifhide et Margeria 
uxor ejus Bartholomeus filius Walteri et Christiana uxor ejus et 
Robertus filius Radulphi de eo tenent per annum 1 marca. Et faciet 
servicium predictum consuetum. 

There is no doubt whatever that Robert Doynell died in or about 
December, 1247 : there appears to be no doubt that Passelewe's 
"arrentation" was carried out in 1249-50; I fail to understand 
accordingly why, in the document above " dictus Robertus fecit 
inde finem," &c, and not the bishop, the guardian of the heir. In 
the dated document, which follows, it is correctly stated that Walter 
de Rudham holds Huish, in succession to the bishop. Silvester, 
bishop of Carlisle, died 13 May, 1254. On October 12, 1256, 
I Walter de Rudham and Martin de Chamfleur, king's clerks, were 
; appointed keepers (of the temporalities) of the bishopric of Carlisle, 
isede vacante; and at Huish also Rudham replaces the bishop, pos- 
sibly as his administrator, possibly as his executor. 

The inquisition is printed in the Record Commission edition of 
the Hundred Rolls (vol. ii., pp. 230-234), and the copy of it, as 
(under, has been checked with the original : — 

(p. 230.) Inquisiciones facte . . . apud Wyltoniam die Sab.bati 
proximo post festum Sancti Petri ad vincula anno regni regis Henrici 

70 Huish and the Doynels. 

filii regis Johannis xxxix° [Sat., 7 August, 1255] de juribus et 
libertatibus et aliis ipsum regem contingentibus. 

(p. 234.) Hundredum de Swaneburu' venit per xij cim . 

Juratores presentant quod; hundredum istud est in manu domini 
regis . . . 

Dicunt etiara quod manerium de Uphaven' . . . 

Item manerium de Iwys quod Walterus de Rudham tenet solebat 
sequi predictum hundredum. Et triginta annis elapsis subtracta f uit 
sectaper Galfridum Donel etper permissionem Bartholomei deUphaven 
tunc ballivum (sic) ad dampnum regis per annum de ij solidis . . . 

De vallettis et puellis etc. 

Dicunt quod terra [heres erased] Roberti Donyel de Hywys valet per 
annum c solidos Et dominus rex nunc dedit custodiam terre illius et 
heredis ejusdem Roberti Silvestro quondam episcopo Karliolensi et 
nunc tenet earn Walterus de Rudham. 

De Serjantiis. 

Dicunt quod Danyel le Roter tenuit villain de Hywys per serjantiam 
scilicet inveniendi unum valettum cum equo et hauberjone cum domino* 
rege in exercitu per xl. dies. Et dicunt quod serjantia ilia jam sex 
annis elapsis reddidit domino regi per annum unam marcam et hoc 
factum f uit per R. Passelewe et Henricum de Wengham . 

The concluding sentence seems clearly to assert that Passelewe's 
" arrentation " took place in the year 1249. Whether there is some 
clue to the origin of the Doynells concealed in the statement by 
the jurors, that "Danyel le Roter tenuit," &c, I do not know, or 
whether it is a mystification, nor do I know what the description 
" le Roter " means. The alias of the British saint Deiniol is 
Daniel ; but if " Doynell " is a name of this class I should prefer 
to identify it with " Donel " (cf. Mac Donel) the modern form of 
the Gaelic proper name "Domhnall," in Welsh " Dyfnual " ; or 
there is "Dodo," with a French, or Breton, form, "Doun," which 
in turn might yield " Dounellus " : but if the jurors were not in- 
dulging their imagination but stating fact, it is a great loss not to 
be able to apprehend their meaning. 

With regard to the service, it appears to be indifferent whether 
the valettus wear a "habergeon," as in this entry, or a "hauberk," 
as above; both are coats of mail, with possibly some advantage in 
size in favour of the latter ; " habergeon " is another diminutive. 
With regard to the Grafton serjeanty, uter, mentioned in one 
passage, is a leather bottle, and the bulgea of the other the same, — - 
a word of Celtic origin having passed into Latin as bulga, viz., a. 

Huish and the Doynels. 71 

leather-purse, thence into French as hougette, and thence, or 
possibly directly, into English as " budget," a word we are familiar 
with, — the name, too of that prettiest of heraldic charges, the 
" water-budget." 

Silvester Doynel, who appears next in succession at Huish to 
Kobert Doynell, was, I suppose, his son and heir, and as such in 
ward successively to Silvester, bishop of Carlisle, and to Walter 
de Eudham. I suppose that he was born about 1245 and of age 
in 1266. The first mention of him that I have met with is in 
1275, in the Hundred Rolls (vol, II) : — 

Hundredum de Swaneber' 

(p. 2746.) Inquisicio facta apud Wiltun' . . . die Jovis proxima 
ante festum Beati Gregorii Pape anno regni regis Edwardi tercio 
(Thursday, 7 March, 1274-5) . . . 

De feodis domini regis et tenentibus ejus etc . 

Item Silvester Doynel tenet unam hidatam terre in Hywys de rege 
in capite per serjantiam que arrentata est in unam marcam quam 
marcam vicecomes Wiltes' recipit per annum. 

(p. 275.) Item de hiis qui clamunt habere returnum brevium et alias 
libertates regias etc. ." . . 

Item Silvester Doynel clamat habere asisas panis et servisie per 
serjantiam suam quam tenet de domino rege in capite . . . 

Personal service in respect of the serjeanty is here treated as 
extinguished by Passelewe's "arrentation," in contradiction to the 
terms of that transaction. With his name slightly concealed under 
the forms " Daynel " and " Dorgnel " Silvester Doynell appears 
in the (printed volume of) Placita de quo warranto (pp. 796, 805a) 
on the jury empanelled re Avebury, &c, thus : — 

Elyas Cotele, John de Haveri[n]gge, Simon Thorney, Silvester 
Daynel, Reynold War, Ralph de Eknolle, William Crispin, Robert de 
Ringbarewe, John de la Mere, Reynold de Lavyngton, Thomas le Rus. 

In the Registrum Malmesburiense (Rolls Series, vol. I., p. 261) 
he occurs on another jury, the date of which could doubtless be 
determined, as follows : — 

Johannes de Tenhyde, Johannes de Holte (a name we have met 
with at Grafton), Robertus de Meysy, Galridus de Wrockeshale, 
Thomas le Rous,Ricardus Cotele,Ricardus de Hyweye,milites, Rogerus 
de Wrytele, Petrus de Lavintone Petrus de Wyvlesford, Silvester 
Doynel, Walterus de Chaldefelde ; 

72 Huish and the Doynels. 

and (ibid, vol. ii., p. 249) as witness to a quitclaim by Alan de 
Plokeneth to the abbot, circa Midsummer, 1283 : — 

Dominis Johanne Giffard, Waltero Heluin, Adam de Monte Alto, 
Jobanne Giffard de Twyford, Rogero le Rous, Radulpho de Albyniaco, 
Roberto de Panes, militibus, magistro Thoma de Sothyntone, domino 
Waltero de Rodemarleghe, rectore ecclesie de Sapertone, Willelmo de 
Strattone, Johanne le Breth, Sylvestro Doynel. 

After his death there is a writ on the Close Roll, 4 June, 1293, 
to the sheriff of Berkshire to cause a verderer for that forest 
(scilt. of Berkshire) to be elected in place of Silvester Doygnel of 
Hewish, deceased. 

From these slight indications we can presume that he "got 
about," kept decent company, and discharged the duties of his 
comparatively modest station in life. 

He married, according to his son's statement in 1318, Margaret, 
daughter of Cecily, sister of Walter de Rudham of Mes worth, co. 
Buckingham,in which county and in Bedfordshire her name appears. 

He died in or about May, 1293, for there is a writ dated at 
Westminster, 24 May, 21 Edward I, 1293, to the escheator this 
side Trent to take into the king's hands the lands late of Silvester 
Doygnel, deceased, tenant in chief (Fine Boll Gal. i. p. 323), An 
inquisition was accordingly taken at Tockenham on the Thursday 
before St. Barnabas, 21 Edward I, viz., 4 June, 1293, as to the 
land, &c, of Silvester Doygnel, and an extent in Buckinghamshire, 
on Friday after the Nativity of St. John the Baptist in the same 
year (26 June, 1293), whereby it was found that Peter was his son 
and heir, aged 14 on the feast of St. Leonard last, in the one case, 
and the feast of St. Martin, in the other, a difference only of five 
days, for the feast of St, Leonard falls on the 6th and the feast of 
St. Martin (in winter) on the 11th November. The boy therefore 
was born, with preference given to the Wiltshire finding, on 6th 
November, 1278. Margaret, his widow, was dissatisfied with these 
returns and two further inquisitions were taken later in the same 
year on her petition. Abstracts of these documents are in print 
and I have not examined the originals. Apparently he died seised 
in fee of 126a. land in Huish, there was a right of pasture and free 
and bond rents, the garden was worth something, and manorial 

Huish and the D.oynels. , 73 

rights something ; altogether the estate was worth £5 19s. a year. 
He was also patron of the advowson. It is again stated that the 
estate was held of the king in chief by service of one mark (13s. 4cL) 
at Lady-Day yearly, He was also seised, jointly with his wife, of 
a virgate and an acre of land in Huish, three virgates in West 
Tockenham, which they had held for twenty-four years, and about 
100a. in Drayton Parslow, co. Buckingham. On 1 July, 1293, 
there is a writ to assign Margaret her dower. 

In the series of returns known as Feudal Aids (vol. i., pp. 13 and 
31) it is stated, in an inquisition for the Hundred of Clifton co. 
Bedford, taken 27 December, 1302, that Margery Doynel holds 
the manor of Chicksands, which in 1346 is held by the prior there, 
4i which Margery Doynele formerly held." "Whether these entries 
refer to Margaret Doynel, of Huish, I do not know. 1 

There is a writ on the Close Roll, dated 11 October, 28 Edward I, 
1300, to the escheator to cause Peter, son and heir of Silvester 
Doynel to have seisin of the lands which Silvester held of the king 
in chief at the time of his death, Peter having proved his age and 
the king having taken his homage. He had come of age apparently 
in November of the previous year. He lived for sixty-five years 
and three months, less four days, and accomplished a good deal in 
the time. The first mention I have seen of him, in a public 
capacity, is his appointment (Peter Doignel), 28 November, 1313, 
with Walter de Mulesworth, to assess and collect a tax in Bedford- 
shire, which strengthens the supposition that, through his mother, 
he had a connexion with that county. He was appointed a com- 
missioner of array in the county of Wilts (Peter Doynel) 25 
December, 1325, and there is a writ addressed to him as arrayer 
15 August, 1326 (Pat. Rolls). It is mentioned in a writ, 26 
February, 1326-7, that an inquisition had been taken before Adam 
Walrond and Peter Doynel (Close Roll). " Petrus Doygnel " and 
" Robertus de Hungerford " were returned to the parliament sum- 
moned to meet at Salisbury, 16 October, 1328, for the county of 

1 In the Nomina Villarum [ibid p. 20) under date 1316, Meperesliale and 
Chikesonde with Stondone, in Clifton Hundred, co. Bedford, are stated to 
be one vill, of which Nicholas de Mepereshale and "Petrus Dagnel" are 

74 Huish and the Doynels, 

Wilts, and there is a writ, 13 March, 1329-30, to Peter Doynel and 
Eobert de Hungerford, to survey the dilapidations of the castle of 
Old Sarum (Pat. Roll). About this time he received knighthood, 
for he witnesses a deed at Salisbury, Tuesday before St. Gregory, 
4 Edward III (6 March, 1329-30) as Sir Peter Doynel, knight 
(Ancient Deeds. A. 8624). He is named in a commission of oyer 
and terminer (Peter Doignell) 16 July, 1334, to try a case at 
Ogbourne St. George. "Robertus Selyman, miles," and " Petrus 
Doynel, miles," were returned as knights of the shire for Wilts to 
the parliament summoned to meet 26 September, 1337, and with 
William de Seynt Omer, neither described as knight, to the par- 
liament summoned to meet 3 February, 1337-38. On 15 May, 
1339, there is a writ calendared as follows: — "To the treasurer and 
barons of the Exchequer, order to admit the person deputed by 
Peter Doynel, late sheriff of Wilts, to render his account on the 
morrow of Trinity next, as he is broken by age and weak in body 
as has been testified in Chancery by certain who have taken oath 
thereupon" (Close Roll). Nevertheless there is a commission to 
him, 30 July 1344, with others, to take an inquisition in the county 
of Wilts (Patent Roll). According to the List of Sheriffs he held this 
office for two periods, viz., from 14 August, 1337, to 20 February, 
1337-38, and from 12 March, 1337-38, to 23 April, 1338. These 
dates suggest a struggle with illness, and capitulation, before his 
year of of office was out. 

By his own act, in the last year of his life, he determined the 
subsequent history of Huish, how motived it is not possible to say ;, 
but before we come to this settlement and its consequences and 
before we part with Sir Peter, there are a few facts to be stated 
as to his mother and the claim he advanced to certain lands in 
Buckinghamshire in her right. 

In 1234-35 (Liber Feodorum) Marsworth, co. Buckingham, was 
held, for two fees, of the Honor ofWallingford, by four persons, in 
equal parts, viz., by Ralph de Wedon, Egelina de Burdun, John le 
Brun and Maud de Esserugg, who each of them held a half fee. 
In 1284 (Feudal Aids) it was held, still as half fees, by Ralph de 

Huish and the Doynels. 75 

Wedon, John de Burdun, Walter de Eudham, and Nicholas Durivall. 
Clearly Kudham and Durivall were successors in title of le Brun 
and Esserugg, bub to which of those persons either of them suc- 
ceeded I have failed to find out. In 1303 Walter de Eudham still 
appears, but the return is complicated by the inclusion of Hawridge, 
held separately, in 1284, for half a fee, by John de Beauchamp but 
now reckoned in with Marsworth. Thus John de Beauchamp, 
Walter de Eodham, Hawisia Durivale, Ralph de Wedone, Robert 
de Herierde, Adam de Tylesworthe, John Conquest, and their 
tenants, are said to hold Marsworth and Hawridge for two fees. 
In 1316 Hawridge is not mentioned, but Marsworth is stated to 
be held by John de Monchansy, Ralph de Wedone, John Peyvre, 
Nicholas de Burdonne and John de Beauchamp. Assuming that 
Beauchamp again represents Hawridge, we have Marsworth once 
more held in four parts, by Monchansy (replacing Eudham), Wedon 
(as before), Peyvre (replacing Durivale), and Burdon (as before). 
That Peyvre did so replace Durivale is proved by a licence (A.Q.D.) 
in 1305 for John Peyvre and Beatrice, his wife, to retain lands in 
Marsworth acquired from Robert, son of Nicholas Druval, of 
Wingfield, with possession expectant on the decease of Hawys, late 
wife of the said Nicholas ; while in the inquisition taken after the 
death of John's son, Paulin Peyvre, in 1323, these lands are de- 
scribed as a manor in Marsworth. It remains to ascertain how 
Monchansy came to replace Rudham, 

On the Fine Roll there is a writ, dated 28 October, 34 Edward I, 
1306, addressed to the escheator, &c, ordering him to take into 
the king's hands the lands late of Walter de Eudham, tenant in 
chief, and a like writ on 26 November following. In execution of 
the last-named writ an inquisition was taken at " Messeworth " on 
Wednesday, the feast of St. Thomas, Apostle (21 December), 35 
Edward [I], 1306, of the lands and tenements of Walter de Eudham, 
deceased, who held of the king in chief, by the oath of Andrew de 
Jarpevill, Henry de la Sale, Thomas de Fraxino, Hugh de 
Messendene, John Kempe, Richard Reynfrey, Peter de Hofynge 
(scilt. Oving, co. Buckingham), Eobert le Golesmyth, William de 
Weng', John le Fevre, Richard de Tane and William le Fevre, 
who say that: — 

'6 Huish and the Doynels, 

Walter de Rudham held in his demesne as of fee a fourth part of the 
manor (quartam partem manerii) of Messeworth with appurtenances 
of the king in chief, as of the Honor of Wallyngford, by service of the 
fourth part of a knight's fee (per servitium quarte partis unius feodi 
militis). There is there a capital messuage worth 20s. yearly. There 
■are there 200a. arable, by the lesser hundred (cc. acre arabilis per minus 
centum scilt. 100 as opposed to 120) each worth 6c?. and the sum is 100s. 
They say that he held the third part of a water mill and it is worth 8s. 
as let (sicut ponitur adfirmam). There are there 2\a. meadow, worth 
18c?. each, the sum 3s. 9c?. There are there 4a. pasture each worth 6d., 
the sum 2s. There is there a rent of free [tenants] by the year 24s. 7c?. 
by equal portions, viz. Christmas, St. Mary in March, Midsummer and 
Michaelmas. There is there a rent of customary [tenants] by the year 
20s. 10c?. at the same terms equally. He held 2a. wood in Drayton 
Beauchamp of the heirs of William de Beauchamp by service of 1 2c?. 
yearly, whereof there is no profit ; he held of Ralph de Wedone 28|a. 
arable and the moiety of a water mill, by service of 3s. 2d. yearly at 
the said terms, and they are worth in all issues 20s. ; the sum 20s. from 
which in payment of rent to Ralph de Wedon 3s. 2d. Item dicunt quod 
Willelmus Bygod nepos predicti Walteri est propinquior heres ipsius 
Walteri et etatis xl. annorum et amplius. In cujus, Sec. The said 
Walter held no other lands in my bailiwick the day he died other than 
those contained in that inquisition. (Inqs. post mortem. Chancery- 
Edward I. File 125 {20)). 

William le Bygod is found by this inquisition to be nepos and 
heir of Walter de Rudham, aged 40 and more. The word nepos, 
exactly like the word " nephew " in English, may signify either 
grandson or nephew in the modern sense. Now it is obvious that 
if William, in this instance were grandson of Walter, Walter must 
have attained a great age, for William is stated to be 40 years old 
and over. Thus it is with some surprise that on turning to the 
Fine Roll again we find : — 

De homagio Willelmi Rex cepit homagium Willelmi Bygod 
Bygod. nepotis et heredis Walteri de Rudham 

defuncti de omnibus terris et tenementis 
que prefatus Walterus [avus interlineated] suus tenuit de rege in 
capite die quo obiit . . . Ex ideo mandatum est ... escaetori . . . 
quod . . . eidem Willelmo de omnibus terris . . . de quibus prefatus 
Walterus avus suus fuit seisitus . . . plenam seisinam habere faciat 
... xv die Februarii [35 Edward I (1306-7) m. 10]. 

Here it is most clearly asserted that William was Walter's 

With much celerity William Bygod disposed of his newly-acquired 

Huish and the Doynels, 77 

property. A writ issued on 12 June, 35 Edward I (1307) that is 
to say, within four months of the writ to put By god in possession, 
directing an enquiry whether it be to the king's loss that Eanulph 
de Monte Caniso (scilt. Montchansy) and Albreda, his wife, retain 
to them and the heirs of Albreda, the manor of Masseworth, held 
of the king in chief, as of the Honor of Wallingford, by service of 
I of a knight's fee, which they had acquired, to them and Albreda's 
heirs, of William le Bigod, without licence. An inquisition was 
taken (A.Q.D. File 68, no. 7) on the Tuesday after St. John the 
Baptist, 35 Edward III (26 June, 1307), when it was found not 
to be to the king's loss, &c. ; that it is worth 8/. 19s. 3d. ; and that 
no lands remain to William le Bigod (after parting with Masse- 

Four years later Eanulph de Monte Caniso died and by an in- 
quisition taken 22 February, 4 Edward II (1310-11), it was 
found that he died seised inter alia of a fourth part of the manor 
of Masseworth, held of the earl of Cornwall, as of the Honor of 
Wallingford, by service of J of a knight's fee and of the wood, land, 
and moiety of a water-mill in Drayton Beauchamp, — of everything 
in fact that Walter de Eudham had owned at his decease, 

A quarter of the manor of Marsworth means presumably of the 
whole vill ; but as the whole vill was apparently held for two 
knights' fees, the service one would suppose for a quarter of it 
ought to be reckoned at half a knight's fee — as Walter de Eudham 
had held it in 1284. On the other hand, if the service is correctly 
stated at a quarter, then it was an eighth of the whole vill of which 
Walter de Eudham actually died seised, although it is described 
as a quarter of the manor, and we are left to suppose that he had 
sold or otherwise got rid of the other eighth, which he had originally 
held, in his lifetime. Some certainty on the point might facilitate 
the understanding of the claim advanced, in 1318, by Peter Doynell, 
! and the answer to that claim made by John de Monte Caniso. 

John de Monte Caniso was the son and heir of Eanulph, aged 

at his father's death in 1311 between 24 and 26 according to the 

: various returns, and it was against him that, apparently in 8 

; Edward II (1314-15) Peter Doynell began his suit for "a moiety 

78 Huish and the Doynels. 

of the manor of Messeworth." The proceedings were possibly 
instituted on a writ of " Cosinage," which is very similar to a writ 
of " Aiel," and may perhaps in this case have been confused with 
it; for in the plea, which follows, we find " predictus Walterus 
avus " in one line and immediately afterwards :— " de ipso Waltero 
quia obiit sine herede," &c. :— 

Bilk.' Petrus Doynel petit versus Johannem de Monte Caniso medie- 
tatem manerii de Messeworth ut jus suum et cujusdam Thome By god 
Et de quo Walterus de Rudham consanguineus predictorum Petri et 
Thome cujus heredes ipsi sunt fuit seisitus in dominico suo ut de feodo 
die quo obiit etc. Et unde idem Petrus dicit quod predictus Walterus 
avus etc. fuit seisitus de predicto manerio in dominico suo ut de feodo 
tempore pacis tempore Edwardi patris domini regis nunc capiendo inde 
explecias ad valentiam etc. Et inde obiit seisitus etc. Et de ipso 
Waltero quia obiit sine herede de se descendit feodum etc. quibusdam 
Oecilie et Katerine ut sororibus et heredibus etc. Et de ipsa Cecilia 
descendit feodum propartis sue cuidam Margarete ut filie et heredi etc. 
Et de ipsa Margareta descendit feodum etc. isti Petro qui nunc petit ut 
filio et heredi etc. Et de predicta Katerina descendit feodum propartis 
sue cuidam Willelmo ut filio et heredi etc. Et de ipso Willelmo 
descendit feodum etc. isti Thome qui nunc non sequitur pro proparte 
sua ut filio et heredi etc. Et inde producit sectam etc. Et sciendum 
vid, aliter A viij. est quod alia medietas predicti manerii excipitur 
eo quod predictus Thomas alias scilicet in crastino Sancti Martini anno 
regni domini regis nunc decimo habuit diem per essonium suum post- 
quam summonitus fuit ad sequendum simul etc. et tunc non proseque- 
batur ita quod tunc consideratum f uit quod predictus Petrus sequeretur 
sine etc. [pro] proparte sua etc. 

Et Johannes per Adam de Brom'attornatum suum venit. Et dicit 
quod ipse non potest predictam medietatem predicti manerii quam 
predictus Petrus petit eidem Petro reddere Quia dicit quod ipse non 
tenet integre manerium illud dicit enim quod quidam Radulphus de 
Wedon tenet de predicto manerio unde etc. quaterviginti acras terre 
octo acras prati decern acras bosci et quinquaginta solidos redditus Et 
quedam Maria de Peyvere tenet de eodem manerio quaterviginti acras 
terre octo acras prati octo acras pasture et quinquaginta solidatas 
redditus Et quidam Nicholaus de Bouedoune et Alicia uxor ejus tenent 
de eodem manerio unum mesuagium quaterviginti acras terre octo acras 
prati decern acras pasture decern acras bosci quinquaginta solidatas 
redditus et medietatem unius molendini et tenuerunt die impetracionis 
brevis etc. Et hoc paratus et verificare etc. unde petit judicium etc. 

Et Petrus dicit quod predictus Johannes die impetracionis brevis sui 
scilicet octavo die Februarii anno regni domini nunc octavo tenuit 
integre predictum manerium cum pertinenciis unde etc. absque hoc quod 
predicti Radulphus Maria Nicholaus et Alicia aliquid inde tenuerunt 
sicut predictus Johannes dicit. Et hoc petit quod inquiratur per 

Huish and the Doynels. 79 

patriam Et predictus Johannes similiter. Ideo preceptum est vice- 
■comiti quod venire faciat hie a die Sancte Trinitatis in xv dies xij etc. 
per quos etc. Et qui nee etc. ad recognoscendum etc. Quia tam etc. 
Postea ad diem ilium venerunt tam predictus Petrus in propria persona 
sua quam predictus Johannes per attornatum suum Et idem Johannes 
dicit quod predictus Petrus nichil juris clamare potest in predicta 
medietate predicti manerii Quia dicit quod postquam ipsi placitaver- 
unt ut patet superius predicta medietate in seisina ipsius Johannis 
existente predictus Petrus per scriptum suum concessit remisit et 
omnino pro se et heredibus suis imperpetuum quietumclamavit ipsi 
Johanni totum jus et clamium quod habuit vel aliquo modo habere 
potuit in predicto manerio cum pertinenciis quod fuit domini Walteri 
de Redham (sic) Clerici Ita quod nee ipse nee heredes sui nee aliquis 
alius nomine illorum aliquod jus vel clamium in predicto manerio cum 
pertinenciis exigere vel vendicare poterit imperpetuum Et profert 
scriptum illud quod hoc testatur etc. Et Petrus bene cognoscit pre- 
dictum scriptum esse factum suum. Ideo consideratum est quod 
misericordia predictus Johannes est inde sine die. Et predictus 

Petrus nichil capiat per breve suum set sit in misericordia pro falso 
clamore etc. 

De Banco Roll (no. 221) Hilary 11 Edward II m. 72 d. 

The gist of John de Monte Caniso's answer, when by Adam de 
Brom (founder of Oriel College), his attorney, he" pleads that 
(practically) equal fractions of the manor are held by Ralph de 
Wedon, Mary de Peyvre and Nicholas Bouedone and that therefore 
'lie cannot render to Peter a moiety of it, is a reference apparently 
<to the original division of the manor (as early as 1235) into four 
equal parts; and indeed we have already seen that in 1316 John 
de Monchansy, Ralph de Wedone, John Peyvre (who died in 
December, 1315, leaving a widow, Mary) and Nicholas de Burdon 
(the same presumably, as Nicholas de Boudonj, were returned as 
its lords. It would seem therefore, that there had been no alien- 
ation by Walter de Rudham of any part of his original fourth. 

The case is to go to a jury by consent, but when the day comes 
John produces a release to him by Peter Doynel of " all his right 
in the manor aforesaid which was of Sir Walter de Rudham clerk," 
and so the case ends — in a payment no doubt in cash by John to 
Peter of unascertainable amount. In other words, there can be 
very little doubt that Peter Doynel's claim by descent was a just 
■one ; that the manor had belonged to his great uncle and his 
father's guardian, Walter de Rudham, one of the king's clerks, who 

80 Huish and the Doynels. 

had married his ward, Peter's father, to his own niece. The 
pedigree stands thus : — 

Walter de Rudham held J of 
Marsworth in 1235. = 


Walter de Rudham, Katherine = . . . Bigod Cecily,dead 1307= 
king's clerk, died dead 1307 

William Bigod, living 1307, Silvester Doinel = Margaret, 

then aged 40 and more, inwardtoWal- 

dead 1315 = ter de Rudham: 

died 1293. 

living in 

I I 

Thomas Bigod, Peter Doinel, 

living 1315. claimant. 

Upon this showing the whole of the proceedings of 1307 were 
essentially fraudulent and William Bigod, the beneficiary, did well 
to convert what he had thus gained into money without delay : 
but, after all, the matter remains extremely obscure. The fraud 
seems nearly impossible of perpetration, the more so if Margaret 
Doinel and her son were owners of land not merely at a distance* 
in Wiltshire, but in the county of Buckingham itself. 

The effect if not the object of the settlement made by Sir Peter 
Doynel in the last year of his life was the disinheriting of his son 
and heir. His wife, at this time, was Agnes, formerly wife of 
Nicholas Burdon, who had died in December, 1300, leaving issue 
by her a son, Nicholas, then aged 11. The wardship of this boy 
was granted to one Walter de Freyne. Her dower consisted of 
land in Broadhinton and the manor of Yatesbury, to which was 
attached the advowson of the church, and the successive institutions 
to this rectory, as printed by Sir Thomas Phillipps, furnish some 
dates of value for the pedigree. In 1304 the king presents as. 
guardian of the heir of Nicholas Burdon, deceased; in 1317 Henry 
de Freynes and Agnes Burdon, his wife; in 1330 Peter Doynel 
and Agnes, his wife. I do not know that the accuracy of Sir 
Thomas Phillipps' work is entirely trustworthy, but if Henry de 

Huish and the Doynels. 81 

Freynes is correct; he was doubtless near of kin to the Walter de 
Freyne to whom the ward of the heir had been granted; nor do I 
know to what family they belonged unless it were those of the 
name at Bupton, The point, however, to be noticed is that the 
widow, Agnes Burdon, contracted another marriage before that 
with Sir Peter, and it is not probable, if in 1317 she was the wife 
of Henry de Freyne, that she was the mother of Sir Peter's children. 
Of these children we hear only of two, viz., Silvester, born 
according to one statement in 1315, and according to another in 
1321, or thereabouts. This particular discrepancy and the general 
vagueness of such returns, where nothing was at stake, leave us 
free to suppose that he was born considerably earlier. His sister 
Anastasia, to whom we next come, had a son, Thomas Blount, of 
marriageable age in 1344, from which we may infer that she could 
not herself have been born much later than 1313. Sir Peter was 
almost certainly born in 1278, and these children of his, if by a 
first wife, would normally have been born to him in or about 1308. 
The settlement of 1344 secured Huish in the first place to Sir 
Peter and Agnes with remainder to Anastasia's son, and seeing 
that Anastasia is not put in remainder at all, it may be presumed 
that she was already dead. 

The first step in the procedure was a deed whereby Sir Peter, 
being seised of it in fee, enfeoffed the rector of Yatesbury and 
others of the manor of Huish. These feoffees granted it back to 
him and his wife, with remainders over. There was then an in- 
quisition taken upon a writ of Ad quod damnum and finally the 
king's confirmation by Letters Patent of the grant with the re- 
mainders over : — 

Writ to John Mauduit, escheator, co. Wilts. Peter Doynel and 
Agnes his wife have made petition (supplicaruni) to us that, whereas 
the said Peter lately enfeoffed Patrick (Patricium) parson of the 
church of Yatesbury, John de la Roche and John Whetlaye, vicar of 
the church of Yatesbury, of his manor of Hywysh which is held of the 
king in chief, as it is said, to hold to them and their heirs of the king 
and his heirs by the services due and the said Patrick, John and John, 
seisin thereof had, afterwards granted the said manor to the said Peter 
and Agnes (with remainder as in the Patent of 18 Edw. Ill) the king's 
licence therefore {super hits) not obtained, the king would be pleased 

82 Huish and the Doynels. 

(velimus) to pardon the transgression and to grant that they might hold 
it (as above), the king wishes to be certified if he can assent to this 
petition without loss (dampno) and directs enquiry whether it be to 
the king's loss or of others ; whether the manor be held of the king in 
chief, or of others, and how ; its yearly value ; whether the said Peter 
hold lands or tenements elsewhere of the king in chief (or no) what 
and where or of whom ; and if any lands &c. remain to him beside the 
said manor, what and where and of whom held, of the king or others, 
&c. and their value. 

Westminster, 8 October, 18 Edward [III.] 
Memorandum of execution endorsed. (8 October, 1344). 

Inquisition taken before John Mauduyt, escheator, co. Wilts, at 
Stawelle, Monday, the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist, 18 Edward III 
(18 October, 1344) by virtue of writ annexed, by the oath of Thomas 

Blanchard It is not to the king's Loss (&c. as above). 

The said manor is held of the king in chief by service of xiij. s. iiij. d. 
yearly for all service to be paid by the hands of the sheriff ; it is worth 
100s. yearly in all issues. No lands or tenements remain to the said 
Peter beyond the said manor. 

Inq 3 . ad quod dampnun (A.Q.D.). File 271 (1). 
• Whereas Peter Doygnel and Agnes, his wife, enfeoffed Patrick, par- 
son of the church of Yatesbury, John de la Roche and John Whetelaye, 
vicar of the church of Yatesbury, of the manor of Hiwissh, held in chief 
and they re-granted the same to them for life, with successive re- 
mainders to Thomas, son of Thomas le Blount and Margaret, daughter 
of the said John de la Roche, in tail, to Peter, brother of the said 
Thomas, son of Thomas, in tail, to Nicholas de Cotteleye in tail mail, 
and to the right heirs of Peter Doygnel ; and whereas the said Patrick, 
John and John and afterwards Peter and Agnes entered, by virtue of 
the said feoffment and grant, upon the manor without licence, the 
king has pardoned the trespasses herein and granted that Peter and 
Agnes shall retain the manor for life with remainders as above. 20 
October, 18 Edward III, 1344, By fine of 101. Wilts. 

Patent Roll Calendar under date, p. 517. 
It may be noticed that it is John de Roches who is feoffee, it is 
John de Roches' daughter, Margaret, married to young Thomas 
Blount, who benefits, and the inquisition taken after Sir Peter 
Doynel's death, a few weeks' later, is taken before John de Roches, 
escheator. 1 In this inquisition it is again asserted that the manor 
1 On the Fine Roll, under date 10 Feb., 19 Edw. Ill (1344-5), there is a 
commission to Robert de Hungerford which recites that John de Roches, 
sheriff and escheator, co. Wilts, had entered, by colour of his office, upon a 
great part of the lands late of Peter Doynell, tenant in chief, the wardship 
whereof belongs to the king, in order to oust the king from such wardship, 
and holds the same to his own use, refusing to take and return the in- 
quisitions he was ordered to take, and appoints Hungerford to take the 
lands into the king's hands, &c. Roches' action it is clear had given ground 
for scandal. 

Huish and the Doyncls. 83 

of Huish is held of the king in chief by service of 1 mark. It is 

also stated that Sir Peter held no lands other than Huish. He 

was, however, seised of the reversion of land in Wanborough, as 

will appear later on : — 

Writ. Wilts Peter Doynel, chivaler. diem clausit. 4 February 19 
Edward III (4 February, 1344-5.) 

Inquisition taken before John de Roches, escheator, at Upavene, 
Friday after St. Agatha, 19 Edward III (11 February, 1344-5), by the 
oath of John Skillyng, &c. 

He gave his manor of Hiwish, held of king in chief, to Sir Patrick, 
parson of the church of Yatesbury, John de la Roche and Sir John de 
Whetlaye, vicar of the church of Yatesbury, and their heirs for ever, 
by virtue of which gift they were over a long time seised of the said 
manor, and afterwards, full and peaceful seisin thereof having been 
had, they gave the said manor to the said Peter Doynel and Agnes his 
wife, to hold of the king by the services due and accustomed for their 
lives, with remainder to Thomas son of Thomas le Blount and Margaret 
daughter of the said John de la Roche and the heirs of the bodies of 
the said Thomas son of Thomas and Margaret issuing, to hold of the 
king by the services therefore due and accustomed, with remainder in 
default to Peter brother of Thomas son of Thomas le Blount, and the 
heirs of his body issuing, to hold, <fcc, with remainder in default to 
Nicholas de Cottelegh and the heirs male of his body issuing, to hold, 
Ac, with remainder in default of such male issue to the right heirs 
of Peter, to hold, &c. 

And so the said Peter together with the said Agnes was seised of 
the manor aforesaid by the form of the gift aforesaid. 

He held no other lands or any other tenements of the king the day 
he died except only the said manor of Hiwish, which is worth 100s. in 
all issues. 

One Silvester Doynel son of the said Peter Doynel is next heir of 
the said Peter, who is aged 30 and more. The said manor is held of the 
king in chief by service of 13s. 4d. yearly, for all service. 

He died Tuesday before the Purification in the year abovesaid (1 
February, 1344-5). 

Inq. p. m. Chancery, Edward III, File 76, no. 29 ; [old reference 19 
Edward III, 1st. nrs., no. 37. ] 

To John de la Roche, escheator in co. Wilts. Order to take the 
fealty of Agnes late the wife of Peter Doynel, knight, and not to inter- 
meddle further with the manor of Hiwissh, restoring the issues thereof 
to her, as the king has learned by inquisition taken by the escheator 
that Peter long before his death gave that manor to Patrick, parson of 
Yatesbury church, John de la Roche and John de Whetlay, vicar of 
Yatesbury church, by virtue of which gift Patrick, John and John were 
seised thereof for a great while, and afterwards they gave the manor 
to Peter and Agnes his wife to hold for life with remainder to Thomas 
son of Thomas le Blount and Margaret daughter of the said John de 

G 2 

84 Huish and the Doynels, 

la Roche and the heirs of their bodies, and that the manor is held in 
chief by the service of 13s. 4d. yearly, and the king by letters patent, 
has pardoned the trespasses made in this respect and has granted that 
Peter and Agnes shall hold the manor for life in the form aforesaid. 
22 April, 19 Edward III, 1345. 

Close Roll Calendar under date, p. 517. 

Lady Doynel did nob long survive her husband. On her death 

Yatesbury reverted to the Burdons and Huish devolved in the 

terms of the settlement. In the short interval Thomas Blount 

and Margaret, his wife, if indeed they had been more than affianced , 

had already died, and the succession opened to Peter : — 

Writ. Wilts, diem clausit. Agnes who was the wife of Peter 
Doygnel, knight, 3 June, 23 Edward III (3 June, 1349). 

Inquisition before Eobert Russel, escheator, at Devises, 25 June, 23 
Edward III (25 June, 1349). 

Agnes who was the wife of Peter Doygnel, knight, held the manor 
of Hywissh for the term of her life jointly enfeoffed with Peter Doygnel 
formerly her husband by the gift and feoffment of John de la Roche 
and John Whetelaye, vicar of the church of Yatesbury, as in the king's 
charter {sic) thereof made is more fully contained, so that after the 
death of the said Peter and Agnes the said manor should remain to 
Thomas son of Thomas le Blount and Margaret daughter of the said 
John de la Roche and to the heirs of their bodies, with remainder in 
default to Peter brother of the said Thomas son of Thomas and the 
heirs of his body issuing, with remainder in default to Nicholas de 
Cotteleye and the heirs male of his body, with remainder in default to 
the right heirs of Peter Doygnel. 

The said manor is held of the king in chief by service of petty ser- 
jeanty, viz. 13s. 4c?. yearly, worth 101. 

She held the day she died the manor of Yatesbury and also a mess- 
uage and a carucate of land in "la Lyteletoune" and Brodehenton, by 
by name of dower of the inheritance of Nicholas Bordoun by the 
assignment of the same Nicholas. 

The aforesaid manor of Yatesbury is held in chief of the lord Edward, 
prince of Wales, as of the manor of Trowbrigge, which is parcel of the 
earldom of Salisbury, by knight-service. 

The said messuage and land in " la Lyteletoune " and Brodehenton 
are held of John de Cobeham in chief by service of 4s. yearly, for all 

The said manor of Yatesbury is worth 13£. 6s. 8d. and the said 
messuage and land in " la Lyteletoune " and Brodehenton, are worth 40s. 

The said Agnes died 6 May in the year abovesaid (6 May, 1349). 

The said Thomas son of Thomas & Margaret daughter of John de la 
Roche died in her lifetime and the said Peter brother of the said 
Thomas son of Thomas is still surviving and is aged 8 years ; and so 
by the form of the gift the said manor of Hywyssh ought to remain to 
the said Peter son of Thomas. -, . 

Huish and the Doynels. 85 

The said Nicholas Bordoun son of the said Agnes is [her] next heir 
of blood (heres propinquior de sanguine) and is aged 40. 

C.Edward III. File 104 (19) ; old reference, 
23 Edward III. p. 2. 1 st nrs. no. 161). 

To Robert Russell, escheator in co. Wilts. Order to take the fealty 
of Peter brother of Thomas son of Thomas ]e Blount, according to the 
form of a schedule enclosed with these presents, and to deliver to him 
the manor of Hywyssh, and not to intermeddle further with the manor 
of Yatesbury or with a messuage and carucate of land in Lyteletoune 
and Brodehenton, restoring the issues of the latter tenements, as the 
king has learned by inquisition taken by the escheator that Agnes late 
the wife of Peter Doynel, knight, held no lands at her death in chief or 
of any other in that county, in her demesne as of fee or in service, but 
that she was enfeoffed of the manor of Hywyssh for life jointly with 
Peter, of the gift and f eoffment of Patrick, parson of Yatesbury church, 
John de la Roche and John Wetelaye, vicar of Yatesbury church, with 
remainder, after their death, to Thomas, son of Thomas le Blount and 
Margaret daughter of the said John de la Roche and the heirs of their 
bodies, or in default to Peter brother of Thomas and the heirs of his 
body, and that Agnes held the manor of Yatesbury and the messuage 
and land aforesaid, in the name of dower, of the inheritance of Nicholas 
Bordoun, and that the manor of Hywyssh is held in chief by the ser- 
vice of a petty serjeanty, to wit 13s. 4c?. yearly and the manor of Yates- 
bury, the messuage and land are held of others than the king, by divers 
services and that Thomas and Margaret died during Agnes' life, with- 
out an heir of their bodies, and that Peter brother of Thomas survives. 
3 July, 23 Edward III, 1349. 

Close Roll Calendar, under date, pp. 43-44- 

Apparently there is no doubt that Peter's age is found to be 
eight years in the inquisition after Lady Doynel's death, but it is 
not credible, as far as I am informed, that a writ such as the above 
should have been issued to take his fealty, &c, if he were under 
age, an uncertainty particularly unfortunate, for the purposes of 
the pedigree. He died young in any case, and as it would seem 
unmarried : — 

Writ. Wilts. Peter son of Thomas Blount, diem clausit. 24 
April, 35 Edward III (24 April, 1361). 

Inq. at Marleburgh 29 July, 35 Edw. Ill (29 July, 1361) before John 
Estbury, escheator by the oath of . . '' . Thos. Heighweye . . . 
He held in fee the day he died the manor of Hiwyssh with advowson of 
church of same of king in chief by great serjeanty. In which manor is 
a capital messuage . . . He held in fee the day he died a messuage 
and two carucates of land in Erdescote and Wambergh of the earl of 
Hereford by knight-service. There is there a messuage . . . The 
said manor, land &c. ought to remain to John de Cotteleye son and 

86 Huish and the Doynels. 

heir of Nicholas de Cotteleye by virtue of a gift and grant which Peter 
Doignel with the king's licence made to Patrick ... of the said 
manor and advowson and of the reversion of the messuage & Erdescot 
and Wambergh which John Goudhyne held for the term of his life by 
Peter's demise with reversion after John Goudhyne's death to Peter, 
his heirs and assigns. John Goudhyne attorned to Patrick . , . 
and the said Patrick . . . being seised gave said manor, advowson 
and reversion to Peter and Agnes his wife, for life, to whom John 
Goudhyne attorned, with remainder to Thomas son of Thomas le Blount 
and Margaret daughter of the said John de la Roche, and the heirs of 
their bodies, remainder to Peter brother of Thomas son of Thomas and 
heirs of body, remainder to Nicholas de Cotteleye and heirs male of 
body, remainder to right heirs of Peter. The said manor &c. now ought 
to remain to John son and heir of said Nicholas de Cotteleye, because 
Peter and Agnes, and said John Goudhyne died and said Thomas and 
Margaret died without heir of their bodies and said Peter brother of 
Thomas died without heir of his body and Nicholas father of John, 
whose heir he is, died. 

The said Peter died Tuesday before the Annunciation last (23 March „ 

Silvester Doynel brother of Anastas' mother of Peter, uncle of said 
Peter, aged 40 and more, is his next heir, but the said manor &c. ought 
not to descend to Silvester, his uncle <fe heir, but to the said John 
Cotteleye son and heir of Nicholas, aged 30 and more by virtue of the 

G. I.P.M. Edward III, File 156 (13) ; old reference 
35 Edw. lllpt. 1, no. 14). 

In this inquisition — of which a fuller abstract will be found in 
the volume of inquisitions after death, and other such inquisitions, 
issued to members of the society, — rather marred to my thinking 
by such phrases as " contingent remainders," and so on — the service 
by which Huish was held becomes grand serjeanty after, for the 
first time, figuring in its predecessor as petty serjeanty nominatim. 
We are also introduced to the land at Erdescote, which I suppose 
to be Earlscourt, in Wanborough (now in Little Hinton), and we 
are allowed to know that the Blount boys were sons of Anastacia 
Doynel. It is quite possible that Erdescote itself was the remnant 
of a more considerable Doynel estate in the Swindon neighbour- 
hood, at any rate the manor mentioned in the following note needs 
explanation : — 

It was found by inquisition, 8 May, 16 Richard II (1393), after the 
death of William Worfton, that he was seised inter alia of : — 

The manor of Medebourne Doynel and Medebourne Stokke in 

Huish and the Doynels. 87 

Ludynton, held of the abbess of Shaftesbury, service unknown, 
worth IQl. 

A carucate of land in Wamberg, held of the prior of Lewes, service 
unknown, worth 100s. 

(The parishes of Wanborough and Liddington are 
contiguous to each other.) 

Of the connexion that, it is to be presumed, existed in blood be- 
tween Sir Peter Doynel and Nicholas de Cotteleye, the remainder- 
man,! have failed to find the proof, or indeed anything about him, his 
predecessors, or descendants, 1 save the two documents which John 
de Cotteleye caused to be enrolled on the dorse of the Close Roll, 
in 1361, shortly after the taking of the inquisition whereby he was 
found heir to Huish and Erdescote : — - 

Writing of John de Cotteleye son and heir of Nicholas de Cotteleye 
giving with warranty to Richard Okie and John de Bodyngton, clerks, 
James de Lacy and Eustace de Wynfryngham, their heirs and assigns, 
a yearly rent of 20Z. to be taken at Easter and Michaelmas by even 
portions from his manor of Hywyssh and all his lands in Ore and 
Shawe, co. Wilts, with power of distraint if in arrear. Witnesses, 
Gilbert Berewyk, Robert Blake, William Worftyn, John Perham, 
Robert le Palmere. Dated at Brodeton, co. Wilts, Thursday after St • 
Denis, 35 Edward III (Thursday, 14 October, 1361). 

Memorandum of acknowledgment in Chancery, 29 October. 

Charter of John de Cotteleye son and heir of Nicholas de Cotteleye 
giving, with warranty, to the same, their heirs and assigns, all his land , 
&c, in Erdescote and Wamberg. Witnesses as above. Dated at 
Erdescote, Wednesday, after St. Denis, 35 Edward III. 
Memorandum, as above. 

Close Roll Calendar under date, p. 286. 

The second of these two documents, which relates to Erdescote, 

is dated there, but whether there is any fair inference to be drawn 

from the fact that the parallel one is not dated at Huish may be 

doubtful. The second document, however, is a feoffment — so I 

presume from the abstract — which implies the ability to give seisin, 

while the right exercised in the case of Huish is merely the grant 

of a rent-charge. On the whole therefore it seems to be quite 

possible that the difference between the two grants was motived 

1 There was an ancient family Cotteleye of Cotteleye, co. Dorset, tenants 
of the bishop of Salisbury, of whom a Nicholas de Cotteleye occurs in 1285, 
and 1342,John de Cotteleye in 1346,and in 1428 the heirs of John de Cotteleye. 

88 Huish and the Doynels. 

by necessity — that John of Cotteleye could go to Erdiscote, but 
found Huish difficult of access. The immediate enrolment of both 
documents, for better preservation of testimony, is also not without 
weight; they were important as evidence of a right, or claim. 

There is one very good reason for supposing that, from the 
moment of Peter Blount's death the title to Huish lapsed into 
uncertainty. In 1309 and 1336 Peter Doynel presented to the 
church there ; in 1347 and 1349 Agnes Burdon, relict of Sir Peter 
Doignel. In 1362, that is to say in the year after Peter Blount's 
death, the living was vacant, and then, and again in 1392, the 
bishop presented, on a lapse, that is to say, the true and undoubted 
patron could not be found. Here we have thirty years of a doubtful 
title, which as a matter of fact extended themselves, with intervals 
of quiet possession, to a full period of one hundred and fifty years, 
before Huish merged peacefully into the possessions of its most 
powerful neighbour (Seymour) whose claim was persistently asserted, 
though his title, as I am inclined to believe, was not to be preferred. 
There is as a matter of fact no recorded presentation between 1349 
and 1362,and it is quite possible that Peter Blount, who if the findings 
are correct was in minority during the whole period of his supposed 
tenure, was never effectively in possession ; for the fact of possession 
is not proved by the statements, however definite, of these in- 
quisitions. More than once in the documents remaining to be 
cited we shall come on the expression that " he was seised by 
protestation," that, in other words, a claim was put in that was 
not effectual. It is therefore perfectly possible that, from the 
moment of the death of Lady Doynel, the property was in dispute, 
in which case yet another eleven or twelve years are to be added 
to the period of the interregnum. 

There appears, so far as I can judge, to have been two sets of 
claimants, that is to say, that two titles were set up. Both titles 
must have been derived from Sir Peter Doynel, but how derived 
the evidence, so far, is insufficient to show, and we can only fall 
back on the supposition that the one originated in the heir-at-law, 
the disinherited son and heir of Sir Peter, and the other in the heir 
of entail, John de Cotteley, but it should be clearly understood 

Huish and the Doynels. 89 

that this is merely a guess. Nor is there evidence, though the 
transmission of each claim can be indicated, from which source the 
supposed titles respectively originated. 1 

Just twenty years after Peter Blount's death we find what 
purports to be a sale by one John de Gorton and Maud, his wife, 
of the manor of Huish to John de Eoches and Willelma, his wife :— 

Richard, &c. to Thomas Uleston, escheator, co. Wilts. John de 
Roches, knight, and Wilelma his wife have petitioned that whereas they 
have acquired, to them and the heirs male of the body of John, the 
manor of Hywyssh from John de Garton and Maud, his wife, who held 
it of the king in chief, as is said, to hold, &c. so that if John de Roches 
die without heir male of his body then after his and Willelma's death 
the manor may remain to Gilbert Roches and Alice, his wife, and the 
heirs male of Gilbert's body and if Gilbert die without heir male of his 
body may remain after his and Alice's death to the right heirs of John 
de Roches to hold <fcc. which John and Willelma entered without the 
king's licence, the king would be pleased to pardon the transgression : 
the king wishing to be certified, &c. 26 April, 4 Richard II. (26 April, 

Inquisition at Hy wissh, co Wilts, before Thomas de Illeston escheator 
Tuesday after St. John before the Latin Gate [year omitted] (Tuesday, 
7th May, [1381]). It is not to the king's hurt that John and Willelma 
have acquired the manor of Hywysch of John de Garton and Maud in 
the form contained in the writ annexed . . . the said manor is 
held of the king in chief by service of a rose at Midsummer and doing 
fealty to the king for all service ; it is worth 6 marks ; John de Garton 
and Maud hold the manor of Erdescote in the same county of the king 
over and above the manor aforesaid which is worth 100s. by knight 
service, and of others than the king they hold no lands or tenements in 
the same county. 

A.Q.D. File 397 (4) ; old reference, Inq. p. m. 4 Richard II. no 72. 

So far as the dates are concerned it is permissible to see in Maud 
de Garton a daughter and heir of John de Cotteleye, who brought 
the legal estate in Huish in marriage to her husband, John de 
Garton, and joined with him in conveying it to Roches : but this 

1 It will doubtless have been observed that in the Letters Patent, inq. 
ad quod damnum, cited above, <fcc, which governed the descent of the 
manor of Huish, no mention whatever is made of the advowson, or 
of the reversion in Erdescote. and it is difficult to understand what claim 
Peter Blount, or John de Cotteleye, could have made out under this settle- 
ment to either ; the terms however of the inquisition taken after the death 
of the former (Peter Blount) appear to preclude the notion that some 
parallel but distinct conveyance of them was alleged. 

90 Huish and the Doynels, 

is purely conjectural. It is clear, from the remand above, that, 
whoever they were, John and Maud claimed the entire Doynel 
inheritance, both in Huish and Erdescote. Nevertheless, claim or 
sale notwithstanding, in 1392 the Bishop presented, — best of tests 
of the ineffectiveness of both. On 30 September, 1400, John de 
Eoches died. The very next year the representative, as I take it, 
of the counterclaim appears, in the person of John Lovel, lord de 
Lovel, who actually presents in 1401. By the same description 
he presents in 1402, and by the description of John Lovel, lord 
Lovel and Holland, in 1404 and 1405. In 1408 he died and we 
get the following very interesting findings of a jury : — 

Inquisition Saturday after St. Matthew, 9 Henry IV. (Saturday, 22 
September, 1408). 

John Lovell, chivaler . . . died seised in fee of the reversion of 
the manor of Erdescote and the reversion of 100s. rent in Hynesete and 
Tymerygge which Richard Holte holds for the term of his life . . . 
the said manor of Erdescote is held of the heirs of Robert Houlond as 
of the manor of Wambergh by service . . . 

He died seised in fee of the manor of Hy wysh with the advowson of 
the church of Hywysh, held of the king . . . the manor worth 
nothing beyond reprises and a yearly rent of 20£. to one Thomas Lovell 
and his heirs for ever at the terms of St. Mary and St. Michael . . . 

He died 10 Sept. last (1408). John his son & heir set. 30 & more. 

Inq. p. m. Heury IV. File 66; old reference, Inq. p.m. 9 Henry IV. 
no. 29. 

This looks like effective possession of the Doynell inheritance; 
— the church presented to, Erdescote leased, Huish charged, The 
rival claim, however, was only dormant, and when, by death, so 
powerful an adversary had been removed, the heirs of Roches 
moved. On the occasion of their ancestor's decease, in 1400, 
nothing had been said about his ownership of Huish. This omission 
was now remedied, a writ of Que phcra (or a writ to enquire as to 
what further lands a given person deceased had held, as yet un- 
declared) was procured, upon which the following inquisition was 
taken : — 

Writ of que plura, Wilts, 12 July, 1 2 Henry IV (12 July, 1411). John 
de Roches, chivaler. Inquisition at Dyvyses, co. Wilts, Monday after 
St. Denis, 13 Henry IV (Monday, 12 October, 1411), before Robert 
Andrewe, escheator, by oath of William Walrond ... John de 
Roches, chivaler, named in writ, held the day he died in fee the manor 

Hmsh and the Boy nets. 91 

of Hewysshe with the advowson of the church of the same town of the 
king in chief by knight service. There are there a messuage with 
dovecot worth 13s. 4c?. yearly ; a certain (certus) rent of assize worth 
63s. Ad. ; 2 carucates of arable worth 16s. ; 12a. meadow worth 24s. ; 
pasture for 200 sheep in several and common, worth 40c?. ; 100a. wood, 
worth 13s. 4d. ; which constitute (quefaciunt) the manor aforesaid. 

He also held the day he died in fee a messuage and two carucates of 
land in Erdescote and Wamborgh in said county, of whom held the 
jurors know not ; over and above those lands and tenements which are 
specified in an inquisition taken after the death of the said John de 
Roches and returned into the Chancery ; the said messuage and two 
carucates of land are worth 40s. 

The said John de Roches died 30 September 2 Henry IV (30 Sep- 
tember, 1400). Elizabeth wife of Walter Beauchamp is daughter of 
the said John de Roches and one of his heirs and is aged 25 and more ; 
and John Benton is his cousin and other heir, viz., son of Joan, sister 
of the said Elizabeth the other of the daughters and heirs of the said 
John de Roches and is aged 5 and more. 

Inq. p. m. Chancery. 1st Series. Henry IV. File 85 ; 
old reference, Inq. p.m. 13 Henry IV. (19). 

From this point the fortunes of Erdescob and Huish are severed. 
There can, I think, be no doubt bhab the Lovels retained and 
transmitted the lands in Erdescob, henceforward invariably de- 
scribed as the manor of Erdescob, wibhoub leb or hindrance from 
any rival claimant, and, seeing that bheir titles to Erdescot and 

\ Huish musb have been idenbical bhe facb of bheir rebaining Erdescob 
undisturbed certainly points to that bible having been, in the first 

■ instance, sufficienbly sound. This is banbamounb bo saying that 
their title must in some way have been derived from Nicholas de 
Cotteley and his son John, and leaves us to seek some other 
parentage for Maud de Gar ton. 

The evidence that Erdescot, so descended, is as follows, John, 
lord Lovell, as we have seen, died seised of bhe reversion of it, 
expectant apparently on the deabh of Richard Holbe ( — possibly 
ib was bhe renb only and nob bhe manor which Richard Holbe held 
— ) on 20 Sepbember, 1408, leaving John, his son and heir, aged 
30 and more. This John, ib is bo be presumed, made ib over to his 
mother, who is said subsequently to be seised of ib in fee ; for by 
an inquisibion (C. Henry V.File 8 ; old reference Inq. p.m. % Henry 
V. no. 30) baken Thursday in Easber week, 3 Henry V (4 April, 
1415), ib is found bhab: — 

92 Huish and the Doynels. 

John Lovell, chivaler, . . . held the day he died in fee the 
reversion of the manor of Erdescote, which Maud, late the wife of 
John Lovell, chivaler, his father, holds for the term of her life, which 
manor is held of the said Maud, as of her manor of Wanborgh, by 
knight-service ; it is worth 10 marks ... He died on the feast of 
St. Luke, the Evangelist, last (18 October, 1414). William, his son and 
heir, is aged IV and more. 

It appears accordingly in the inquisition, taken at Aldebourne, 
co. Wilts (C. Henry VI File 6 ; old reference, Inq. p.m. 1 Henry 
VI. no. 51), Monday before St. Barnabas, the Apostle, 1 Henry 
VI (Monday, 7 June, 1423), after the death of Maud(Lady Holand), 
late the wife of John Lovell, chivaler : — 

She held in fee the day she died, . . . and the manors of 
Briddeserd and Erdescote ... In the said manor of Erdescote 
are a hall, two chambers, a grange, a stable with a sheep-pen (bercaria), 
worth nothing beyond reprises ; a close worth 2s. yearly ; 82a. arable, 
worth 3c?. each ; 12a. meadow, worth 12<i. each ; a parcel of pasture, 
worth 2s. ; a cottage with garden, 2r. arable, la. meadow, held at will, 
worth 2s. yearly ; of rent of assise of free tenants there, 5s. 6%d. due at 
Michaelmas. The manor of Erdescote is held of Thomas Chaucer and 
others, as of the manor of Wambergh, service unknown. She died 
Friday, the seventh day of May last (1423). William Lovell, chivaler, 
is her cousin and heir, viz., son of John Lovell, chivaler, deceased, her 
son. He is aged 24 and more. 

William, Lord Lovell, by whichever title, from father or grand- 
mother, was undoubted heir. By inquisition (C. Henry VI File 
158, m. 18), 23 September, 34 Henry VI (1455), it was found 
that: — 

William Lovell, knight, died seised in fee, jointly with Alice his 
wife, who survives . . . Long before his decease he was seised in fee 
of the manors of Elcombe, Blakgrove, Mighenden, Wiglescote, Sal thorp, 
Whitehill, Qffecote, Erdescote, and Knoke . . . and gave the same 
inter alia to Henry, archbishop of Canterbury, William Tirwhit, knight, 
and other, to hold to them, their heirs and assigns for ever . . . The 
said manor of Erdescote is held of the king, as of the duchy of Lancaster, 
by service of — of a knight's fee . . . He died 13 June last (1455). 

John Lovell, knight, is his son and heir. 

In an inquisition (Feudal Aids), taken at Marlborough, Saturday, 
19 June, 1428, for the Hundred of Blakgrove, it is found— and the 
reference is to the William, Lord Lovell, abovementioned : — 

Huish and the Doynels. 93 

Willelmus, dominus de Lovell, tenet inmediate de ducatu Lancastrie, 
certa terras et tenementa in Wamburgh, que nuper fuerunt Thome de 
Howlond, per servicium unius feodi militis. 

Idem dominus de Lovell tenet immediate, de quo vel de quibus 
ignorant, certa terras et tenementa in Herdescote, que nuper fuerunt 
Willelmi atte Welde, per servicium quarte partis unius feodi militis. 

No returns are extant, for Wiltshire, for the Aid to which the 
findings of 1428 refer back, but if, as is most probable, the date of 
this Aid was 1346, it is not easy to fit the William atte Welde, 
abovementioned, into our account of Erdescote. 

On the death of William, Lord Lovell, in 1455, Erdescote passed 

inter alia under his will to his younger son, as appears by the 

following Bill in Chancery : — 

To the right honurable fader in god the Bisshop 
of Bathe Chauncellor of England [1467-1472]. 
Besechen in ful humble wise William Lovell Lord Morley, and 
Herry Lovell squyer brother to the same William that where John late 
Lord Lovell enfeoffed John Greyby squyer John Crofton Edmond 
Thorn and William Braunston in and of the manoirs of Erdescote Berley 
Estwykham and Rotherhithe with thapertenaunces with other diverses 
maners landes tenementes rentes services and reversions in the shires 
of Wilteshir Hertford Kent Surreye Oxonford Berk' Buk' Stafford 
Salop and Wircestre of truste to thentent that the same feffees at 
suche tyme as they shold be required by the seid suppliantz shold 
enfeffe theym in and of the same manoirs landes tenements rentz and 
reversions accordyng to the fourme and effecte of the laste will of 
of William late Lord Lovell fader as well of the seid John late Lord 
Lovell as of the seide suppliantz. And albe hit soo that the same 
suppliauntz have ofte tymes required the seid William Braunston to 
make astate with his seid cof effees beyng at all tymes thereto redy and 
welwilled, of the maners landes tenementz rentz and reversions aboue 
saide accordyng to the seide entent and laste will, yet the same 
William Braunston that to do hathe at alle tymes refused and yet 
refuseth ayenst feith and conscience to the gret hirt of your seid 
suppliantz whereof they may have no remedye by the commune lawe. 
Plese hit your graciouse lordship to considre the premisses and theruppon 
to graunte a writte to be directed unto the seid William Braunston 
chargynge hym upon a certein peine to be lymyted by your lordship to 
apere afore the king in his chauncerye the viiij of August nextcomyng 
ther to be examyned of and upon the premisses And to do and receyve 
theryn such as shall be demed and ruled there after feithe andiconscience. 

Thomas Waldyeve de London 
plegii de prosequendo gentilman et 

Thomas Aleyn de . . . 
Early Chancery Proceedings Bd. 38 (248). 


Huish and the Doynels. 

The pedigree stands thus : — 

John, lord Lovell, 


John, lord Lovell, = 
aged 30, 1408; died 
18 Oct.,1414. 

Maud, lady Holand, 
died 7 May, 1423. 

William, lord Lovell,= 
aged 17, 1414, aged 
24, 1423 ; died 

1. John, lord Lovell,: 
died 9 Jan., 

2. William Lovell, lord Morley: 
died 26 July, 1476. 

3. Henry 

Francis, viscount 
Lovell, attainted 

Henry, lord 
aged 10, 1477. 
" Slain at 
in Flanders, 
1488-89." S.F. 

Alice, lady 


The inquisition which proves that Erdescote actually came into 
the possession of the second son was taken 20 March, 17 Edward 
IV (1476-77) :— 

William Lovell, lord de Morley, knight, died seised in fee of the 
manors of Brydeswurth, Ubbedon Lovell and Erdescote, co. Wilts, in 
fee. He died the morrow of St. James, 16 Edward IV. (26 July, 1476) 
. . . The manor of Erdescote is worth yearly \Ql. Henry Lovell, his 
son and heir is age 10 and more. Tenures of the said manors unknown. 

(C. Edward IV. File 59, m. 6.) 

To return to Huish, we learn from the inquisition taken on the 
writ of Que Plura that the senior coheir of Roches was Elizabeth, 
wife of Walter Beauchamp; the next name that we find connected 
with Huish is that of Sturmey, and we have the definite statement, 
made many years later by his descendant, that Sturmy acquired 
Huish by purchase from Walter Beauchamp. 1 To all appearance 

1 I have since met with the fine between Beauchamp and Sturmy, as 
follows : — Hec est finalis concordia facta ... a die Sancti Michaelis 

Huish and the Doynels. 95 

this was a case of actual possession. Sir Walter Sturmy presented 
in 1414 and 1421, and enfeoffed the bishops of Bath and Worcester 
and others of the manor, as is recited in the inquisition, taken after 
his death in 1427 :— 

Inq. at Marleburgh Wednesday before the Holy Trinity, 5 Henry VI 
(11 June, 1427). 

. . . The same William Sturmy was seised in fee of the manors 
of Wolfhale . . . Hywysch . . . 

And the said manor of Hy wyssh the same William Sturmy long 
before the day of his death gave to lord John Stafford, bishop of Bath, 
lord Thomas Polton, bishop of Worcester, Hugh Luterell knt. Richard 
Sotewell and Robert Torney who were and still are seised thereof ac- 
cordingly . . . 

Manor of Hywysh held of king in chief by service of 13s. 4c?. worth 
100s. . . . 

He died Sunday before the Annunciation last (23 March, 1426-7). 
Agnes wife of John Holcombe his daughter and heir and John Seymour 
his kinsman & heir viz. son of Maud his daughter, set. 40 and more and 
26 and more. 

I.P.M. Henry 6. File 26 {1). 

Even with all this cumulative evidence of possession it is quite 

doubtful to what it amounted. In the very next year, 1428, the 

living became vacant and Thomas, bishop of Worcester, John, 

bishop of Bath, Eichard Sotuell and Robert Torney, feoffees of the 

\ manor of Huish, presented John Brompton, but the presentation 

in tres septimanas anno regnorum Henrici filii regis Henrici regis Anglie et 
Francie primo (October, 1413) . . . inter Willelmum Esturmy militem 
querentem et Walterum Beauchamp armigerum et Elizabeth' uxorem ejus 
def orciantes de manerio de Huyssh cum pertinenciis et de tribus messuagiis 
duabus carucatis terre viginti acris prati quadraginta acris pasture centum 
et quadraginta acris bosci et viginti solidatis redditus cum pertinenciis in 
Huwyssh Ore et Shawe ac de advocacione ecclesie manerii de Huwyssh 
unde placitum convencionis summonitum fuit inter eos in eadem curia 
scilicet quod predicti Walterus et Elizabeth' recognoverunt predicta ma- 
nerium et tenementa cum pertinenciis et advocacionem predictam esse jus 
ipsiusWillelmi Et ilia remiserunt et quietaclamaverunt de ipsis Waltero et 
Elizabeth' et heredibus ipsus Elizabeth' predicto Willelmo et heredibus suis 
imperpetuum Et preterea iidem Walterus et Elizabeth' concesserunt pro 
se et heredibus ipsius Elizabeth' quod ipsi warantizabunt predicto Willelmo 
et heredibus suis predicta manerium et tenementa cum pertinenciis et 
advocacionem predictam contra omnes homines imperpetuum Et pro 
hac recognicione quietclamacione warantia fine et concordia idem Willehnus 
dedit predictis Waltero et Elizabeth, ducentas marcas argenti. Feet of Fines, 
Wilts. Case 256. File 60. No. 1. 

96 Buish and the Doynels. 

apparently was seb aside, and John Mainbray, described on his 
resignation, three years later, as John Mounbray, was instituted, 
on the presentation of " John Brid of Marleburgh, lord of Huwysh." 
Now the feoffees whose presentation apparently failed were the 
feoffees of Sir William Sturraey, while there is nothing whatever 
to show that John Brid derived his title from them ; on the 
contrary, in the absence of affirmative evidence, the whole course 
of the subsequent narrative tends to show that he did not. That 
Sturmey's possession was not a reality is further suggested by his 
descendant's confession that he died seised of the manor "by pro- 
testation," that is to say that Sir William was not in actual pos- 
session at his death. It may be of interest to add, before passing 
on, that the original inquisition, taken after Sir William Sturmey's 
death, now in a faded and dirty state, has at one place in the margin 
a hand drawn, pointed at a particular entry in it, and that the 
entry relating to Huish — witnessing no doubt to the fact that for 
the purposes of the subsequent Seymour litigation this entry, the 
root as it were of their title, was sought for and found. 

In the person of John Brid, with his alias of Bird, there opens 
a fresh chapter in the history, or if you will the romance, of the 
manor of Huish. For the reason suggested above I am inclined to 
suppose that he derived his title, which doubtless was immediately 
by purchase, from the same source as the Lord Lovel, — that he 
represented the alternative title. I know regrettably little about 
him, I presume that he was of a Marlborough family and son, or 
grandson, of that John Bryd who was one of the burgesses in 
Parliament for Marlborough in 1383. In the reign of Henry VI he 
occurs repeatedly, associated with men of good standing, in com- 
missions to enquire into all manner of offences, &c, in the county of 
Wilts, in which county his father, as I suppose, was escheator in the 
reign of Henry IV, (13-14 Henry IV, 1412), and he himself in the 
reign of Henry V (5-6 Henry V, 1427) as John Byrd, or Byrde. 
He resided, permanently, it is to be supposed, in Marlborough, for 
which town his father, as I suppose, was sent to Parliament, as one 
of the two burgesses, in 1402, 1413, 1414, 1415, and he himself in 
1426, 1435, and 1437, all these being distinct parliaments separately 
summoned, By the description of "John Bryd the younger of 

Huish and the Doynels 97 

Marleberg " — which implies of course that a John Bryd the elder was 
then alive — John, lord Lovell, levied a fine to him, in October, 
1414, of the manor of Axeford — a prior transaction between them 
which strengthens the supposition that it was from lord Lovell 
also that he acquired Huish. 

We know that there was a time when fortunes could be 
made in Marlborough. John Goudhyne, whose name has occurred 
above, as a life tenant of Erdescot, is an example. 1 John Bird was 
apparently another, but whether as a mercator may be doubtful. 
He contrived at any rate to retain his possession of Huish undis- 
turbed for the rest of his days, if the exercise of his right of 
patronage is any proof, for he presented to the church there in 
1428, as above, and again in 1431, 1435, and for the last time in 
1444. That he was in full possession of Huish in 1428 is further 
proved by an inquisition (Feudal Aids) taken, for the Hundred of 
Swanborough, at Marleburgh, the Monday after St. Barnabas, 6 
Henry VI (Monday, 14th June, 1428), before John Payn, Robert 
Erley, John Sturmey of Axeford, John Bryd of Marleburgh (and 
five others), collectors, in the county of Wilts, of the subsidy 
granted in the last parliament, whereby the jurors find that : — 

Johannes Byrd tenet per serjantiam certa terras et tenementa que 
nuper fuerunt Petri Doignell. 

" John Bryd," not this time, however, designated as " of Marle- 
burgh," is also returned, in an inquisition taken two days later for 
the Hundred of Chippenham, as holding (jointly with two others) 
one of the fees of the abbot of Glastonbury in Langley Burrell and 
Giittleton. In June, 1441, as appears by a fine of that date, 
" John Bryd and Isabel his wife " — and Isabel it is to be observed 
was the name of the wife of John Bryd of Marlborough — made a 
further large purchase of lands in North and South Langley, 
Langley Burrell, "Langley Parcehay," "Langley Fyssours," and 

1 See Paper by the Rev. Prebendary C\3LYk-M&xwe\\,Arch<zological Journal 
(1912), vol. LX1X., pp. 122—124. It appears that John Goudhyne paid one 
quarter of the entire taxation assessed on Marlborough. 

98 Huish and the Doynete. 

The nexb presentation to Huish after 1444 is by John Bryd's 
widow in 1455, and it is obvious that he died between these dates. 
Evidence furnished by Canon Wordsworth, in an article to which 
we shall refer in detail further on, proves that he was dead as early 
as 1445. In 1464 died Sir John Seymour, whose connexion with 
the story will immediately appear, and in or about November, 
1471, Dame Isabel Seymour, his relict, filed the following Bill in 
Chancery : — 

To the right reverent ffader in godd Robert 
Beschopp of Bathe and Wellys and Chaunceler 
of Englond. 

Mekely besecheth your good and gracious lordschep Isabell Seymour 
late the wyfe of John Seymour knyght that where one John Byrd lat 
of Marleburgh in the Counte of Wiltes' nowe dede was seasyd of th 
maner of Hewyssh and other landys and tenementes in Hewyssh 
aforeseyd with the appurtenauns in his demene as of ffee And so 
therof beyng so seasyd bargayned and solde the said maner landys and 
tenementes to the said John Seymour for a certayn som of money by 
hym to the said John Byrd paied and content in maner and forme 
folowyng that is to say that the said John Byrd of the said maner 
landys and tenementes with the appurtenauns scholde enfeffe John 
Banham clerke nowe dede and John Mychell of Marleburgh yett levyng 
to have to theym and to theyr heyres in ffee to thentent that the said 
John Banham and John Mychell so beyng therof seasyd of the same 
maner landys and tenementes with thappurtenauns scholde mak 
estate to the said John Byrd and Isabell then late his wyfe for terme 
of theyr bothe ly ves the remayndre therof after theyr deces to the sayd 
John Seymour and Isabell your said oratrice then his wife and to theyr 
heyres forevermore Accordyng to the whiche bargayn sale and 
agrement the sayd John Byrd of the said maner landes and tenementes 
with thappurtenauns enfeffe ffed (sic) the said John Banham and John 
Michell to have to theym and to theyr heyres in ffee by force of whiche 
f effement they were thereof seased in fee to perfourme and execute the 
entent and bargayne afore expressed And for asmoche as the said 
John Saymour and John Banham one of the said f effees ben' nowe dede 
and that the said estate and remayndre ben' nott yet execute and made 
accordyng to the bargayne aforsaid your said oratrice after the dethe 
of her said husband hath oftyn tymes requyred the said John Michell 
the feffe of the said John Byrd beyng now survivour in forme afore 
said to make a state to the said Isabell Byrd terme of hir lyfe the 
remayndre therof in fee to your said oratrice as afore ys expressed that 
to do the said John Michell hathe refused and yett dothe ayenst all 
good conscience Hit may please therefore your good and gracious 
lordschipp the premisses considered to graunt a wrytt of Sub pena 
direct to the said John Michell comaundyng hym by the same to appere 

Huish and the Doynels. 99 

afore the kyng in hys chauncery att a certayne day theryn to be 
lymyted And to do heryn as trouth reson and good conscience schall 
requyre in this behalf e att the reverens of godd and in way of charyte. 
Plegii de prosequendo 

Roger us Seymour de London' gentilman 
Humfridus Seymour de London' gentilman 

( To be continued.) 


Annals of Xeevil and Bulkington. It seems desirable to 

note at some length the contents of a stout 4to bound volume of 294 
well-typed pages lettered on the ■ outside "Annals of Keevil and 
Bulkington. This book is the property of the Vicar and Churchwardens 
of Keevil." This has been compiled by the Kev. A. T. Richardson, 
(Vicar of Keevil, 1908—1914, and now Vicar of Bradford-on-Avon) and 
left for the use of his successors at Keevil. Beginning with thirty-three 
different spellings of the name of the parish, from the Chivele of 
Domesday downwards, he notes the coins, almost all Roman, collected 
by Mr. Henry Ghey, chiefly from a field called " Henleys," where there 
is a slight indication of an entrenchment, where other objects have also 
been found. The Roman coins, of which a list is given, date from 81 to 
117 A.D. and from 253 to 370 A.D. There was also found here a coin 
of Wigmund, Archbishop of York, 837 — 854. Some account is given 
of the various members of the Fitzalan family with the descent of the 
manor from 1159 to 1579. It is suggested that Talboys House was 
probably part of the property bought from Henry, Earl of Arundel, by 
John Jones in 1558-9, whose grandson William Jones probably lived 
there after 1570. He afterwards bought Brook House, near Westbury, 
of Charles, Lord Mountjoy, in 1599. This property in Keevil later 
passed to the Blagdens and through them to the Chamberlains. The 
Baileys of Baldenham or Baldham Mill were important clothiers in the 
16th century. It is to the well-to-do clothiers of the later fifteenth 
century that the author attributes the erection of the many picturesque 
old timbered houses for which Keevil is so remarkable among the 
villages of Wiltshire. Most of these were afterwards turned into 
pairs of cottages. Of five of them good photos are given in the book. 
In 1560 Henry, Earl of Arundel, sold the second half of the manors of 
Keevil and Bulkington to Richard Lambert, who built the existing 
Manor House, his grandson Edward adding the porch and the walls of 
the garden in 1611. In 1680 Thomas Lambert sold the property to 
William Beach, of Fittleton. The author gives several conjectural 
maps of the parish at different periods, showing the various holdings. 
Then follow in Latin, with English translations, a long series of entries 
connected with the parish, extracted from the Calendars of Patent 
Rolls, Close Rolls, Charter Rolls, Fine Rolls, Inquisitiones ad quod 
damnum, Testa de Nevill, Hundred Rolls, Inquisitiones post mortem, 
Feet of Fines, Wiltshire Wills proved in the Prerogative Court of 
Canterbury, and extracts from Lambert Wills. In the account of the 
Church the interesting story of the font is told. This was turned out 
some time previous to 1840 and replaced by a holy water stoup. The 
font was seen by the Rev. R. Crawley, Vicar of Steeple Ashton, 1828 — 69, 
in a local builder's yard, bought for Is., and placed in the garden of 

Notes. 101 

Steeple Ashton Vicarage (together with the font of Seend Church). 
Mr. Crawley, however, gave it later on to the Rev. W. H. Pooke, Vicar 
of Keevil, who replaced it in the Church. The stoup is now in the 
vestry. Of the wooden screen, removed in 1807, portions were found 
in 1909 under the floor used as joists and quite rotten. It was apparently 
of the 15th century. The base of the cross now in the churchyard was 
dug up years ago in Coople Church Field, and was long used as a pump 
trough. This was wrongly spoken of in newspaper reports and else- 
where as a font. As regards "Coople Church" itself, a tradition existed 
of the existence of the foundations of a Church in Upper Ashton Field, 
between the villages of Keevil and Steeple Ashton, and it was said that 
this Church originally served the two parishes before the erection of 
the present Churches. Hence the name " Coople Church," as "coupling" 
the two parishes. This theory, however, will not hold water, for several 
reasons, one of them the fact that there is undoubted evidence of a 
much older Church at Steeple Ashton, on the same site as the present 
one. In March, 1913, Lieut. W. H. Chamberlain excavated the foun- 
dations in " Coople Church Field," which were found to be only about 
9 inches under the surface and in bad condition. They appeared to be 
those of a rectangular building 56ft. long, and 18ft. 6in. broad, both 
outside measure, lying due east and west. There appeared to be evidence 
of a respond or transverse wall in the interior, 34ft. 6in. from the east 
end, and of a buttress about the middle of the outside of the north wall. 
The walls were about 3ft. thick. Two skeletons which were found on the 
S. side of the building, near the E.and W. ends, prove the existence of a 
burial ground, apparently round the building, and there is a tradition 
of a lead coffin having been found somewhere near. The foundations 
were covered up again after having been opened, as the land was re- 
quired for cultivation. Mr. Richardson inclines to the belief that this 
was the original Church of Keevil parish, but this theory, too, seems 
difficult to accept. 1 

Mr. Richardson prints the notes which he read on Talboys House at 
the visit of the Cambrian and Wilts Arch. Societies on Aug. 13th, 1913. 
As to the name " Talboys," in a map of the Manor of Keevil of about 
1795, the house and other property is shown as belonging to " Thomas 
Talboy," and it was known as "Talboys" in 1841. Mr. Richardson 
suggests that this is a corruption of " Talbot's," and that the Rev. 
Thomas Talbot, of Margam (Glam.),who lived at Keevil and had a son 
born there (Thomas Mancell Talbot) in 1747, probably acquired this 
property about 1750 from Mr. Berry, the previous owner. In the 
middle of the 19th century the house was occupied as a farm, the 
drawing room and bedroom over it forming a cottage. It was "restored" 
by Mrs.Kenrick, under the direction of Mr. Adye, of Bradford- on- Avon, 
between 1876 and 1880, when the present porch was, unhappily sub- 
stituted for an earlier one of 17th century date and different design. 
The drawing room was then panelled in oak— the panelling being re- 
moved to the bedroom above in order to show the curious earlier wall 

1 The Wiltshire Gazette, April 3rd and 17th, 1913, contains some account 
of the uncovering of the foundations and letters on the subject. 

102 Notes. 

paintings on the walls. These were " found, traced, and reproduced ' 
by Mrs. Kenrick. The east kitchen wing was added at this date, and 
the stone pillars at the entrance to the stable yard were brought there 
from the lower entrance to Blagden House. Of the well-known Manor 
House three photos are given, one showing the picturesque but dilapi- 
dated range of buildings on the W. side of the house which has 
lately been pulled down by Gen. Dickson and replaced by a new kitchen 
wing. Blagden House, of which a photo is given, was, Mr. Richardson 
suggests, built perhaps by Richard Stephens, who died 1595, inasmuch 
as in 1630 it was called " Stephen's Hold." It was at one time much 
larger, twelve rooms on the N. and W. sides having been pulled down. 
In 1749 it was the property of " Madam Blagden." The Old Vicarage, 
of which a drawing is given, was a two-gabled house with mullioned 
windows and a porch of two storeys ; it was pulled down together with 
the Old Rectory House, which stood in the present kitchen garden of 
the Vicarage, when the new Vicarage was built by the Rev. W. H. Pooke 
in 1842. 

There are also notes on Gilbert's House, pulled down in the middle 
ot the 19th century ; Baldham Mill deriving its name from Robert 
Baldenham ; and Pinkney Farm, with a stone in its front inscribed 
" W.M. 1684." — which Mr. Richardson ascribes to William Mortimer, 
who gave his name to Mortimer St., in Trowbridge. 

The descent of Bulkington Manor in its two portions is traced until 
they both ultimately became the property of the Gaisford family. 

There is a tradition that the old chapel of Bulkington stood in the 
" New Leys " Field, and that when it was pulled down the bell was 
given to Steeple Ashton, and now hangs at Semington Church. The 
present Church was built (a list of the subscribers is given) in 1860. 

Two maps of Keevil parish, showing the different fields, in 1749 and 
1795 (one of which is reproduced) are at present in the vestry, being 
lent by Mrs. W. W. B. Beach. A list of Rectors and Vicars from 1253 ; 
and of churchwardens from 1598 ; extracts from the vestry books; the 
descent of the advowson of the living ; the Terriers of 1678, 1704, and 
1783 — the latter containing a very full description of the Old Vicarage ; 
inventories of the present furniture, &c, of the two Churches ; pedigrees 
of Fitzalan, Lambert, Beach, Tooker, &c. ; population tables (in 1801 it 
was 792, in 1911, 542) ; accounts of the charities ; a list of place names 
with suggested derivations ; and a number of other notes, are given. 
Among other matters is mentioned " Turpin's Stone," which stands in 
the ditch by the roadside from Bulkington to Keevil, near Pentry 
Bridge, and bears an almost obliterated inscription which is said to 
have run : — 

" Dick Turpin's dead and gone, 
This stone's put here to think upon." 

The book has been most kindly lent to the Editor by Mr. Richardson, 
who also leaves behind him at Keevil an Index of the Registers, for the 
purpose of this notice. It is greatly to be wished that other Vicars of 
Wiltshire parishes would speedily follow his most laudable example, 
in the compilation of like "annals" of their parishes. 

Notes. 103 

Iron Smelting' in Fewsham Forest in the 13th 

Century. Mr. C. H. Talbot some years ago called the Editor's 
attention to the fact that the following passage, which occurs in an 
Inquisition taken before Matthew, son of John, Keeper of the Forest 
of Chippenham in 1294, proves that iron ore was dug and smelted in 
Pewsham Forest at that time, and that this industry was not confined 
to the Roman period, as is sometimes assumed. 

The passage from Wiltshire Inquisitiones post mortem Hen. III. — 
Ed. II., p. 203, runs :— 

" It is not to the damage or hurt of the King or of his Forest of 
Chyppeham (sic) nor of any other whomsoever if the Abbot of 
Stanleye, and the Convent of the same place, in their demesne lands 
within the metes of the said forest outside the cover, may dig iron 
ore and make iron thereof, and take and carry it away thence whither 
they will." 

Interment in stone-lined grave at Little Ridge. 

Lady Mary Morrison, writing from Fonthill House on July 28th, 1914, 
says : — " In excavating for a new road at Little Ridge a skeleton in a 
stone-lined grave has been discovered. The lid formed of slabs of stone 
is about two feet below the level of the ground. The position of the 
body is on the side. Very little except a very perfect set of teeth 
remains of the skeleton." Apparently nothing was found, or at all 
events noticed, by the workmen besides the skeleton, which was doubt- 
less of Roman- British age, other remains of this period having been 
found in this neighbourhood. E. H. Goddard. 

Westley Family. Some notes concerning the manor of WhitclyfF 
and the family of Westley were printed in Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxvi., 
439. The following "Bill" may serve to indicate a further line of 
enquiry with regard to both. The " Answer " to this " Bill " does not 
appear to be forthcoming. 

[A.D. 1500 — 1501.] To the right reverend fader in god my lord of 
Sar[esbury] keper of the kynge's grete seall. 
Mekeley besecheth your gode lordship your contynuall oratour 
John Westley That wher' as he beyng lauf ully possessed and seised 
in his demeane as of fee taill of and in the maner of WhitclyfF with 
thappurtenaunces in the Countie of Wiltes', diverse and many of 
the evydencez concerning the same maner ben' comme to thandes and 
possession of oon Alice Hunt wydowe / And how be it your seid 
besecher diverse tymes hath required the seid Alice to dely ver to hym 
the seid evydences for the conservacion of his right and title in the 
premisses, But that to do the same Alice at all tymes hath refused 
and yet refuseth ayenst all right and conscience / And for asmoche 
as your said besecher knoweth not the certente of the seid evydences 
nor wherin they be conteyned he hath no remedy by the cours of the 
comen lawe Please it therfore your gode and gracious lordship the 

104 Notes. 

premisses considered to graunte a writte of sub pena to be directed 
to the seid Alice Hunt commaundyng her by the same to appere before 
the Kyng in his Chauncerye at a certen day and under certen peyne 
by your gode lordship to be lymyted ther to answer to the premissis. / 
This for the love of god and in the wey of charitie. / 

Ricardus Philley de London' mercer et 
Plegii de prosequendo 

Robertus Pafley de eadem skynner. 
Endorsed ; — Coram domino rege in cancellaria sua in [xv a Sancti 
Michaelis erased'] octabis Sancti Hillarii proximo futuris. 
Early Chancery Proceedings. File 246 (67). A. S. M. 

Bromham, Under the title "Bromham, a History of a Wiltshire 
Parish," 1913, 8£in. X 6f in., Mr. W. A. Webb has prepared a certain 
number of bound copies of a type-written account of the parish, of 
which he has presented one to the Society's Library. 

It consists of 148 pages and contains a store of information of all 
sorts, about the parish. The opening chapters deal with Wansdyke, 
the Roman Road and Villa, and Oliver's Camp— the next with the 
history of the Manor from Domesday to the Reformation, the Grant to 
Battle Abbey, and the Rentals and Custumals of the Manor from the 
Public Record Office. The Dissolution of the Monasteries, the Grant 
to Sir Edward Baynton, and the subsequent history of the Manor, the 
rates of pay for weavers in 1605, a dispute between the Crown and Sir 
Henry Baynton as to Common land in 1614, the events of the Civil 
War as far as they affected the parish, Old Bromham and Spye Park 
Houses, Quakers, the Church, with the Monumental Inscriptions, and 
the Heraldry in full, folding pedigrees of St. Amand, Beauchamp, Roche, 
and Bayntun, Church Plate, the Rectors, with some account of many 
of them, the Beauchamp Chantry and Chantry Priests, the Almshouses, 
Natives and Residents, Old Houses (with photos of Sloperton Cottage 
as it was in Moore's time, the Old Rectory, demolished 1858, Old 
Bromham House, demolished 1885), and other particulars. There is a 
folding sketch map of the parish, a plan of the Church, and drawings 
of the brasses. Altogether a very useful collection of what is known 
about Bromham. 

The provision of Warlike Furniture amongst the 
Clergie of the Dioces of Sarum besides the 
Bisshop his owne (14th August, 1588). 

Transcribed from the original in the Record Office by W. A. Webb. 

Mr. Deane of Sarum 2 

Mr. Pykhauer Archdecon of Sarum 
Mr. Colcoll Canon Resident of Sarum 
Mr. Moody pson of ffovent in Wiltsh. 
Mr. Awbrey of Ashton Keynes in Wiltsh. 
Mr. Dorrell pson. of Belford in Berksh. 



Mr. Smith of Castle Eaton in Wiltsh. 
Mr. Powell of Enford in Wiltsh. 
Mr. Johnson of ffittleden in Wiltsh. 
Mr. Pinkney pson of Barwick St. John's in Wiltsh. 
Mr. Jeffreys of Tydworth in Wiltsh. 
Mr. Clinton of Highworthe in Wiltsh. 
Mr. ffrench parson of Boyton in Wiltsh. 
Mr. Pullin of Buckland . . . 
Mr. Curteys pson of Tylehurst in Berksh. 1 
Mr. Hall pson of Beenham in Berksh. J 

Mr. Johnson of Buryfield in Berksh. \ 

Mr. Roue of Cluerthe in Berksh. J 

Mr. Dugdale of Polshott in Wiltsh. \ 

Mr. Warning of Cheverell in Wiltsh. J 

Mr. Wrench of Semlye in Wiltsh. \ 

Mr. Mostley of Dunhead Andrewe in Wiltsh. J 
Mr. Dr. Cole prebendarie of Sarum \ 

Mr. Bessell prebendarie of Sarum J 

Petronells 20 

Mr. Dr. Powell of Reading 

Mr. Shepley of Newberie 

Mr. mint of Speene 

Mr. Brickenden, of Inckpen 

Mr. Touye of Thacham 

Mr. Herdman of Hampstead Norris 

Mr. Goodman of Stanford in valle 

Mr. Newman of Mylton 

Mr. Sheward of Shallingford 

Mr. Morland, of East Illesley 

Mr. Knight of Northwrapple 

Mr. Wood of Somerford Magna 

Mr. Eylefield of Stanton Quintin 

Mr. Dian of Poole 

Mr. Webbe of Ham 

Mr. Gough of Cheverell Parva 

Mr. Buckle of Hilprington 

Mr. Rogers of Steeple Ashton 

Mr. Meade of Tollard Ryall 

Mr. Pye of Newton Tonye 

Mr. Pilgrim of Winterslowe 

Mr. fflynt of Sherington 

Mr. Knott (?) of Codford Mary 

Mr. Bower of Wishford 

Mr. Sinnell of Stockton 

Mr. Dillworth Prebendarie of Sarum 

Mr. Dr. Bold Prebendarie of Sarum 

Mr. Maruyn of great Knoyle 


106 Notes. 

Mr. Cooke of Sparshalt 

Mr. Shilburne of Pangburne 

Mr. Gravett of Bradfeild 

Mr. Crixst of Luddiard Millicent 

Mr. Rogers of Dunhead Marie 

Mr. Blythman of Wargrave 

Pykes 35 

Mr. Gill of ffinchampsted 
Mr. Marler of Waltham lawrence 
Mr. Eeks of West Ilsley 
Mr. Pownall of Yattingden 
Mr. Hooper of Chiueley 
Mr. White of Shawe 
Mr. Roberts of farnborowe 
Mr. Berry of Annington 
Mr. Hilton of Shrivenham 
Mr. Culpepper of Ashburie 
Mr. Drope of Gunner 
Mr. Yates of Appleford 
Mr. Phillips of Harwell 
Mr. Walkins of Hinton Parva 
Mr. Butwell of Brode Hinton 
Mr. Burford of Cliffe Pipard 
Mr. Pynner of Wotton Basset 

Mr. Pinckett of Crudwell 

Mr. Coles of Box 

Mr. Bigge of Garresdon 

Mr. Mason of Shapworth 

Mr. Hide of West Kington 

Mr. Bellamie of Collorne 

Mr. Hatton of Huishe 

Mr. Web of Trabridge 

Mr. Thornborough of Odstock 

Mr. Drake of ffyfeild 

Mr. Munsfield of Baverstock 

Mr. Jones of Milton 

Mr. Lewis of Bemartin 

Mr. Bower of Wily 

Mr. Dobbs of Veny Sutton 

Mr. Barlou of Shrewton 

Mr. Dr. Balgay of Boscombe 

Mr. Mason of Rolstone 

Mr. Nettyard of Hanney 

Mr. Dr. Withers of Wantage 

Mr. Dr. Wilks of Barford 

Mr. Poton of Barwick St. Leonards 

Mr. Potter of Meere 

Musquetts 40 




Mr. Yonge of St. Giles in Reading 

Mr. Wright of Purley 

Mr. Leese of Cookham 

Mr. Leiford of Prismere 

Mr. Eson of Shawburne 

Mr. West of Cholsey 

Mr. Wright of Hagburne 

Mr. Harper of Sutton Courteney 

Mr. Britt of Wittenham Comitt 

Mr. Seagar of Southmorton 

Mr. Hope of Blewberie 

Mr. Kember of Slindon 

Mr. Ellis of Radburne Marie 

Mr. Withers of Crickladd 

Mr. Jones of Hannington 

Mr. Babthorpe of Winterbournejbasset 

Mr. Clifford of Ovrton 

Mr. Beard of Hell martin 

Mr. Webb of Bromeham 

Mr. Midleton of Brightwaltam 

Mr. White of Brinkworth 

Mr. Wisdome of Grickilton 

Mr. Worsley of Nettleton 

Mr. Hunt of Collingburne Ducis 

Mr. Giue of Collingburn Abbatt 

Mr. Morgan of Chilton ffoliatt 

Mr. Starkye of Awburne 

Mr. Welford of East Lavington 

Mr. Whelpley of Uichfont 

Mr. Crosse of Sutton Manfeild 

Mr. Wiggins of Winterborne Stoke 

Mr. Hobson of Sulhamsteed 

Mr. Danlow of Uffton 

Mr. Philips of Mamsberie 

Mr. Cowley of Wotton Rivers 

Mr. Burton of Colshill 

Mr. Marmion of Brickston devrill 

Mr. Darling of Upton Lovell 

Mr. Newman of Warfeild 

Mr. Bickerton of Newnton 

Calivers 40 

Mr. Arrowsmith of Emborne 
Mr. Thornley of Stanford dingley 
Mr. Awbrey of Kingston Bagpuze 
Mr. Jones of Ashton torald 
Mr. Joane of ffoxley 




Mr. Lodsham of Buttermere 

Mr. Thackham of Bradford 

Mr. Stockton of Chirton 

Mr. Bowles of Tysberie 

Mr. Dominick of ffunthill Epi. 

Mr. Roberts of Dinton 

Mr. Wall of Swinsteed 

Mr. Harvest of Whiteparish 

Mr. Parrott of East garson 

Mr. Bullar of Castlecombe 

In all 
Petronills 20 
Pykes 35 

Musquetts 40 
Calivers 40 
Halberts 15 


Endorsed. 14 Aug. 1588. The certificate of Warlike 
Furniture for the Diocese of Sarum. 
hors foot 

petronels 20 corselets 



The Centenary of the birth of Isaac Pitman, 
January 4th, 1913. 

Press notices and articles relating to the above, in addition to those 
mentioned in Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxviii., 134, 521, 522 and 527. 

" Pitman Centenary Souvenir. Souvenir presented by Mr. Alfred 
Pitman and Mr. Ernest Pitman to the members of their Staffs at the 
Dinners held in London on 4th January, 1913, and in Bath on 11th 
January, 1913, to commemorate the Pitman Centenary." 

Wrappers, 12 x 9, pp., including titles, 32. Handsomely printed 
on one side of the page only, on fine paper, the illustrations being 
mounted on the blank side. 

It consists of a good article " Sir Isaac Pitman," by A(lf red)B(aker)., 
and the illustrations are photographs of the following : — " Sir Isaac 
Pitman," Memorial Portrait, by A. S. Cope, A.R.A., in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London ; " School attended by Isaac Pitman at 
Trowbridge," (from a drawing); "Kingston House, (or The Hall), 
Bradford-on-Avon " ; "Isaac Pitman's House at Wotton-under-Edge 
(the 'Birthplace of Phonography'),"; "Title and Cover of ' Steno- 
graph Sound— Hand,' published in 1837"; "The First Phonetic 
Institute, No. 5, Nelson Place, Bath " ; " Isaac Pitman, 1846 (age 33), 
(from an oil painting by J. B. Keene) " ; " The Second Phonetic In- 
stitute, Upper Bristol Road, Bath " (from a drawing about 1851) ; 

Notes. 109 

"Isaac Pitman, 1859 (age 146) " ; "The Fourth Phonetic Institute, 
Kingston Buildings, Abbey Churchyard, Bath " ; " London Publishing 
House, iNo. 1, Amen Corner" ; "Isaac Pitman, 1887 (age 74), (from 
a Marble Bust by Sir Thomas Brock, R. A.) " ; " The Fifth Phonetic 
Institute, Lower Bristol Road, Bath " ; " Pitman's School, South- 
ampton Row, London" ; " No. 17, Royal Crescent, Bath." 

[There appear to have been two editions of this souvenir, one of 
' which with the following title " Souvenir of the celebrations held 
in commemoration of the Centenary of the birth of Sir Isaac 
Pitman (inventor of phonography) throughout the English speak- 
ing world in the year 1913. Presented by his sons Alfred and 
Ernest Pitman," was given to all those who attended the celebra- 
tions held in London and Bath on May 23rd and 24th, 1913, 
respectively. This edition appears not to have included the 
" Portrait of Isaac Pitman in 1859 " but had a view of the " New 
York Publishing House."] 

" The life and work of Sir Isaac Pitman," by Clarence Pitman, 

nephew of the inventer. Article in the New York Times, Dec. 13th, 


Another article appeared in the New York Herald, Dec. 29th, 1912. 

" A grand old man's career " (Isaac Pitman). Article in the Daily 

Sketch, Dec. 26th, 1912. 

An article in the Dundee Advertiser, Dec. 31st, 1912, dealt with the 
influence of Phonography in the political education of the people, &c. 
" Isaac Pitman and his efforts in the direction of Spelling Reform." 
Article in The Pioneer, Dec, 1912. 

The Tokyo Asiatic (Japan) Jan. 3rd, 1913, devoted four columns 
to the life and work of Isaac Pitman. 

On Jan. 4th, 1913, appreciative articles appeared in the following 
newspapers : —Ceylon Independent, Daily Chronicle, Daily Telegraph, 
Daily Graphic, Despatch, East Anglia Daily News, Evening Stan- 
dard, Manchester City News, Manchester Guardian, Morning Post, 
Northern Echo, Pall Mall Gazette, Scotsman, Sheffield Weekly In- 
dependent, Sheffield Weekly News, The Bookman, The School Master, 
The War Cry, Tit-Bits (with portrait), Westminster Gazette, York- 
shire Observer. 

" The birthplace of Isaac Pitman," by G. H. Gibson. " Sir Isaac 
Pitman as I knew him," by the Rev. J. Thomas. Articles (printed 
in shorthand) in The Reporter's Magazine, Jan., 1913, with good 
portrait of Isaac Pitman, and woodcut of site of birthplace. 

" Sir Isaac Pitman's Invention in the Office," by Arthur J. Cook, 
A.I. A., F.S.S. Article (printed in shorthand) in The Reporters 
Journal, Jan., 1913, with good reproduction of the memorial portrait 
of Isaac Pitman on the cover. 

Other articles also appeared in the following magazines for Jan., 
1913 : — Halletfs Shorthand Gazette (printed in shorthand), Wesleyan 
Methodist Magazine, Phonographic Magazine (Cincinnati, U.S.A.), 
De Rapporteur (Holland), Der Pionier (Berlin), Der Deutsche Steno- 
graph, Deutsche Stenographer Zeitung, Kurzschriftliche Mitteilungen 
(Hamburg), Arbeiter Stenograph (Vienna). 

110 Notes. 

" A famous Trowbridgian." A sketch of Isaac Pitman's career in 
the Wiltshire News, Jan. 10th i 1913; with portraits of Isaac Pitman, 
Alfred Pitman, Ernest Pitman, and the following woodcuts : — " Site 
of Isaac Pitman's birthplace in Trowbridge " ; " Boyhood home at 
Timbrell Street, Trowbridge " ; " Old counting house in which Isaac 
Pitman was clerk, adjoining Courtfield House, Trowbridge " ; " The 
interior of the office " ; " Kingston House, Bradford-on- Avon, early 
home of the Pitman family " ; " Isaac Pitman's house, Orchard Street, 
Wotton-under-Edge, the birthplace of Phonography " ; "First Pho- 
netic Institute, Nelson Place, Bath " ; " Second Phonetic Institute, 
Albion Place, Bath " ; "A corner of the Third Phonetic Institute " ; 
" Fourth Phonetic Institute, Abbey Churchyard, Bath " ; " No. 1, 
Amen Corner, London." 

"Isaac Pitman as Teacher, Inventor, and Pteformer." Article in 
Great Thoughts, Jan. 11th, 1913. 

The Licensing World, Jan. 11th, 1913, contains a striking testimony 
to Isaac Pitman. 

" The Life of Sir Isaac Pitman," by T. P. O'Connor, M.P., in T Ph 
Weekly, Feb. 21st and 28th, 1913. 

Articles also appeared in The Korrespondenzblatt (Dresden), Feb., 
1913 ; American Exporter, April, 1913 ; and Harmsworth's Popular 
Science, Part 40, May, 1913. 

An account of the Centenary celebrations held in London on May 
23rd, and in Bath on May 24th, 1913, is given in a special supplement 
to Pitman's Journal, June 7th, 1913, with illustrations. 

" The Pitman Centenary Celebrations at Trowbridge." Wiltshire 
News, Nov. 21st, 1913. 

" The Pitman Memorial at Trowbridge unveiled byLordMethuen." 
Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 27th, 1913. 

" Pitman Centenary. Unveiling of a memorial tablet at Wotton- 
under-Edge." Report, in The Wootton-under-Edge and Dursley 
Gazette, Nov. 29th, 1913, with illustration of the unveiling ceremony. 
" Wotton-under-Edge honours Sir Isaac Pitman." An account in 
Pitman's Journal, Dec. 13th, 1913, of the unveiling of the memorial 
tablet on the house occupied by Isaac Pitman where he invented his 
system of shorthand, with illustrations of " The Memorial Tablet I 
and " Isaac Pitman's house at Wotton-under-Edge." 

" Sir Isaac Pitman honoured by his native town." An account of 
the unveiling of the memorial bust at Trowbridge, Nov. 20, 1913, in 
Commercial Education, Dec. 2nd, 1913. 

" Trowbridge, the Birthplace of Sir Isaac Pitman." II. Article 
by G. H. Gibson, in The Reporter's Magazine, Dec, 1913, with views 
of the exterior and interior of Trowbridge Town Hall. Printed in 

" The Pitman Memorial at Trowbridge." A short account of the 
unveiling of the memorial bust at Trowbridge, in the Phonographic 
Magazine, Cincinnati, December, 1913. In the same publication, 
March, 1914, the subject was again referred to, and a woodcut given 
of the school attended by Isaac Pitman at Trowbridge. 

F. W. Long. 

Notes. Ill 

Nettleton Church. The late Mr. E. C. Lowndes, of Castle Combe, 
wrote on July 14th, 1900, to the editor as follows :.— " I went to Nettle- 
ton the other afternoon, and found that they had excavated an area 
round the church where it was necessary, chiefly on the west and south 
of the building. It was about a yard deep in most places, and revealed 
a base with a moulding, — (and in places a second moulding nearer the 
ground,)— all of which had been previously concealed under the 
accumulations of earth. Inside the church they had taken up about 
10 feet square of the flooring of the pews round the pillar which divides 
the 1st and 2nd arches from the west end, and found that the rood 
screen had apparently been cut up and used as rafters to support the 
floor of the pews. I saw three pieces that had been taken out, lying 
on the floor of the side aisle. They were from 10 to 12 feet long, and 
5 or 6 inches, perhaps, square in section. Mouldings, two ornamented 
in the hollow with rather elaborately carved quatre foils about 3 inches 
square placed about a foot apart all along, and the third ornamented 
in the same way with roses, about two inches in diameter each. The 
length of these pieces of wood, the Rector told me, corresponded with 
the width of the chancel arch. I could see under the flooring adjoin- 
ing the place where the opening had been made the ends of other 
similar pieces ornamented in the same way." 

Bittern near Westbury . Mr. T. C. Pinniger writes from " The 
Walnuts," Westbury, on January 18th, 1915, to the Wiltshire Times 
" Referring to the report which appeared in the Wiltshire Times some 
weeks ago of the shooting of a bittern near here, this bird . . . 
was shot by me while out snipe shooting. I have subsequently found 
that the bittern is protected throughout the whole year in this county, 
and regret having shot it, being unaware what bird it was until it was 

remarkable house at Chippenham, and the suc- 
cessive houses at Bowden Park. 

In the Building News, May 22nd, 1914, there appeared a measured 
drawing, elevation, section, and plan, by Mr. Walter Rudman, of the 
very ornate front of a house in the High Street, Chippenham, now 
occupied by Mr. G. A. H. White. The drawing is a good one, but I 
understand that the Editor required a descriptive account to accompany 
it, which was perhaps unfortunate, for the real facts were not known 
to the writer and the account is therefore conjectural and very wide of 
the mark. This led to my writing two letters, on the subject, which 
appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette, on the 4th and 11th of June, 1914. 
I was aware already that some persons at Chippenham supposed the 
front of this house to have been brought from the great house which 
was begun but pulled down again without having been ever completed, 
on Bowden Hill, as Mr. Rudman definitely states that it was, but I 
confess I was surprised to find the name of Inigo Jones brought in. 
The Chippenham house appears to be simply a case of an older building 

112 Notes. 

re-fronted in the early part of the eighteenth century, and the ornate 
character of the front seems to imply that this was done for a person 
of I some importance. The front has all the appearance of having been 
designed for the position which it occupies. 

The great house on Bowden Hill, which was never completed, was 
built in or about 1720, for Mr. Styles, a prominent speculator in the 
South Sea Company, who was reputed exceedingly wealthy at the time. 
The site was somewhat to the north of the present house at Bowden 
Park. Though this ambitious building scheme came to nothing, an 
earlier house built by George Johnson in the time of Charles the Second, 
of which a view appears in Dingley's History from Marble^ was standing 
all the time,and it remained, I believe, until the present house was begun. 
That, however, was not the first recorded house at Bowden. There 
was an ancient house there, which must have been mediaeval, when 
Aubrey visited George Johnson, apparently before he had begun to 
build his new house. That ancient house had belonged to Sir Henry 
Sharington, who appears to have made the park, and afterwards to his 
daughter, Lady Mildmay. The Johnson family were at Bowden as 

early as 1623, and probably earlier. In September of that year " 

Johnson of Bowden " was " disclaimed " at Salisbury, at the Heralds' 
Visitation. This was probably William Johnson. They must, therefore, 
have occupied the house, at first as tenants, and afterwards as owners. 
When Mildmay Fane, second Earl of Westmorland, sold his Wiltshire 
property, their opportunity came, and in 1662, William Johnson in 
conjunction with his son, George, bought Bowden Park. William 
Johnson was buried at Lacock, 5th March, 1663-4. On the 26th No- 
vember, 1663, George Johnson, who was a judge in Wales and M.P. for 
Devizes in 1681, obtained a grant of arms slightly differenced from the 
arms of Johnston of Annandale, the charge being a bend instead of a 
saltire. On a chief, there are three woolpacks, or woolsacks. John 
Gough Nichols, who edited Dingley's History from Marble for the 
Camden Society, says of these " the woolsacks are cushions," but I 
think, in the case of the Johnson family of Bowden, the reference to 
wool was intentional, and after all there may not be much difference 
between woolsacks and cushions, for to this day the Lord Chancellor 
takes his seat on the " woolsack." 

George Johnson died in 1683, leaving his estate to his wife, Mary, 
who erected an important moument to his memory which has long 
disappeared, but the design is known from a sketch made by Dingley 
in 1684. This monument must have stood in that added portion of 
Lacock Church which adjoins the south transept, to the west, and is 
now used as a vestry, under which is the old burial vault of the owners 
of Bowden, against the west wall. 

The heraldry and architectural accessories of the monument indicate 
distinctly that George Johnson must have been twice married and that 
the first wife, who appears to have been a Baynard, left no surviving 
issue. She may perhaps have been a Baynard of Wanstrow, Co. Somerset, 
a younger branch of the Baynards of Lackham, and a cousin of George 

Notes. 113 

The second wife was Mary, one of the daughters of Jaques, or James, 
Oyles or Oeiles, of the city of London, merchant, living in 1633, who 
had married Anne, daughter of William Gore, Esq., Alderman of 
London. James Oeiles was the son of Peter Oeiles, a Flemish gentle- 
man, of the city of Brussels. Mary, the widow of George Johnson, was 
buried at Lacock, 14th March, 1727. The estate is said to have been 
sold, but in what year is not stated, in consequence of a Chancery suit 
arising out of a disputed trust. Be that as it may, we find Benjamin 
Haskin Styles, the ambitious builder, of South Sea notoriety, in pos- 
session, in 1720. He appears to have been M.P. for Calne, in 1722 
{Wilts Notes and Queries, vol. vii., p. 141). He was a son of Joseph 
Haskin Styles, of London, Esq., by his marriage with Sarah, one of the 
daughters of Sir John Eyles, Knt. Benjamin Sty'les's heir was his 
nephew, Francis Eyles, son of Sir John Eyles, Bart., by his marriage 
with Mary, daughter of Joseph Haskin Styles, Esq. She must, there- 
fore, have been Benjamin Styles's sister. This Sir John Eyles, who 
succeeded his father as baronet, was Sub-Governor of the South Sea 
Company and M.P. for Chippenham. Francis Eyles took the name of 
Haskin Styles, but is described as Francis Haskin (Eyles) Styles, Esq., 
in 1741, in accordance with a not uncommon practice. He succeeded 
his father in the baronetcy, and according to Canon Jackson sold 
Bowden, in 1751, to Ezekiel Dickinson, Esq., whose son, Barnard 
Dickinson, built the present house. 

I think it not improbable that the Eyles family and the Oeiles family 
may have been really the same. The arms are not the same, though 
there are some points of slight similarity. The arms borne by James 
Oeiles, being foreign arms, would hardly be on record at the College 
of Arms, and in such a case, being that of a Flemish merchant who 
had settled in London, the probability is that the first member of the 
family to whom it might become an object to have his arms so recorded 
would find it necessary to obtain a fresh grant of arms. 

The ancestor, from whom the Eyles family deduced their descent, is 
described in Strype's Stow as " John Eyles, of Wilts, who dealt in wool 
and kept fairs." I should like some confirmation of his christian name. 
He had two sons, of whom the eldest, Sir John Eyles, Knt., was Lord 
Mayor of London in 1688. It was his daughter, Sarah, who married 
Joseph Haskin Styles, and another daughter married James Montagu, 
of Lackham. 

The younger son was Sir Francis Eyles, created a baronet in 1714. 
He appears to have been an eminent merchant, a director of the East 
India Company, and Governor of the Bank of England. His eldest 
son, James, died unmarried. His second son was Sir John Eyles, the 
Sub- Governor of the South Sea Company. 

C. H. Talbot. 



George Thomas John Sotheron-Estcourt, Baron 

Estcourt, of Estcourt (Gloucs.), died Jan. 12th, 1915, aged 75. 
Buried at Shipton Moyne (Gloucs.). Only son of the Rev. Edmund 
Hiley Bucknall Estcourt, of Eckington (Derbys.) and Estcourt, and 
Anne Eliz., d. of Sir John Lowther Johnstone, Bart. Born Jan. 24th,. 
1839, educated at Harrow and Ball. Coll., Oxon. R.A., 1862 ; M.A. r 
1868. He assumed the name of Sotheron in place of Bucknall under 
the will of his uncle in 1876, when he succeeded to the Darrington 
(Yorks) estate. J.R and D.L. for Wilts, and J.P. for Gloucestershire^ 
1865. Joined Wiltshire Yeomanry 1861, becoming later on Lt.-Col. in 
command. Conservative M.P for N.Wilts, 1874— 1885, when he re- 
tired, but continued an active supporter on the Conservative side in 
N.W. Wilts. He was chairman of the bench, and president of the 
Cottage H ospital at Tetbury. He married, 1863, Monica, d. of the 
Rev. Martin Stapylton, Rector of Barlborough (Derbys.) who survives 
him. He leaves no children and the title becomes extinct. For 
several years he represented the Tetbury division on the Gloucester- 
shire County Council, and in past years he was a prominent member 
of the Beaufort Hunt. He had acted as President of the Wiltshire 
Society. Raised to peerage as 1st Baron Estcourt in 1903. As a 
country gentleman and as a landlord Ld. Estcourt was much esteemed. 
The Estcourt estate passes to the Rev. Edmund Walter Estcourt, 2nd 
cousin of Ld. Estcourt, now Rector of Shipton Moyne, and Vicar of 
Swindon, 1901—1910. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 14th and 21st, 1915, and Wilts 
and Gloucester Standard. 

Col. Sir Edmund Antrobus, 4th Baronet, of Amesbury 

Abbey, died Feb. 11th, 1915, aged 66. Buried at Amesbury. Eldest 
son of Sir Edmund, 3rd Baronet, and Marianne Georgina, d. of Sir 
George Dashwood. Born Dec. 25th, 1848. Married, 1886, Florence 
C. M., d. of J. A. Sartoris, of Hopsford Hall (Warw.), who survives 
him. Joined 3rd Gren. Guards, and served in Suakim Expedition 
1885, commanded as Lt.-Col. and retired with rank of Col., 1903. He 
succeeded to the title in 1899. He was active in county matters as a 
magistrate and alderman of the County Council, and a member of 
its various committees. He was, however, perhaps best known to the 
public as the owner of Stonehenge and as the defendant in the famous 
lawsuit brought against him to enforce the removal of the wire fence 
with which, acting under the advice Of the Society of Antiquaries, and 
our own Society, he had surrounded the monument. The case ended 
in his favour and Stonehenge happily remains enclosed. The sub- 
sequent re-erection of the " Leaning Stone," and the accompanying 
excavations were carried out at his expense. Further works of preser- 
vation were decided on two years ago, but in consequence of a proposal 

Wilts Obituary!} 115 

to sell the Amesbury property, have not been carried out. His only 
son, Lieut. Antrobus, was killed in action in Sept., 1914. He is 
succeeded in the title by his brother, Cosmo Gordon Antrobus. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 18th, 1915. 

lit. -Col. James Mackay, died Nov. 29th, 1914, aged 67. Buried 
at Seend. Born Oct. 31st, 1847, s. of Donald Mackay, of Braemore, 
Caithness. Connected for many years with the Trowbridge Detach- 
ment of the 1st Wilts Rifle Volunteers, of which he became the Com- 
manding Officer, retiring as Major with honorary rank of Lt.-Col. He 
was the Commanding Officer of the Trowbridge Detachment of the 
National Reserve, and a strong supporter of the Boy Scout movement. 
J.P. for Wilts, 1897. F.S.A., Scot. Married, September 24th, 1877, 
Ellen Florence, d. of John Broomhall, of Surbiton and Madras, who 
survives him with one son, Henry Anstruther, and two daughters, 
Florence and Gladys. He moved from Trowbridge to the Manor 
House, Seend, some years ago. A Conservative and Churchman, he 
acted as churchwarden at Seend. Since the death of his brother 
Alexander in 1895 he had been closely associated with the cloth manu- 
facturing business of Messrs. Mackay & Palmer, of Trowbridge, in 
which neighbourhood his loss will be much felt. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire 'Times, Dec. 5th, 1914. 

Major J. T. Powney, died from an accident at Havre, Dec. 18th, 
1914. Buried at Sainte- Marie Cemetery, Havre. Son of James Powney r 
of Calne, entered the postal service at Calne Post Office, served at 
Shrewsbury in the Surveyor's department, appointed Assistant Surveyor 
in the Surveyor's department of the G.P.O. at Croydon. He held the 
rank of captain in the Royal Engineers (Postal Section), Special Reserve, 
and on the outbreak of war took command of the Army Base Post 
Office at Havre. In this very important post his work gave such 
satisfaction both to the English and French authorities that he was 
promoted to the rank of Major in October. He leaves a widow and 
two children. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 31st, 1914. 

Capt. Robert Alexander Colvin, killed in action at Neuve 
Chapelle, March 12th, 1915. Aged 25. Son of late James Colquhoun 
Colvin, of Sutton Veny. Adjutant of 2nd Batt., W. Yorks. Regt. 

Captain Arthur Edward Harrington Raikes, late of 

Wiltshire Regiment, died March 3rd, 1915, aged 49. Buried at Golder's 
Green Cemetery. Born 1867, eldest son of Rev. C. H. Raikes. Educated 
at Oxford Military College. Officer commanding forces of Sultan 
of Zanzibar, 1894—1906, and First Minister to the Sultan, 1906—1908. 
Served in East African Rebellion, 1895—96, and was mentioned in 
despatches. He was Commandant of the Orders of the Crown of Italy, 
Franz Joseph of Austria, and Christ of Portugal. He married, 1899, 
Geraldine, d. of Fitzgerald Hay Arbuthnot, and leaves one son. 

Obit, notices, Times, March 5th ; Wiltshire Gazette, March 11th, 1915. 

I 2 

116 Wilts Obituary, 

Captain John Alexander Halliday, nth Hussars, died of 

wounds in France, Oct. 31st, 1914, aged 39. Eldest son of John and 
Maria Halliday, of Chicklade House. Born April 10th, 1875. Educated 
at Harrow and Trin. Coll., Oamb. Joined 11th Hussars, 1898 ; 
Capt., 1905 ; Adjutant to Leicestershire Yeomanry for three years. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 19th, 1914. 

Engineer- Commander John Barton Wilshin, lost in 

H.M.S. Monmouth in action off the coast of Chile, Nov. 1st, 1914, aged 
39. Son of John Wilshin, of Devizes. Educated at Lord Weymouth's 
Grammar School, Warminster, 1890 ; Royal Naval Engineering Col- 
lege, Devonport; and Royal Naval College, Greenwich, 1895. Served 
on board H.M.S. Hussar, Furious, Argonaut, Kiusha, Flirt, Excellent, 
Maori, and in 1912 on H.M. cruiser Monmouth. He leaves a widow and 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 19th, 1914. 

Capt. George Richard Wyld, 3rd Wilts Regt., attached to 1st 
Berks Regt. Killed in action at La Bassee, Dec. 25th, 1914. Only son 
of Canon E. G. Wyld, Vicar of M elksham. Born at Woodborough, 
Educated at Marlborough College. Served in S. African War with the 
Queen's Westminsters, mentioned in despatches, and received the 
Queen's medal with four clasps. Lieutenant in the Reserve of Officers. 
He was appointed to the Wilts Regt. in Oct., 1914. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 31st, 1914, Jan. 7th, 1915; 
Wiltshire Times, Jan. 2nd, 1915 ; portrait, photo, Wiltshire News, Jan. 
22nd, 1915. 

Captain Sir Edward Hamilton Westrow Hulse, 

7th Bart., of Breamore House, Hants, killed in action. Born Aug. 30th, 
1889. Educated at Eton and Balliol Coll., Oxford. Succeeded his 
father, Sir Edward Henry Hulse, M.P. for Salisbury, in the baronetcy, 
1908. Served as Lieut, in Hampshire Yeomanry ; joined Scots Guards 
1912 ; Lieut. 1913 ; went out with the 1st Batt. at beginning of the war ; 
transferred later to 2nd Batt. ; mentioned for " distinguished conduct 
in the field" in dispatches published February 17th, 1915 ; promoted 
Captain February 27th, 1915. 

Iiieut. Oliver John Galley, killed in action in France, March, 
1915. Eldest son of Rev. John Henry Calley, Vicar of Figheldean. 
Born 1892 ; received commission in Wilts Regt., 1912 ; Lieut. 1914. 

Canon Eldon Surtees Bankes, died Feb. 1st, 1915, 

Buried in Salisbury Cathedral Cloisters. Born at Gloucester Sept. 27th, 
1829. S. of Rev. Edward Bankes and Lady Frances Jane Scott, d. of 
Lord Chancellor Eldon. Educated at Eton and Univ. Coll., Oxon ; 
B.A. 1852, M.A. 1864. Deacon, 1853; Priest 1854 (Gloucester and 
Bristol); Curate of Stapleton (Gloucs.), 1853—54; Rector of Corfe 

Wilts Obituary. 117 

Castle (Dors.), 1854—99. Rural Dean of Dorchester, Div. 3. 1875—98. 
Proctor, Dio. of Salisbury, 1891 — 99. Proctor for Dean and Chapter 
of Salisbury, 1900. Prebendary and Canon of Salisbury, 1872. Canon 
Residentiary, 1898. Married Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Scott, d. of 
2nd Earl of Eldon. A well-known and greatly-esteemed member of 
the Cathedral Body, whose connections were naturally more with 
Dorset than with Wiltshire. He was, however, much identified with 
the life of Salisbury during the later years of his life, was a Governor 
of the Bishop's and of the Godolphin School, and for eleven years 
Chairman of the Salisbury Museum, which owed much to his support . 
Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 4th ; Salisbury Journal, Feb. 
6th ; Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, March, 1915. 

ReV Thomas Russell Wade, died Oct. 23rd, 1914, aged 75. 
Buried at Ocklynge Cemetery, Eastbourne. CM. Coll. Islington, 1860. 
B.D. by Archbishop of Cant., 1888. Deacon (London) 1862 ; Priest 
(Calcutta) 1863. C.M.S. Missionary, Peshawar 1862— 72 ; Lahore 1872— 
76; Srinagar, 1876 — 82; Amritsar 1882—1902; various temporary posts 
in India 1902—1907. Vicar of Shrewton and Maddington 1908—1913. 
His most remarkable work was done in Kashmir, between 1878 and 1881, 
when he organized famine relief on a large scale with great success and 
gained the lasting regard of both Europeans and Kashmiris. At 
Amritsar he acted as superintending missionary for twenty-one years, 
and the greatly enlarged Church was largely his work. He was the 
author of " Translations of the New Testament and Book of Common 
Prayer into Kashmiri " ; " Kashmiri Grammar " ; " Proofs of the 
Resurrection of Jesus, 1902. 

Obit, notice in Church Missionary Bevieiv, quoted in Salisbury 
Times, Dec. 25th, 1914. 

Rev, Alan Brodrick, died March 2nd, 1915, aged 88. Buried at 
Seend. Son of Major Henry Brodrick, 29th (Worcester) Regt. Born 
in Mauritius, January 23rd, 1827. Educated at Rugby, where he 
played in the eleven, and Exeter Coll., Oxford. B.A., 1849 ; M. A., 1870, 
Chichester Theol. Coll. Deacon, 1850; Priest, 1851 (Salisbury). 
Curate of Bishops Lavington, 1850 — 51 ; Chideock (Dors.), 1852 — 53 ; 
Vicar of Braydon, 1853—60 ; Vicar of Bramshaw, 1860 — 71 ; Vicar of 
Whittlebury with Silverstone (Northants),1871 — 73 ; Rector of Huggate 
(Yorks), 1873—77 ; Rector of Broughton Gifford, 1877—1910, when he 
retired to Bournemouth. Married, Sept. 7th, 1852, Ellen Bryan May, 
of Bellacombe, S. Devon, by whom he had seven sons and eight 
daughters, of whom fourteen survive him. During his incumbency 
the church at Broughton GifFord was restored in 1878 at a cost of £2000, 
and the schools enlarged. He was a man of fine presence and some 
literary attainments. He was the author of " Songs of the People " 
with preface by Bishop Wilberforce, of Oxford ; " Forest Poems " ; 
" Mother of Jesus and other Poems " ; and of articles and verses in 
what purported to be the Wiltshire dialect, which appeared in the 
London evening papers. 

118 . Wilts Vbitudry. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, March 4th and 1 lth; Guardian, 
March 11th, 1915. ;/ 

Rev. Leonard Ramsay Henslow, died Feb. 15th, i?i4, aged 

83. Buried at Zeals. St. John's Coll., Camb., B.A., 1854 ; M.A., 
1857. Deacon, 1854 ; Priest, 1855 (Ely). Curate of Hitcham, 1854— 
56 ; Bangor Monachorum, 1856—60 ; Great Chart (Kent), 1860—63 ; 
Rector of Pulham St. M. Magd., 1863—70; Rector of Zeals, 1870- 
1914, when he resigned and retired to Bath, where he died. He was 
greatly esteemed at Zeals: 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, March, 1915. 

William Maxwell Hammick, died Feb. 24th, 1915. Buried 
in the Cloisters, Salisbury. Born 1848, s. of Rev. Sir Vincent Hammick, 
Bart., Vicar of Milton Abbott (Dev.). Educated at Blandford Grammar 
School and Marlborough College. Spent ten years as sheep farmer in 
New Zealand, and served in the Maori War. After two years in New 
York he settled in the Close at Salisbury, marrying the daughter of 
Mr. G. B. Townsend in 1879. From that year he devoted his whole 
time to public work of various kinds in the city and county. An 
earnest Churchman and member of the Diocesan Synod, J. P. for Wilts, 
Mayor 1885, Chairman of the Infirmary for many years, member of the 
County Education Committee, a prominent Freemason, and for years 
secretary of the S. Wilts Unionist Association, " the great gathering at 
his funeral in the Cathedral was a testimony to the regard in which he 
was held by all classes of the community." " He will be greatly missed 
and his place in the public service will be difficult to fill." He leaves 
a son, Capt. Robert Hammick, A.D.C. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Times, Feb. 27th ; Guardian, March 11th ; 
Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, April, 1915. 

Francis Alexander, died Nov. 5th, 1914, aged 60. Buried at 
Everley. S. of Caledon Alexander, he came to live at Everley Manor 
some years ago. He leaves a widow, four sons, and one daughter. J. P. 
for Wilts, 1897. A brewer in business, he was widely known as a 
racing and coursing man. 

Long obit, notice in Sportsman, quoted in Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 
12th, 1914. 

Thomas Butt Miller, died July 13th, 1915. Buried at Eisey. 
Born Dec. 2nd, 1859, eldest son of George Miller, of Brentry (Gloucs.), 
and Mary, d. of Thomas Luce, of Malmesbury. Educated at Eton and 
Trin. Col., Cambs. J. P. for Wilts and Gloucestershire. Married, 1897, 
Cecily Laura, d. of Dudley Robert Smith, who, with two sons and a 
daughter, survives him. He was Master of the Oakley Hounds in 
Bedfordshire 1885—88, and became Master of the Cricklade portion of 
the V. W.H. Hunt in 1888, hunting the pack regularly himself until 1908, 
finally giving up the mastership in 1910. He was also interested in 
racing and coursing and the breeding of Jersey Cattle. He was 

Wilts Obituary. 119 

prominent in all public matters at Cricklade, holding many local 
offices, but was best known as the Master of the V.W.H. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 21st, 1915. 

Carey Coles, died by a gun accident, March 19th, 1915. Son of John 
Coles, he had lived and farmed for many years at Winterbourne Stoke, 
and on the death of Lord Furness he bought the property. He was 
widely known as one of the chief breeders of Hampshire Down Sheep 
in England. He was one or the first members of the Hampshire Down 
Sheepbreeders' Association, of which he was president in 1908. He 
was also one of the largest and most influential farmers in South Wilts. 
He had been Chairman of the S. Wilts Chamber of Commerce, and was 
on the Council for many years of the Wilts Agricultural Association. 
On Agricultural Committees of the County Council his knowledge and 
experience were of much value, as well as on the Amesbury District 
Council. He was a J. P. for Wilts, and in politics a strong Unionist. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, March 25th, 1915. 

Plight Sub-Lieutenant Stephen Medlicott, aged 22, 

Killed by accident whilst flying in a hydroplane at Southampton on 
April 26th, 1915. Buried at Haslar. Fourth son of H. E. Medlicott 
of Sandfield, Potterne. Was Sub-Lieutenant on H.M.S. Active in 
August, 1914, joined naval wing of Royal Flying Corps and went 
through course of instruction at Upavon. He joined H.M.S. Ben-my- 
Chree, sea-plane ship, three days before his death. 

T. Hooper Deacon, died April 21st, 1915, aged 79. Buried at 
Swindon. Born at Faringdon. Established Horse and Carriage 
Repository at Swindon in 1868. This developed into one of the 
best known businesses of the kind in the West of England. He had 
much to do with the revival of coaching in 1898 and subsequently. 
He established a pack of harriers, and was afterwards M aster of the 
Savernake Stag Hounds for four years, and then for fourteen years 
Secretary to the V.W.H. (Cricklade) Hunt. He joined the Wiltshire 
Yeomanry in 1870, became Quarter-master of the Swindon Troop, 
and retired with the rank of Captain. He was Mayor of Swindon 
1908-9, and a member of the District Council. He was well known in 
hunting and sporting circles. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, April 22nd, 1915. 

Thomas Ponting, died April 22nd, 1915, aged 73. Buried at 
Warminster. As a solicitor at Warminster he held many public offices. 
Was formerly a Captain in the Volunteers. A Conservative and 
Churchman. Much esteemed for his generous and kindly charities. 
A prominent Freemason. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, May 1st, 1915. 



[N\B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in 
any way connected with the county to send him copies of their works r 
and to editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send 
him copies of articles, views, or portraits, appearing in the newspapers.} 

Great Chalfield Manor, the Seat of Mr. Robert 

Fuller. Two articles by H. Averay Tipping, in Country Life, Aug. 
15th and 29th, 1914, pp. 230—237, 294—301. 

This delightful and much-illustrated house has never been so well 
illustrated before as it is in the series of twenty-one large and excellent 
photos accompanying this paper, showing the house as it now is, re- 
stored by Mr. Brakspear and filled with appropriate furniture by Mr. 
Fuller. As to the recent restoration the writer says it "has been 
carried out in a way for which we must be most thankful." 

The article is an excellent one, tracing the descent of the manor 
clearly and shortly through the extraordinarily complicated series of 
law proceedings shown by the deeds in the " Cartulary," to Thomas 
Tropenell, and from him down to the present owner, who acquired it 
from his father, Mr. G. P. Fuller, of Neston, who bought the estate in 
1878. The history of the building itself is also very carefully given. 
Thomas Tropenell must have built the house about 1480, he could not 
have begun it until after 1467, and he died in 1488. Only the bastions 
of the wall inside the moat and a fragment of 14th century work in the 
barn seem to remain of the earlier house of the Percys. Walker, 
when he made his elaborate plans and drawings of the house in 1837* 
mentioned that the owner, Admiral Sir Harry Burrard Neale, had 
intrusted him with the work of carrying out the necessary repairs, but 
so far from this being done, within the next three years the roof and 
outer walls of the Great Chamber had been pulled down, leaving nothing 
but its gable wall and oriel standing and the Hall was cut up into two 
stories. As to the recent work carried out by Mr. Brakspear the writer 
says " Not more than was absolutely necessary was done to the exterior,, 
but even that, except on the north side, was very considerable. To the 
south the Hall itself needed little attention, but on either side it was a 
matter of positive re-building. This was done to the extent of what 
remained roofed in Walker's day, while a very pleasant formal garden 
on varying levels has been laid out on the slightly sloping ground which 
had been occupied by Thomas TropenelPs outbuildings, of which the 
newly-revealed foundations have been left outlined in the garden lay-out. 
The west side of Tropenell's Courtyard was still standing. Towards 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 121 

the west the wall is original, and the upstairs room has, next to the 
fireplace, a charming little bayed out window of the time of Elizabeth. 
. . . To the east this building had been largely modernized before 
Walker made his survey, but enough of the old timber was found to 
exactly reproduce the oak arcading and the oak framing above it. One 
of the old windows, too, was found in another position, and was not 
only replaced but served as a model for those which were lost. East 
of the Hall the rebuilding consisted of a careful re-edification of the 
Great Chamber and its undercroft. It was uncertain whether the 
original staircase to this end of the house lay east or south of the Great 
Chamber, foundations occurring at both places. No doubt it was of 
newel form, too small to be held adequate to-day. The rebuilding, 
therefore, was made to include a sufficient space south of the Great 
Chamber to accommodate an easy ascent to it, and to the little room 
over the southern oriel of the Hall. . . . Walker fortunately pub- 
blished a very carefully measured drawing of the hall screen before its 
disappearance, and it has therefore been possible to exactly reproduce 
it. . . . The last portion ... to undergo renovation has been 
the Church, under the supervision of Mr. C. H. Biddulph-Pinchard. 
The nave belongs to the days of the Percys, but much renewal was 
done by Thomas Tropenell. The whole of the west end, including the 
delightful little stone belf ry,belongs to his time, and it has been suggested 
that he shortened the original nave, so as to prevent the Church from 
protruding too far forward and marring the general balance of the new 
house and its flanking buildings on the forecourt side . . . His chapel 
he set on the south side of the nave, connecting it with a wide archway, 
in which he placed a stone screen. Both screen and chapel he made 
personal to himself. On the central boss of the oak roof (which closely 
resembles that in the hall) is a shield of arms of Tropenell impaling 
Ludlow. On the cornice of the screen the large central shield is of 
Tropenell alone. The other four show, by the impalements, the most im- 
portant marriages of the family, from that of Walter Tropenell with his 
cousin, Margaret Ludlow, about the year 1456. This stone screen was 
afterwards moved to the chancel arch, and when in 1763, the floor of 
the Church was raised 20in., its proportions were spoilt by its being 
buried to that extent. Moreover a considerable portion of it was 
masked by the otherwise very agreeable 'three-decker' pulpit and 
reading desk, of which the details, simple as they are, point to the 
days of the Eyre ownership. The recent replacement of the screen in 
its proper position was therefore desirable from every point of view. 
. . In its stead a new oak screen, in the manner of those which 
were being so largely introduced in Thomas Tropenell's time, has been 
set across the chancel arch. There has been restoration work on the 
right lines, and Mr. and Mrs. Fuller are to be congratulated on their 
conduct of this finishing touch to the long and arduous work of giving 
back to Great Chalfield in the highest possible degree consistent with 
the conditions in which it lay, the appearance and the quality intended 
by its original builder." 

122 Bfe&ti, Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

, The illustrations comprise two plans, that of Walker of 1837, and 
one of the present day by Mr. Brafcspear showing the newly-discovered 
foundations of the destroyed wing ; and photos of The House across 
the Moat, North Front, South Elevation, New Building on the S. Side, 
E. End of 1ST. Front, Entry Porch, Great Chamber Oriel, Gatehouse 
from within the Forecourt, Garden House, Church from the E. Garden, 
Belfry, In the Hall, Hall Fireplace and N. Oriel, N. Front as it ap- 
peared 1840— 1908, Restored N. Front, Entrance Porch, Dining Room, 
Passage behind the Screen, N.W. Bedroom, Undercroft to Great 
Chamber, Stairway from passage, In the Great Chamber. 

Flint Implements from the Surface near Avebury ; 
their classification and dates. By the Rev. 

H. Cr. O. Kendall, F S A Read before the Society of Anti- 
quaries Jan. 29th, 1914, and printed in Proc. Soc. Ant, 2nd Ser., xxvil 
pp. 73—88, with thirteen excellent drawings of flints. The author deals 
only with Neolithic flints in this paper, and more especially with those 
of Windmill Hill, Avebury. He remarks on the immense number of 
chipped flints found on this site, comprising numerous arrowheads of 
various types, numbers of fabricators, long scrapers, and a multitude 
ot " horseshoe " scrapers. He notes the great resemblance of many of 
these white flints both in type and style to those of the Aurignac stage 
of the Cave Division of the Palaeolithic Age, which was first pointed out 
by Mr. Reginald Smith. Rubbed edges and ends are found frequently 
on scrapers, flakes, &c, and in some cases very fine edges have been 
rubbed. Many graver-like tools resembling the burin of the French 
caves have occurred. The resemblance of other flints from Windmill 
Hill with those of the Solutre period in France is also noted. After 
noting that the only (technically) "pygmy" specimens occurred on 
Hackpen Hill 875 ft. above O.D., and describing the patination of flints 
from the tops of the highest downs, from the hill sides, the foot of the 
downs, and the valley bottoms, the author proceeds to divide the later 
surface flints of the district into five periods distinguished by their 
patina and colour, especially the colour of the re-chippings which many 
of them show. He would place the flints with thick white patina from 
Windmill Hill in the earliest division (1), followed by those with blue- 
white patina from the same site (2). Those with light blue patina from 
the foot-hill sites come next (3) ; the dark blue (4), and the unchanged 
black or grey flints (5), from the tops of the downs, forming the two 
latest periods. As to the broken polished celts which are such a re- 
markable feature at Windmill Hill, he says : — " It is evident that the 
re-chipped polished celts with white patination are among the oldest of 
the surface flints of the neighbourhood. Re-chippings make it absolutely 
certain that the white patina is the oldest. Not only is the polished 
surface of the broken celts white, but the facets formed on them by 
re-chipping are white also. If, therefore, any of the surface flints of 
this neighbourhood are to be assigned to one of the periods of the Cave 
Division of the Palaeolithic Age, these polished celts must certainly be 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, Sec. 123 

included." But whilst the author is clear upon this point, when he 
comes to surest ages for the different patinas he refrains from assigning 
t&e earliest white patina (including the polished celts) to. the Neolithic 
Age in deference to the desire of Mr. Reginald Smith to connect these 
flints with the French Cave types, " until further light is thrown on 
the subject." The flints with the blue-white patina (2) he assigns to 
the Early Bronze "Age; those with light blue patina (3) to the Later 
Bronze Age ; the dark blue (4) to the Late Celtic, the unchanged 
black or grey (5) to to the Romano- British Age. 

Heale House, Wiltshire, the Seat of the Hon. Louis 

G-reville. Article by Laurence Weaver in Country Life, Feb. 27th, 
1915, pp. 272—277, with ten excellent photographs and a small ground- 
plan. The illustrations are : — " From the S.E.," " S. W. Front," " Door- 
way on S.E. Side," "Middle of New N. Entrance Front," "From the 
S.W.," "Hall and Lower Stairs," "Upper part of Staircase," "Old 
Fireplace at E. End of Hall," " W: End of Hall," " The Nikko Bridge," 
"Through the Tea House Window." The story of the stay here, in 
hiding, of Ch. IE., after the Battle of Worcester, from October 6—13, 
1651, is shortly told, the author pointing out that Mr. A. M. Broadley, 
who tells the story in The Royal Miracle, is wrong when he says " The 
seventeenth century house has now entirely disappeared, although an 
effort has been made to preserve the " closet " associated by tradition 
with Charles's presence at Heale." On the contrary, though "the 
house has been diminished in size and greatly altered, the south wing 
remains intact, the small bay alone being modern. The original position 
of the closet in which the King was bestowed must be purely conjectural, 
and there is no little upper room which looks especially suitable as a 
hiding place." " The character of the south wing makes it likely that 
it was designed about 1640 by someone of the school of Inigo Jones. 
It is, however, possible that it was built after the Restoration. In 
that case the King stayed in the earlier house, built, perhaps, by the 
Erringtons, who owned the Heale property from early in the sixteenth 
century until Sir Lawrence Hyde acquired it towards the end of 
Elizabeth's reign." 

At the time of Charles's visit it belonged to Robert, second son of Sir 
Lawrence Hyde, who had inherited it from his elder brother, Lawrence. 
He had then been evicted from the Recordership of Salisbury. At the 
Restoration he became Chief Justice in the King's Bench, and died 
childless in 1665, the property passing to his brother, Alexander, Bishop 
of Salisbury. He was succeeded by his son Robert, a nephew Robert, 
and Mary his sister, who bequeathed it to her daughter's husband, 
Dr. Frampton. From him it passed to the Bowles family, and then 
to Sir Edmund Loder, from whom Mr. Louis Greville bought it in 1894. 
He employed Mr. Detmar Blow to add largely to the existing south 
wing, in the same style, the new work to some extent following the 
line of old foundations. In the old S. wing the windows had been 
converted into sashes, but the ends of the transoms remained, and the 

124 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

. old mullions and transoms with casements were restored, and a bay- 
window was thrown out. The panelling and one fireplace that remained 
were re-fixed in the new hall. The staircase is an old one but came 
from elsewhere. Otherwise the interior of the house is new. The 
formal garden was planned by Mr. Peto. 

The Romance of an elderly Poet. A hitherto un- 
known chapter in the life of George Crabbe, 
revealed by his ten years correspondence with 
Elizabeth Charter, 1815—1825 By A. M. 
Broadley and Walter Jerrold. With photogravure 

frontispiece and 16 illustrations in half tone. London : Stanley Paul 4 
Co., 31, Essex Street, Strand, W.C. 

8vo., cloth, pp. including titles, xii. + 309, 10/6 net. The illustra- 
tions include four good and interesting portraits of Crabbe, " From a 
portrait by Miss Sharpies in the Bristol Art Gallery," " From a paint- 
ing by William Millington in the possession of Mrs. Mackay, The 
Grange, Trowbridge," " From a sketch taken in 1826," and "From a 
pencil drawing in the collection of A. M. Broadley." There are also 
portraits from miniatures of Elizabeth Charter, and the Rev. Richard 
Warner, Rector of Great Chalfield. Trowbridge Church, in 1830, from 
a print, and the interior also from a print ; Crabbe's Study in Trow- 
bridge Rectory ; his Mulberry Tree in the Rectory Garden ; The 
Rectory ; Westcroft House, Trowbridge ; and Wilbury House, Wilts ; 
are from photographs. There is also a view from a water colour of a 
Trowbridge street in 1814, a photograph of Crabbe's first letter to 
Elizabeth Charter, and a couple of views of Bath. 

This book deals with a mass of letters which were unknown to Ml 
Rene Huchon. "It is only since M. Huchon completed his critical 
and biographical study of the poet that the correspondence with Miss 
Charter has been recovered (and has been added, with portions of the 
poet's pocket diaries, to the accumulation of Crabbeana at the Knapp), 
that Miss Charter's album has been made available, and that other 
fresh materials have come to light." These letters were written by 
Crabbe when he was over 60, and a widower, the lady to whom they j 
were written was Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Charter, of Lynch- 
field House, Lydeard, near Taunton, born in 1782, and niece of Sir 
Charles War re Malet, of Wilbury House, where she often stayed. A 
tribute in verse to her uncle's memory (he died January, 1815) from 
her album is printed in this volume as well as verses by Bowles and 
Crabbe. Her own letters to Crabbe are not forthcoming. 

The letters themselves are largely concerned with Miss Charter's feel- 
ings, and with Crabbe's feelings for her, but as the majority were 
written from Trowbridge, there are of course continual references to 
Wiltshire people and matters, to the Rev. William Douglas, Canon of 
Salisbury, to Thomas Moore, and William Lisle Bowles, to William 
Crowe, Rector of Alton Barnes, and Richard Warner, to the Longs of 
Rood Ashton, the Malets of Wilbury, the Waldrons of Trowbridge, 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 125 

and the Hoares. There are 49 letters to Miss Charter, and 14 to other 
people. The poet seems to have been always thinking of remarriage 
with one or other of the "six female friends, unknown to each other, 
but all dear, very dear to me," but he never got beyond thinking of it. 

Sam Darling's Reminiscences. With 8 illustrations 
in photogravure and 42 in half tone. Mills & 
Boon, Limited, 49, Rupert Street, London [1914]. 

8vo., linen, pp. xi. + 248. 21/- net. 

The illustrations include "Front view of Beckhampton House 
restored by me," " Galtee More Farm," " 2 views of Yearling Yard," 
" Wildfowler Cottages," "Corner of back yard of Stables," "Corner 
view of the Kitchen Garden," " Willonyx Stable Yard and Garage," 
" Beckhampton Village," " Corner of front yard of Stables," " 2 side 
views of Beckhampton House," and "Willonyx House," all of them 
at Beckhampton. There are portraits of Sam Darling (3), Mrs. Sam 
Darling (2), Old Sam Darling (2), Fred Darling (2), Ernest Darling, 
Harold Darling, S. H. Darling, Mrs. Richard Marsh (2), Mrs. Stanning 
(2), Miss Olive Darling (2), Douglas Darling (2). The remaining 
illustrations are chiefly of horses which have made the Beckhampton 
stables and their owner famous throughout the racing world, and of 
cups and trophies won by him. 

The author was born March 11th, 1852, at Bourton Hill, Moreton in 
the Marsh, and he came of a racing stock. He migrated to Wiltshire 
and bought Beckhampton House in 1880, living for a short time at 
Heddington. In this well-printed and well-illustrated book he gives a 
plain straightforward account of his own career, of the many notable 
horses that have passed through his hands, and of the many notable 
people of the racing and sporting world with whom he has been brought 
in contact. Mr. Darling has now handed over the management of the 
training stables to his son Fred, but he continues to reside close by 
and farms 1200 acres. Incidentally he mentions that Silbury Hill is 
included in his farm. Long notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 8th ; Times 
Litt. Suppt., Sept. 10th, 1914. 

Qife of Sir John Lubbock, Lord Avebury, PC. ; For. 
Sec, R A.; F.R.S ; German Order of Merit . . . 
V.P.L.S, F.G.S, F Z S , PSA., &c , &c. By Horace 
G. Hutchinson. In two volumes. Macmillan & 
Co., Limited, St. Martin's Street, London, 1914. 

Linen, 8f X 5|. Vol. I., pp. xiv. + 338 ; Vol. II., pp. x. + 334. 
30/- net. Two portraits, " Sir John Lubbock, from a drawing by 
George Richmond, R.A., 1867," and " Lord Avebury, from a picture by 
Sir Hubert von Herkomer, R.A., 1911," and views of his residences, 
High Elms, and Kingsgate Castle, with a folding sketch pedigree 

1,26 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

showing his descent from Robert Lobuk, of North Walsham, Norf. r 
who died 1493. 

This is a very interesting life of perhaps the most versatile man of 
our times. As the Times Literary Supplement of Nov. 26th, 1914, says 
in its notice of the book. " Many men have played riiany parts suc- 
cessively, but Lubbock played them all at once. He was a banker, 
who not only conducted his own business well, but was so high an 
authority on currency, clearing houses, and the rest that they made 
him President of the Institute of Bankers, and that the City of London 
wished to be represented by him in Parliament; he was a Vice- 
Chancellor of the London University and an authority on education | 
he was a useful member, and for two years chairman, of the London 
County Council ; he was a member of the House of Commons for 
thirty years, and celebrated not for eloquence or party zeal but for his 
extraordinary skill in passing bills into acts ; and in and out of j 
Parliament he was a keen and practical social reformer. On his lighter 
side he was something of a mountaineer, and in early life a cricketer. 
... Then, as everybody knows, he was a man of eminence, not in 
one branch of science, but in many — a geologist, a palaeontologist, an 
archaeologist, and above all, our chief English authority on insects. 
He was a writer of many books, some a little severe, but highly 
appreciated by his equals, and some immensely popular ; whilst during 
all these years when he was the head of a large and distinguished 
family, he was a perfect husband, father, brother, friend." 

In addition to the honours he held in England, he held honours or 
was a corresponding member of thirty scientific societies in Europe 
and America. 

The Minster and Church Life in Warminster. By 
the Rev. H. R. Whytehead, M.A., Vicar. Printed at 

the " Journal " Office. 

Pamphlet, T^in. x 5in., pp. including title 35, with eight photos of 
the " Minster" (the Parish Church), three of the exterior, the Interior, 
Lady Aisle, Norman Arch in N. Transept, S. Porch, Organ, the Signet- 
Ring of the Vicars, Vicarage, St. Laurence's Chapel, Christ Church ex- 
terior and interior, St. John's Church exterior and interior, also photo- 
of the Vicar and author. 

This useful little book contains an accurate account of the different- 
churches and some of the other institutions of the place, a list of the 
Vicars of Warminster, and an account of the interesting ring left to- 
the present Vicar by Miss Annie Bannister, of Warminster, for the use 
of succeeding Vicars. The ring, which belonged to the Rev. A. Fane, 
is of massive gold engraved with the device of the crucifix and anchor 
combined (the cross being the shaft and crossbar of the anchor), of the 
time of James I. It is thus proved to be one of the rings given by Dr. 
Donne, poet and Dean of St. Paul's, to his immediate friends. One of 
these left by Isaak Walton to Bp. Ken is now at Longleat, another 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, <Scc. 127 

which belonged to George Herbert said to have been in the possession 
of the late Rev. W. Ayenot, of Cambridge. 

Of the Parish Church or " Minster," the author writes that there is 
nothing between the little Norman window (possibly 11th century) in 
the North Transept and the 14th century work of the tower. Chancel 
and Transepts were built in the 15th century. The S. Aisle of the 
Chancel, called the Lady Aisle, a Chantry Chapel of the Mauduit 
family, was built by Hen. VII. In 1724 almost the whole building 
west of the tower was pulled down and a very ugly nave built on the 
old foundations which in 1886—1889 gave place to the present hand- 
some nave designed by Sir Walter Blomfield, the south porch being 
part of the old work. The organ, built by England, 1792, was the gift of 
K. Geo. III. and Q. Charlotte to Salisbury Cathedral, and when the 
present great organ, given by Miss Chafyn Grove, took its place in the 
Cathedral, it was bought for Warminster Church for £400. 

The Lavington Manor Estate. [Sale Particulars.] "An ex- 
ceptionally attractive residential and agricultural property of the 
highest order, with its valuable manorial rights, extending to about 
2500 acres. Lavington Manor House is one of the ideal country seats 
of England, recently erected, with every modern convenience, electric 
light, perfect water supply and sanitation, beautifully timbered park of 
about 175 acres, thirteen valuable farms, comprising: West Park, 
Manor Farm, Little Cheverell, Littleton House, Hurst, Greenlands, 
Cheverell Mill, Rooktree, Lime Kiln Farm, Knapp House, and others ; 
excellent homesteads in first rate repair ; numerous accommodation 
holdings ; one hundred private residences and cottages and gardens, 
comprising practically the entire villages of Littleton Panell, Little 
Cheverell, and Market Lavington. Also valuable manorial rights, 
vicontiel, quit, and other rentcharges. Rent roll produced £4125 per 
annum. Messrs. Franklin k Jones will offer the above for sale by public 
auction on Thursday and Friday, July 23 and 24, 1914, at the Town 
Hall, Devizes, commencing at one o'clock precisely each day . . ." 

Folio, pp. 76. Key plan (from Ordnance), three large folding coloured 
plans, and fourteen good photos : — Manor House : E. and S. Fronts, 
Lounge Hall, Drawing Room, Library, Dining Room, Stables and 
Garage ; Keeper's Cottage, Conygre Lodge, Bouverie Lodge, West 
Park Farmhouse, Typical Cottage in Village, Littleton House, Knapp 

[The sale was fully reported, with the prices of each lot, in Wiltshire 
Gazette, July 30th, 1914.] 

>n a curious Stone Grating recently discovered at 

Bradford-On-Avon. An article by W. G. Collins, in The 
Antiquary, Feb., 1915, N.S., XL, pp. 57—61. In 1913, whilst repairs 
and alterations were being carried out by Dr. H. C.Tayler at his residence 
" The Abbey House," in Church Street, about 50yds. N.E. of the Parish 
Church, an old stone grating was found buried about 2ft. below the 

128 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

floor of a modern stable. This is formed of eleven movable wedge-shaped 
bars of stone, lOin. long, X 2in. wide, X 4f in. deep, which fit into slots 
cut in the side of a slab set edgewise, the under side of which is cut 
into the shape of a four-centred arch, and spans a pit some 20in. deep. 
From the fact of the other side of this slab being also slotted it was 
evident that the grating was originally double. The stone of which 
both the side slabs and the bars are composed is Pennant grit, which 
may have come from Corston, three miles west of Bath. The under 
side of the bars showed signs of fire, and there were ashes in the pit 
below it. Mr. H. Brakspear examined the grating and mentioned that 
at Fountains Abbey, in the corner of the kitchen floor, was a somewhat 
similar stone grating, in which, however, the bars were further apart, 
which was intended to receive all manner of kitchen refuse which might 
be swept into it. He expressed the opinion that the Bradford grating 
was intended for a similar purpose. It was probably of Tudor age, 
and connected with the " very fair house of one Horton a riche clothier J 
mentioned by Leland 1538 — 40, of which the oldest part of Dr. Tayler's 
house in the only remaining portion. Mr. Collins gives a sketch of the 
grating and arch. Dr. Tayler has reconstructed the grating in a corner 
of his garden, 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries, No. 87, Sept., 1914. 

The number begins with a note on and photograph of the Elizabethai 
roya) arms painted on the plaster filling of the upper part of the chancel 
arch in Little Somerf ord Church. N otes on the Descendants of Edward 
Combe, of Bridsor, in Tisbury, by Baroness Von Roemer, are continued, 
as also Ancient Wiltshire Deeds in possession of Mr. F. A. Page-Turner. 
This last comprises deeds connected with lands of Henry Baynard at 
Hilmarton, of Thomas Ivy and Richard Gore at Alderton, of Nicholas 
Hamblen and Richard Perman at Hullavington. Records of Marden, 
A Calendar of Feet of Fines for Wiltshire, and Notes on Compton 
Comberwell are continued. A dispute as to the tithe of Maudit's Park 
(now corrupted into " Marridge Park "), Little Somerford, is noted at 
some length. Mr. C. H. Talbot has a note maintaining that Aubrey 
was right in spelling the Daniell Manor at Melksham " Bineger " (or as 
the Wilts Visitation of 1623 gives it " Bonager "), and that the modern 
" Beanacre " ought really to be " Benacre." 

Wiltshire Notes & Queries. No. 88. Dec, 1914. 

Wiltshire Nonconformists, 1662 ; Records of Marden ; Marriage Bonds 
of the Peculiar Court of the Dean and Chapter of Sarum ; Wiltshire 
Wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury ; a Calendar 
of Feet of Fines for Wiltshire ; are continued from previous numbers. 
The editor has an interesting paper on " Robert Stiles, Merchant, of 
Amsterdam," with a photo of the entrance to the almshouses founded 
by him in Wantage, where he was born. Robert Stiles died 1680, 
leaving £150,000. His will, dated 1645, is printed here, together with 
the complaint of John Evans, s. of Arthur Evans, that this will did not 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 129 

represent the later intentions of the testator, and the answer of Joseph 
Haskins Stiles to whom the administration of the will had been 
granted. The latter married Sarah, d. of Sir John Eyles, Lord Mayor 
in 1668, and left two sons, Benjamin and Joseph. Benjamin Haskins 
Stiles was M.P. for Calne, 1722, bought the Ecclesiastical Manor in 
1719 from Joshua Sheppard, owned Corsham Manor, and resided at 
Bowden Park, leaving the whole of his property to his nephew, 
Francis Eyles, who was required to take the name of Haskins Eyles 
Stiles. This Sir Francis Haskins Eyles Stiles sold Corsham to Paul 
Methuen in 1746, Bowden to Gabriel Dickenson in 1751, and Calne 
Manor in 1746. His only son, Sir John Haskins Eyles Stiles, died un- 
married in 1768. A. St. J. Story Maskelyne has " Memoranda relating 
to the Ancient Wiltshire Family of Flower," including a long petition 
for justice from John Flower the younger, clothier, of Potterne in 1536 
printed in full, with a pedigree of Flower of Worton, &c. 

A note by F. Were on the heraldry on the screen at the east end of 
Malmesbury Abbey Church, deals with the badges and arms thereon, 
maintaining that the Royal Arms are those of Hen. VIII. and not of 
Hen. VII. An indenture of 36 Hen. VIII. between the Dean and 
Chapter of Bristol and William Webbe, of Bradford, relating to the 
parsonage and tithes of Bradford is printed by E. T. Morgan. 

Salisbury. Hall Of John Hall. Under the title " A Gothic 
Refectory of the Fifteenth Century, " an article in the Connoisseur, 
Aug., 1914, pp. 227—232, by M. F. Sparks, gives some notes on the 
existing building and its history, with photos of John Halle (from the 
glass) ; section of window showing arms of John Halle and merchant's 
mark ; The Hall of John Halle, from an old print ; The Fireplace ; 
Door and Doorway ; and Minstrel Gallery. The illustrations are the 
best part of the article. 

The Wilton Library Sale. The famous Pembroke Library, most 
of which was acquired by Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke, 
1656-1733, sold by Messrs. Sotheby on June 25th and 26th, 1914, 
realised £38,936 for 211 lots, the largest amount ever made in a two 
days' book sale in Wellington Street. Of the Block books, the Nurn- 
berg Apocalypse, cir 1460, fetched £2120 ; the Ars Moriendi, incom- 
plete, £500 ; the Biblia Pauperun £780 ; the Latin and Dutch editions 
of the Speculum Humanae Salvationis, £900 and £1200. Of Early 
English books there were eight Caxtons : the 1st edition of The Game 
and Playe of the Ghesse, £1800 ; 2nd edition, £300-, original edition of 
Earl of Worcester's translation of Tullius de Amicitia, .£1050 ; Dictes 
and Notable Wyse sayings of the Philosophers, 3rd edition, £1050 ; 
Godfrey de Bouillon, £255 ; Ralph Rigden, Polychronicon (imperfect), 
£270 ; Recuyell of the Historyes of Troy (imperfect), £500 ; John 
Mirk's Festivall, £320. Dame Juliana Berners' Book of St. Albans, 
£1800. One volume containing the two first books printed at Oxford, 
Hieronymous : Expositio in Symbolum Apostolorum and Aristoteles : 


130 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

JSthica, £760 ; the Rationale Divinorum Officiorum, £1950 ; Cicero : 
Be Oratore, 1465, £1000 ; 1st edition of La Divina Commedia, £990 ; 
Lactantius, 1465, £810 ; Macrobius, 1st edition, £1600. Sale noted at 
some length in Connoisseur ', Aug., 1914, p. 270 — 272. 

Nythe Farm, Strattou St. Margaret, Roman pottery, &c. 

A short note by E. H. Binney in Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., xxvi., 
209, records the fact that in April, 1914, he found in a field about 200 
yards N. of the spot marked on the Ordnance Map as the site of Nidum, 
along the side of the Ermine Street, in a number of post holes recently 
dug, black earth and a large quantity of fragments of pottery, mostly 
grey and black ware, with a fair number of pieces of Samian, a number 
of iron nails, an iron spiked implement with a socket, two fragments 
of glass, one of them a piece of a fiat-sided vessel, and a bronze coin 
not decipherable. The black earth seemed to extend for about 50yds. 
and was about 3ft. deep at the deepest point. 

William Clerk, Esq., (apparently of Wulfhall), chief surveyor of 
the Victuals at Cambray, in the French War, 1557, is the subject 
of a note in Wiltshire Times, February 27th, 1915, in which also is 
printed a note on an Inquest held 5 Hen. VIII., on an assault committed 
by the Prior of Maiden Bradley and others on John Ludlow, Esq., at 
Hill Deverill, in his wood and common, of Ballswood and Ballsheath. 

Orabbe and the Villager, By G. Lacey May. Art. in The 
Commonwealth, Feb., 1915, vol. xx., No. 230, pp. 48 — 50. "Few men 
before Crabbe or since, have known the village or the villager so in- 
timately as he ; and no one has written so intimately as he of the 
sorrows and joys of the country poor." 

The care of our Ancient Churches. The issue of 
Faculties for Alterations, &c. The speeches of Mr. 

Allan Cyprian Webb, Chancellor of the Diocese, and Archdeacon E. J. 
Bodington at the Salisbury Synod are reported in Wiltshire Gazette, 
April 29th, 1915. 

Malmesbury and LaCOCk. Excursions of the Dorset Field Club 
to, on 14th and 15th August, 1913, E. Doran Webb acting as guide. 
Notes on the excursions in Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, fy Antiquarian 
Field Club. Vol. xxxv., pp. xxxv. — xxxviii. 

Palaeolithic Periods at Knowle Farm Pit. The Rev. 

H. G. O. Kendall read a paper before the Society of Antiquaries on 
May 11th, 1911, which is printed in their Proceedings, 2nd ser., xxiii., 
453—460, with the resulting discussion pp. 461—463. Mr. Kendall 
divides the Knowle implements, of which he says about 2000 have 
passed through his own hands alone, into five or six groups, which he 
believes denote the work of successive periods corresponding with the 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 131 

periods into which Prof. Comment and the French archaeologists 
divide the flints of St. Acheul and the Somme valley. He also dwells on 
the origin of the striae and the gloss which appears on so many of the 
flints at Knowle. He attributes the striae to ice moving over the face 
of the gravel and pressing grains of quartz sand on the flint, and is 
inclined to suggest that the same agency working with very fine sand 
and iron is responsible for the gloss which others had attributed to 
blown sand. 

Windmill Hill, Avebury. Flints. In a note in Man, Aug., 
1914, p. 134 — 5, Mr. A. D. Passmore has a note on the " Rarity of large 
Flint Implements in Gloucestershire." This has been remarked by 
Canon Greenwell in British Barrows, p. 443. It is a district in which 
flint is not naturally produced, it must therefore have been imported 
from Wiltshire, and so would be scarce and valuable. Mr. Passmore 
suggests therefore, that when a large celt was broken the pieces were 
not thrown away, but were flaked up and re- made into arrowheads and 
scrapers. He goes on to suggest that the occurrence of so many flakes 
and fragments evidently struck off polished celts at Windmill Hill, 
near Avebury, is to be accounted for by the preference of the makers 
of arrowheads, <fcc, for pieces of flint which had already been chosen 
for celts because of their freedom from flaws. 

Xiittle Xiangford. The story of the robbery from the house of 
Thomas Gyfford, Rector of Little Langford, on Feb. 18th, 2 Rich. III., 
by Richard Bays of Little Langford, and of the considerable amount 
of gold and silver jewellery and plate stolen therefrom, is given in 
Wiltshire Times, Jan. 23rd, 1915. In the same paper is printed a muster 
of the Pikeners, Bilmen, Archers, and Harquebusiers in the different 
divisions of Wiltshire in 1560, and the will of Thomas Cooke of Donhead 
St. Andrew, dated July 1, 1649. 

Devizes St. Mary's. Proposal to re-cast the Bells. 

The proceedings at the Chancellor's Court at Devizes to hear an 
application from the Rector and Churchwardens for a faculty to 
authorise the re-casting of the present six bells into a new peal of 
eight bells, are fully reported in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 23rd, 1914. 
Mrs. Llewellyn presented the case for the Churchwardens, Mr. 
Brownlee West, Hon. Sec. to the Diocesan Guild of Ringers, and the 
Rev. H. E. Tilney Bassett, Master of the Guild, also spoke in favour 
of the application. The Rev. C. V. Goddard presented the case of the 
Wilts Archaeological Society in opposition to the application, and Mr. 
G. S. A. Waylen supported him. The case was adjourned in order to 
obtain the evidence of a disin terested expert. Eventually the Chancellor 
granted the application. 

j Ogbourne St. Andrew Church. Report of the opening of the 

Church after the work of restoration by Mr. C. E. Ponting, F.S.A., the 

K 2 

132 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

principal items of which are described, and with Mr. Pontings descrip- 
tion of the building as given mW.A.M., xxviii., are printed in Wiltshire' 
Gazette, Dec. 31st, 1914. 

Chartists at Trowbridge and Westbury in 1839. 

An interesting letter from a girl of 14 to her brother describing the 
meetings of the Chartists and the arrest of their leaders is printed in 
Wiltshire Times, Jan. 9th, 1915. 

StOnehenge. By William Burrough Hill, F.S.I. An article in "J/y 
Garden, Illustrated" Dec, 1914, pp. 361—363, with four illustrations. 
"A Peep into the Sanctum Sanctorum, W. Stukeley " ; " After J. W. 
Turner, R.A."; "Present Day" ; and "Garden Miniature." This is more 
or less a repetition of the pamphlet already noticed in W.A.M., xxxviii., 
524, but is here accompanied by a page of ecstatic advertisement. 
" Rock gardens, bog gardens, formal or any other kind of gardens may 
be, and are, very beautiful as such — terraces, rockeries, winding paths, 
pedestals, and even statuary have their uses — but the charm of ancient 
history, coupled with the mysteries of the Dark Ages long before the 
Christian Era, can alone be found in mystic surroundings of a Model 
or Replica of ' Stonehenge.' What could be more beautiful, majestic, 
entrancing, and educational, than a full-size replica on a lawn of a 
garden of a few acres 1 " Model A. f full size, may be obtained for 50 
gns. ; Model B, half full-size for 250 gns. ; and Model C, full-size for 
500 gns. " All prices including crating, packing, and plan for fixing " 
at 93, above Bar, Southampton. 

Devizes Castle. [Sale Particulars]. "Messrs. Knight, Frank, & Rutty 
will offer the above for Sale by Auction, at the Estate Room, 20, Hanover 
Square, London, W., on the 25th day of June, 1914, at 2.30 o'clock.'* 
. . . Large 4to, pp. 17, with etching of entrance gateway, and good 
photos of exterior of Castle (2) ; Norman Gateway, Bishop's Gateway, 
Ladies' Gateway, Oratory Window, Gallery, Drawing Room, Gardens, 
and folding coloured map. 

Whitley House, near Melksham. Particulars of Sale. 60 acres 
... at the King's Arms Hotel, Melksham, on 27th May, 1913, by 
Messrs. Foley, Son, & Mundy. 4to., pp. 10, with folding coloured plan 
and three photos, the Front and Back of the House, and the Garden. 

Snelgare and Mompesson. A note in Wiltshire Times, Dec. 
26th, 1914, records a petition temp. Hen. VIII., from ten members of 
the family of Snelgare, of Bathampton (in Wylye), Corton, Fisherton 
Delamere, and Chilmark, against John Mompesson, who claimed them 
as his villeins and had seized their persons and their goods. 

"A Famous Forest, the Beauties of Savernake." 

A long article on the forest, filling several columns in Wiltshire Times, 
Dec. 26th, 1914. 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 133 

Wiltshire Soldiers in the Reign of Elizabeth. A list 

of men impressed in Wiltshire for service in Ireland is printed in 
Wiltshire Times, Feb. 13th, 1915. 

The Crabbe Centenial Celebration at Trowbridge, 

On June 17th, 1914, with the long address on the poet's life 
and works by A. M. Broadley and an abstract of the sermon by the 
Dean of Salisbury in the Parish Church are very fully reported in the 
Wiltshire Times, June 20th (with cuts of the Church and the Crabbe 
monument in the chancel, and a photo of the portrait by Pickersgill in 
the National Portrait Gallery), and in the Wiltshire Gazette, June 18th, 

The " Associated Householders " or Devizes Loyal 

Volunteers " of 1798— 1801, are the subject of an article by Mr. 
Mr. H. Robinson in Wiltshire Gazette, April 8th, 1915. 

The Devizes Town Crier, some jottings about his 

COStume, and predecessors, an interesting article by Ed. 
Kite in Wiltshire Gazette, April 29th, 1915. The Town Crier of Devizes 
shares with the criers of two or three other places in England, York 
among them, the distinction of being clad in scarlet, and his livery was 
described at the Brit. Arch. Association meeting in 1880 at Devizes as 
that of " a Verderer of the Royal Forests." Mr. Kite, however, regards 
this as an error, and goes to the Bye Laws of the time of Q. Eliz. for a 
better explanation of the royal livery. The Town Crier was then also 
" the Cryer of the Royal Court " held weekly in the Guildhall of that 
time, when the Manor and Borough were in the hands of the Crown. 
This Mr. Kite regards as the origin of the official scarlet dress and the 
cap, " wrongly described as that of a Royal Huntsman — which is really 
the Cap of Maintenance, but without the projections at the back as 
usually drawn in heraldry." His official title now is " Town Crier and 
Ale Taster." The Bellman was a separate official. 

" The Call to Arms in Whiteparish, Wilts, 1914. 

A sermon preached at All Saints' Church, Whiteparish, by the Rev. C. 
F. Metcalfe, M.A., Vicar, August 30th, 1914. Poems by Rudyard 
Kipling, Esq., the late Lord Tennyson, and Bret Harte. List of White- 
parish men serving in His Majesty's forces. Sold on behalf of the 
funds of the Red Cross Society. Price fourpence." 

Pamphlet, 8^in. X 5|in., pp. 16. Six plates containing photos of 24 
Whiteparish men in the Navy or Army. It was compiled by Mr. W. 
F. Lawrence, of Cowesfield House. 



Presented by Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, F.S.A. : Pipe marked T.H., from 

Winterbourne Monkton. 
„ „ Mr. H. E. Medlicott : Nine small pipes found at Potterne. 

„ „ Rev. E. H. Goddard : Grapta C -album, caught at Clyffe 

Pypard, 1914. 
„ „ Rev. O. M. Holden : Fragments of the pots in which the 

hoard of Roman coins found at Grovely were contained. 


Presented by Mr. J. E. Prichard, F.S.A. : " Hall's Pocket Map of 

Wiltshire," 1832. 
„ „ Mr. and Miss Dartnell : Cuttings and Illustrations ; 

Salisbury Directory, two years. 
„ „ Mr. F. W. Long: "Pitman Centenary 1913 Program of 

Celebrations at London and Bath." 
„ „ Lord Avebury : " Life of Sir John Lubbock, Lord 

Avebury," two vols. 1914. 
„ „ The Author (E. F. Pye-Smith): 'Agricultural Developement 

through Social order," 1914. 
„ „ Mr. J. J. Slade : Wilts Articles and Illustrations. 

„ „ Mr. H. E. Medlicott : " Wiltshire Gazette," " Salisbury 

Diocesan Gazette," " North Wilts Church Magazine," all 

complete for 1914 ; eight Sale Particulars of Wiltshire 

„ „ Mr. W. F. Lawrence : " The Call to Arms in Whiteparish, 

Wilts, 1914 " — pamphlet with portraits of the men serving. 
„ „ The Author (Rev. H. R. Whytehead) : "The Minster 

and Church Life in Warminster." 
„ „ The Author (Rev. H. G. O. Kendall): "Flint Imple- 

ments from the Surface near Avebury," reprint from Proc . 

Soc. Ant., xxvi. 
,, „ Mr. G. Fidler : Drawing of Roman Bronze enamelled 

Brooch from Stockton Woods, in possession of Miss Fidler, 

of Teffont. 
„ „ The Author (C. E. Ponting) ; " The Church of St. John 

the Evangelist, Milborne Port," 1914. 
„ „ Miss Baker : Drawing of Old Lympley Stoke Church, 

„ „ Mr. Emmanuel Green, F.S.A. : Several Prints, Documents, 

„ „ Mr. F. A Page Turner : Several XIV. Century Deeds 

connected with Alderton. 
„ „ Rev. C. V. Goddard : Salisbury Jour Tial for 1914 ; Cuttings 

and Scraps. 
„ The Proprietors : Wiltshire Times for 1914. 


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Any Member whose name or address is incorrectly printed in this List is 
requested to communicate with the Financial Secretary. 


Penological anto Natural PHstorg Society 

JUNE, ;l9i5. 

Patron : 
The Most Hon. the Marquis of Lansdowne, K.G. 

President : 
W. Heward Bell, Esq., F.G.S., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bath 
The Right Rev. Bishop G. Forrest 
Browne, F.S.A. 

H. E. Medlicott, Esq. 
C. H. Talbot, Esq. 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bath 
C. E. H. A. Colston, Esq. 
G. P. Fuller, Esq. 

Trustees : 

A. Grant-Meek, Esq. 
The Most Hon. The Marquis of 
Lansdowne, K.G. 

The Committee consists of the following Members, in addition to the 
Honorary Officers of the Society : 

Yen. Archdeacon Bodington, The 

Vicarage, Calne 
J. I. Bowes, Esq., Devizes 
Mrs. B. H. Cunnington, Devizes 
Rev.J.Hamlyn Hill, D.D., Erchfont 
Rev. E. P. Knubley, Steeple Ashton 

Vicarage, Trowbridge 

H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Sandjield 

Potterne, Wilts 
Rev. Canon Thynne, Seend 
G. S. A. Waylen, Esq., Long St., 


Honorary General Secretary and Librarian : 
Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Pypard Vicarage, Swindon. 

Honorary Curator of the Museum, and Meeting Secretary : 
B. H. Cunnington, Esq., F.S.A., Scot., Devizes. 

Deputy Honorary Curator, Nat. Hist. : 
Edward Cook, Esq., Devizes. 

List of Members. 139 

A. W. N. Burder, Esq., F.S.A., 

Belcombe Courts Bradford-on- 

R. S. Ferguson, Esq., Elm Grove, 

Rev. C. V. Goddard, Baverstock, 

F. H. Gol'dney, Esq., Beechfield, 


Honorary Local Secretaries : 

Rev. F. H. Manley, Great Somer- 
ford, Chip2)enham 

Rev. J. Penrose, West Ashton, 

C. E. Fonting, Esq., F.S.A., Marl- 
borough [MelJcsham 

Arthur Schomberg, Esq., Seend, 

Rev. A. W. Stote, Holy Trinity 
Vicarage, Trowbridge 

Hon. Treasurer: 
C. E. H. A. Colston, Esq., Bound way Park, Devizes. 

Honorary Auditors : 

G. S. A. Waylen, Esq., Devizes. 

E. F. Toone, Esq., Devizes. 

Financial Secretary : 
Mr. David Owen, F.O.A., Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

List of Societies, &c, tn Union with the 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society 

For interchange of Publications, dec. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

British Archaeological Association. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

Kent Archaeological Society. 

Somerset Archaeological Society. 

Essex Field Club. 

Hampshire Field Club. 

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 

Herts Natural History Society and Field Club. 

Powysland Club. 

East Riding Antiquarian Society, Yorks. 

East Herts Archaeological Society. 

Cotteswold Naturalists Field Club. 

United States Geological Survey. 

Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C., United States. 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. 

Surrey Archaeological Society. 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society. 


List of Members. 


Life Members 

Antrobus, Lady, Amesbury Abbey, 

Awdry,C.S., Hitchambury,Taplow 
Crewe, Right Hon. Earl of, Crewe 

Hall, Cheshire 
Fitzmaurice, The Right Hon. Lord, 

Leigh, Bradford-on-Avon 
Lansdowne,Most Hon. Marquis of, 

K.G., Bowood, Calne 
Ludlow, James B., Flemings Hotel, 

9, Halt* Moon Street, Mayfair, 

London, W. 
Mullings, John, Cirencester 

Penruddocke, C, Compton Park, 

Radnor, Right Hon. Earl of, Long- 
ford Castle, Salisbury 

Stancomb, John F., Shaw House, 

Tayler, Dr. H. P., 13, Higher 
Broadway, Exmouth 

Walmesley, John, Lucknam, Chip- 

Wordsworth, Rev. Canon, St. 
Nicholas' Hospital, Salisbury 

Annual Subscriber 

a Court, Captain the Hon. Holmes, 

R.N., Bishopstrow, Warminster 
Adderley Library, Librarian of, 

The College, Marlborough 
Adye, Albert, High Street, Malmes- 

Adye, Mrs.W. J. A., St. Margaret's, 

Arkell, Mrs., Redlands Court, 

High worth 
Avebury,The Right Hon. Lord, 15, 

Lombard Street, London, E.C. 
Awdry, Justly W. } The Paddocks, 


Baker, Miss F. E., 91, Brown 

Street, Salisbury 
Barclay, Rev. D. B., St. Paul's 

Rectory, Chippenham 
Barrett, W. H., Marshfield Road, 

Baskett, Rev. J. G.K.,The Rectory, 

Donhead, Salisbury 
Bath Corporation Library, Bath. 
Bath, The Most Hon. the Marquis 

of, Longleat, Warminster 

Beaven, Edwin C, Arboyne, Holt, 

Bell, W. Heward, F.G.S., F.S.A., 

Cleeve House, Seend, Melksham 
Bethell, S., 12, Hughenden Road 

Clifton, Bristol 
Bird, W. R., 125, Goddard Avenue, 

Birmingham Free Libraries (Ref 

erence Dept.), Ratcliff Place; 

Blackmore, Dr. H. P., Vale House 

Blake, Henry, . Elmhurst, Trow 

Blathwayt,Geo. W. W., Melkshai 

House, Melksham 
Blount, G. L. W., 39, High Stree 

Bodington, The Ven. Archdeacon 

The Vicarage, Calne 
Bourne, Rev. Canon G. H., D.C.L 

St. Edmund's College, Salisbur 
Bouverie,Miss A. Pleydell,The 01 

House, Market Lavington, Wilt 
Bouverie, E. O. P., F.S.A., The 01 

House, Market Lavington, Wil 
Bowes, J. I., Devizes 
Bowes, W. H. B., Devizes 
Bradford, Miss M. M., St. Amand 

Adderbury, Banbury, Oxford 

List of Members. 


Bristol Municipal Public Libraries, 

Brocklebank, Rev. J. W. R., Long- 
bridge Deverill, Warminster 
Brown, Rev. P. R. B., Wilton, 

Buchanan, Venerable Archdeacon, 

Buller, Mrs. Tremayne, Downes, 

Crediton, Devon 
; Burder, Alfred W. N., F.S. A, Bel- 
combe Court, Bradford-on-Avon 
Burgess, Rev. C. F., The Vicarage, 
Wanborough, Swindon 
j Burkhardt, G. H., Don Head, 

Westlecott Road, Swindon 
1 Burt, W. H., The Red House, 

Lacock, Chippenham 
: Bush, James, Avon View, Old 

Sarum, Salisbury 
': Bush, J. E., The Cabin, Melksham 
i Bush, Robert C, 1, Winifred's 

Dale, Cavendish Road, Bath 
Buxton, Gerard J., Tockenham 
Manor, Swindon 

Caillard, Sir Vincent H. P., Wing- 
field House, Trowbridge 

Caird, R. H., 4, Queen's Gate 
Place, London, S.W. 

Calne Public Library, Calne 

Canning, Lt.-Col. A., Restrop 
House, Purton, Wilts 

Carpenter, Joseph, The Manor 
House, Stratford - sub - Castle, 

Carter, C. C, The College, Marl- 

drivers, Giles, Saint John Street, 

Clapham, Captain J. T., 3, Home- 
field Road, Wimbledon Common, 
London, S.W. 

Clark-Maxwell, Rev. Preb. W. G., 
St. Leonard'sRectory, Bridgnorth 

Clark, Miss M., Prospect House, 

Clark, Rev. A. J., Rowde Rectory, 

Clifton, The Right Rev. The Lord 
Bishop of, St. Ambrose, Leigh 
Woods, Bristol 
jCoates, John, Wilton School, 
V\ llton, Salisbury 

Cole, Clem, Calne, Wilts 

Cole, Dr. S. J., Campfield, Devizes 

Colston, C. E. H. A., Roundway 
Park, Devizes 

Cook, A., South View, Manning- 
ford, Pewsey 

Cook, Edward, Walden Lodge, 

Coward,Edward,Southgate House, 

Coward, Mrs., Southgate House, 

Cox, E. Richardson, South Wraxall 
Manor, Bradford-on-Avon 

Crawford, O. G. S., The Grove, 
East Woodhay, Newbury 

Crespi, Dr. A. J. H., Wimborne 

Crosfield, John D., Durley House, 
Saver nake Forest, Marlborough 

Cunnington, B. H., F.S.A., Scot., 
33, Long Street, Devizes 

Cunnington, Mrs. B. H., 33, Long- 
Street, Devizes 

Dartnell, H. W., Abbotsfield, Salis- 
Devenish, H.Noel, Little Durnford, 

Dixon, S. B., Pewsey, Wilts 
Dunne,A.M., The Highlands,Calne 
Dunsterville, Col. K. S., Guyers 
House, Corsham 

Engleheart, Rev. G. H., F.S.A., 

Dinton, Salisbury 
Everett, C. R., Hazelcroft, Devizes 
Ewart, Miss M., Broadleas, Devizes 
Eyre, G. E. Briscoe, Warrens, 

Bramshaw, near Lyndhurst, 


Farrer, Percy, Westfield, Mullens 

Pond, Andover 
Ferguson, R. S., M.B., CM., Elm 

Grove, Calne 
Fernie, Mrs., Keythorpe Hall, 

Ferris, T. H. S., The Ark, Devizes 
Filleul, Rev. W. P. G.,The Rectory, 

Firman, Rev. S., Cherhill Rectory, 



List of Membe 


Fisher, John, St. Edith's Marsh, 

Float, Miss L. E., The Secondary 

School, Devizes 
Flower, C. T., 1, Lammas Park 

Gardens, Ealing, London, W. 
Forster, R. Carnaby, Vasterne 

Manor, Wootton Bassett 
Fry, E. A., Thornhill, Kenley, 

Fuller, G.P., Neston Park, Corsham 
Fuller, R. F., Great Ohalfield, 


Garnett, C, Kington Langley, 

Giddings, Edwin, Park Cottage, 

Gilbert, A. John, High Street, 

Gladstone, John E., Bow r den Park, 

Glenconner, The Rt. Hon. Lord, 

Wilsford House, Salisbury 
Goddard, He v. C. V., Baverstock, 

Goddard, Rev. E. H, Clyffe Pypard 

Vicarage, Swindon 
Goddard, Mrs. E. H.,Clyffe Pypard 

Vicarage, Swindon 
Goddard, F. Pleydell, The Lawn, 

Godsal, Captain W., Haines Hill, 

Twyford, Berks 
Goldney, F. H., Beechfield, Cor- 
sham, Wilts 
Goldney, Sir John T., Monk's Park, 

Goldney, Sir Prior, Bart., Derriads, 

Goldsbrough, Albert, Pickering, 

Goodchild, Rev. W., Berwick St. 

John Rectory, Salisbury 
Gough, W., Nore xMarsh, Wootton 

Grant-Meek, A , Hillworth House, 

Greville, The Hon. Louis, Heale 

House, Woodford, Salisbury 
Grose, Samuel, M.D., Bishops 

Teignton, Teignmouth. 

Grove, Sir Walter, Bart., Sedgehill 

Manor, Shaftesbury 
Gundry, R. S., C.B., Hillworth 

Cottage, Devizes 
Gwatkin, R. G., Manor House, 

Potterne, Wilts 
Gwillim, E. LI., Marlborough 
G.W.R. Mechanics' Institution, 

Gwynne-Davies, Miss, Mansfield 

House, Malmesbury 

Hadow, Rev. G. R., Hillside, War- 
Hansard, J. H., Stanbridge Earls, 

Romsey, Hants 
Harrison, Rev. D. P., Lydiard 

Millicent Rectory, Swindon 
Haskins, Charles. Brownie-Brae, 

Wainalong Road, Salisbury 
Hawley Lt.-Col. W., R.E , F.S.A. 

Stockton House, Codford St.J 

Mary, Wilts 
Hay, Rev. R. W., Garsdon Rectory,] 

Head, J. Merrick, F.R.G.S., 24,! 

The Royal Crescent, Bath 
Heard, J. A., Beckhampton, Marl 

Heath, R. S., The Strand, Calne, 

Heytesbury, Col. Lord, Northgate 

House, Devizes 
Hill, Rev. J. Hamlyn, D.D., Erch 

font Vicarage, Devizes 
Hillier, H. W., 21, High Street 

Hoare, Sir Henry H. A., Bart. 

Stourhead, Bath 
Hobhouse, Sir C.P. Bart., Monkto 

Farleigh, Bradford- on- A von 
Holden, Rev. O. M., The Rectory 

Steeple Langford, Salisbury 
Hony, G. B., 4, Beaufort Rd 

Clifton, Bristol 
Hope, Lady St. John, Nethergate 

House, Clare, Suffolk 
Hornby, C. H. St. J., Porch House 

Potterne, Wilts 
Howlden, H. Linley, Old Mano 

House, Freshford, Somerset 

List of Members. 


Islington, The Rt. Hon. Lord, 
Hartham Park, (Jorsham 

Jackson, J. T., Eastcroft House, 

Jenner, Major L. C, The Manor 

House, Avebury, Marlborough 
John Rylands Library, Manchester 

Keir, W. Ingram, F.R.C.S.E., The 

Limes, Melksham 
King, Walter E., Donhead Lodge, 

Knight-Adkin, Rev. H. Kenrick, 

Horfield Rectory, Bristol 
Knubley, Rev.E.P.,Steeple Ashton 

Vicarage, Trowbridge 

; Laing, Miss M. J., Fairfield, Rock- 

leaze, Nr. Bristol 
\ Lambert, R. C, M.P., Royston, 
West HeathAvenue.Hampstead, 
London, N.W. 
; Lambert, Rev. S., The Rectory, 

Lansdown, G., Wingfield Road, 

jLaverton, W. H., Leighton, 

Lawes, E. Thornton H., 31, Carlyle 

Square, Chelsea, London, S.W. 
.Lawrence, W. F., Cowesfield.Salis- 
I bury 
Laycock, W., 28a, Clifton St., 

paaf, Mrs. Herbert, The Green, 
; Marlborough 

Little, W. G.,32, Fleet St.,Swindon 
Livingstone, Rev. Canon R. G., 
Brinkworth Rectory, Chippen- 
Locket, J. Wood, Inglewood, 

ong, Frederick W., Pembroke, 
Westbourne Road, Trowbridge 
ong,Col. William,Newton House, 

Long, Rt. Hon. W. H., M.P., Rood 
Ashton, Trowbridge 

Lovibond, Joseph W., Lake House, 

Lucas, J., Preston House, War- 

Main, Geo. J., The Priory, Brown 

Street, Salisbury 
Mann, William H., Brooklyn, Sem- 

ington, Trowbridge 
Mann, William J., Trowbridge 
Manley, Rev. F. H., Somerford 

Magna Rectory, Chippenham 
Marlborough College Natural His- 
tory Society, President of, The 

College, Marlborough 
Marcon,Mrs.,The Lodge.Eynsham, 

Maskelyne, A. St. J. Story., Public 

Record Office, Chancery Lane, 

Maskelyne, Mrs. Story, Basset 

Down House, Swindon 
Masters, W. A. H., Hill House, 

Pawlett, Bridgwater 
Matcham, G. Eyre, Newhouse, 

Maton, E. B., Longstreet, Enford, 

Mayo, Rev. R.,Ivy House, Corsham 
Mc.Cormick, Rev. F., F.S.A., Scot., 

Wrockwardine Wood Rectory, 

Wellington, Salop. 
McMillan, Rev. Canon C. D. H., 

The Vicarage, Malmesbury 
McNiven, C. F., Puckshipton, 

Meade, Rev. The Hon. S., Frank- 

leigh House, Bradford-on-Avon 
Medlicott, H. E., Sandfield, Pot- 

terne, Wilts 
Medlicott, Walter B., 18, Campden 

Hill Gardens, London, W. 
Merriman, R. W., Sempringham, 

Messenger, H., The Close Gate- 
house, Salisbury 
Methuen, Field Marshal Lord, 

G.C.B., K.C.V.O., C.M.G., Cor- 
sham Court 
Milling, Rev. M. J. T., Vicarage, 

Ashton Keynes, Cricklade 
Milman, Miss, Brownston House, 



List of Members. 

Mitchell, Arthur C High Grove, 

Tetbury, Gloucestershire 
Money -Kyrle, Mrs., Whetham, 

Calne . 

Moore, Wm. Vincent, jun., West 

Street, Wilton, Salisbury 
Morrin, Rev. T., St. Joseph's Place, 

Morrison, Hugh, Little Ridge, 

Tisbury, Wilts 
Mundy, H., Trowbridge 
Murray-Shirreff, Mrs. A., Whitley 

Brow, Melksham 
Myers, Rev. Canon, St. Martin's 

Rectory, Salisbury 

Naish, Miss R. V., Wilton, Salis- 

National Library of Wales, Aber- 
ystwyth . ' 

Neeld, Lieut.-Col. Sir Audley D., 
Bart., C.B., Grittleton House, 

Nelson, The Rt. Hon. Earl, Trafal- 
gar, Salisbury. 

Newall, II. S., Fisherton Delamere 
House, Wylye, Wilts 

Newberry Library, Chicago, U . b. A. 
per Messrs. B. F. Stevens & 
Brown, 4,Trafalgar Square, W.C. 

Newbolt, Sir H. J.,Netherhampton 
House, Salisbury . 

Society, 5, Ashburton Place, 
Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

New York Public Library, per 
Messrs. B. F. Stevens & Brown, 
4, Trafalgar Square, W.C. 

Nicholas, O. R., Worcester Col- 
lege, Oxford 

Noel,Rev. Wyndham,Christchurcn 
Vicarage, Bradford-on-Avon 

Normanton, Rt. Hon. Earl of, 
Somerley, Ringwood, Hants 

Noyes, Miss E., Sutton Veny, 

Olivier, Col. H. D., c/o Messrs. 
Grindlay & Co., 54, Parliament 
St., London, S.W, 

Olivier, Rev. Canon Dacres, The 
Close, Salisbury 

Oswald, Mrs., Broughton Gifford, 

Owen, D.,The Croft, Combe Down, 
Bath i T . 

Oxford Architectural and His- 
torical Society, Ashmolean Mu- 
seum, Oxford m 

Oxley, Selwyn, 75, Victoria Road, 
London, W. 

Palmer, George LI., Lackham, 

Lacock, Wilts 
Park, Miss, The Dial House, West 

Lavington, Wilts 
Parsons, R., Hunt's Mill Farm, 

Wootton Bassett 
Passmore, A. D., Wood Street, 

Peake, H. J. E., Westbrook House, 

Pearce, R., Langley Burrell, Chip- 
Penrose, Dr. F. G.,The Athenaeum, 

Pall Mall, London, S.W. 
Penrose, Rev. J., West Ashton 

Vicarage, Trowbridge 
Penruddocke,Miss Flora, Compton 

Park, Salisbury 
Penruddocke, Miss H. a C, Telhs- j 

ford, Bath 
Perkins, John, 47, Causeway, Chip- 

penham . ' 

Perkins, Rev. Charles E., Little 

Hinton Rectory, Swindon 
Pile, T. A. J., 47, Arundel Gardens, 

Kensington, London, W. 
Ponting, C. E.,F;S.A.,Marlborough 
Poore, Major R., 17, Rosemount 

Road, Bournemouth 
Powell, John U., Boreham, War- 
Preston, W. R., Seend Park, Melk- 

Prower, Miss, Sissels, Purton,] 

Public Record Office, Chancery; 

Lane, London, per Messrs.; 

Wyman & Sons, Ltd., Fettei 

Lane, E.C. _, .. 

Pye-Smith, E.F., The Close, Salis 


List of Members. 


Radcliffe, F. R. Y., K.C., The Rise, 

Headington Hill, Oxford 

Rawlence, E. A., Newlands, Salis- 

Redfern, Rev. J. Lemon, Ashley 
Rectory, Tetbury, Gloucester- 

Rendell,Ethelbert ; St. John Street, 

Richardson, A. P., Purton House, 
Purton, Wilts 

Richardson, Rev. A. T., Bradford- 

Robbins, Rev. M., Holy Trinity 
Vicarage, West End, Chobham 

Roemer, Baron 0. H. von, Lime 
Park, Hurstmonceux, Sussex 

Ross, Rev. Canon A. G. Gordon, 
St. Mark's Vicarage, Swindon 

Ruddle, Rev. A. G., East End 
Manor, Durrington, Salisbury 

Rudman, Robert E. D., Chippen- 

Rumboll, C. F., M.U., Lowbourne 
House, Melksham 

Sadler, John, 10, Woodville Road, 
Ealing, London, W. 

Sainsbury, H., Greystone House, 

Sainsbury, Mrs. Herbert, Grey- 
stone House, Devizes 

Salisbury Public Library, Endless 
Street, Salisbury 

Salisbury, The Very Rev. The 
Dean of, The Deanery, Salis- 

Scarth, Leveson, Turleigh Mill, 

Schomberg, Arthur, Seend, Melk- 
| Schomberg, E. C, Seend, Melk- 

Scott, H. Dudley, Erchf ont Manor, 

Selman, Jacob, Kington Langley, 

Sewell, Rev. Arthur, Sutton Veny 
Rectory, Warminster 

Shuttleworth, Rev. W. Starkie, 5, 
De Vaux Place, Salisbury 

Sibbald, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, 
Norton-St.-Philip, Bath 

Simpson, A. B., Upper Lodge, 

Fernhurst, Haslemere, Surrey 
Simpson, Cecil, Cliftonville, the 

Common, Sutton, Surrey- 
Simpson, G., Market Place, Devizes 
Sladen, Rev. C. A., Alton Berners, 

Pewsey, Wilts 
Slow, Edward, Wilton, Salisbury 
Soames, Rev. Gordon, Mildenhall 

Rectory, Marlborough 
Snailum, W. W., Wingfield Road, 

Spicer, Capt. John E. P., Spye 

Park, Chippenham 
Stancomb, W., Blount's Court, 

Potterne, Wilts 
Steele, Major, R.A.M.C., Southgate 

Lodge, Devizes 
Stephens, H. C, Cholderton, Salis- 
Stephens, Rev. Canon J. F. D., The 

Vicarage, Highworth, Swindon 
Steward, Bev. Canon, Boyton 

Rectory, Codford, Wilts 
Stewart, Rev. Gerald W., 3, Market 

Hill, Came. 
Stone, E. H.,The Retreat, Potterne 

Road, Devizes 
Stone, Robert S., 2, Ryder Street, 

St. James, S. W. 
Stone, W. J. E. Warry, 72, Elm 

Park Gardens, London, S.W. 
Stote, Rev. A. W., Holy Trinity 

Vicarage, Trowbridge 
Stothert, P. K., Woolley Grange, 

Stothert, Mrs., Woolley Grange, 

Straton, C. R., West Lodge, Wilton 

Stratton, Alfred, Melksham 
Stratton, William, Kingston Dev- 

erill, Bath 
Sturton, Rev. J. A., Market Lav- 

ington Vicarage, Devizes 
Swanborough, F. T., Oakwood, 

Symonds, Rev. W., 10, Angel 

Hill, Bury St. Edmunds 
Sykes, Rev. W. S., 70, Westwood 

Road, Southampton 

Talbot, C. H., Lacock Abbey, Chip- 


List of Members. 

Tatum, Edward J., Solicitor, Salis- 
Tayler, Mrs. M. C., The Abbey 

House, Bradford on- Avon 
Taylor, A., Ivy Lodge, AshtonSt., 

Taylor, V. T., Steinbrook House, 

Kington Langley, Chippenham 
Thornton, James,Conkw ell Grange, 

nr. Bath 
Thornely, Thomas Heath, The 

Elms, Nursteed, Devizes 
Thursby, Mrs. George, Boveridge 

Park, Salisbury 
Thynne, Rev. Canon, Seend, Melk- 

Toone, E. F., Capital & Counties 

Bank, Devizes 

Usher, T. C, Sunny Croft, Trow- 

Vaughan, Matthew, Sunny lands, 
Milton, Pewsey 

Wade, Miss, Portland House, 

Manor Road, Salisbury 
Wakeman, Herbert J., Warminster 
Walsh, Arthur H., The Manor 

House, Purton, Wilts 
Wallis, The Right Rev. Bishop, 

" Ranui," Devizes 
Ward, Col. M. F., Upton Park, 

Ward, J. E., Red Lodge, Purton, 

Warre, Rev. Canon F., Vicarage, 

Bemerton, Salisbury 
Warrender, Miss, Stoke House, 

Purton, Wilts 
Warrington,The Hon. Mr. Justice, 

Clyffe Hall, Market Lavington, 

Watson, Dr. J. N., Wootton Bas- 


Watson-Taylor, John, University 

Club, Pall Mall East, S.W. 
Watson-Taylor, G., ErlestokePark,, 

Waylen, G. S. A., Devizes 
Waylen R. F., c/o Mr. W. F. 

Trumper, Devizes 
Weallens, Rev. R. S._, Berwick 

Bassett Vicarage, Swindon 
Webb.W. A., 40, Bradley Gardens, 

West Ealing 
Weight, Rev. Canon T. J., Christian 

Malford Rectory, Chippenham 
White, G. A. H., The Hawthorns, 

Whitney, E., Meadow Bank, Melk- 

Wilks, Miss M. A. E., The Retreat, 

Wilton Road, Salisbury 
Wills, John H., Potticks House, 

Frankleigh, Bradford -on -Avon 
Wills, E. S., Ramsbury Manor, 

Wilson, Alfred J., 2, Esplanade 

Bridlington, Yorks 
Wilson, Vice-Admiral W., Clyffe 

Manor, Swindon 
Withington, Lothrop, 30, Little 

Russell Street, W.C 
Wood, J. Crewe, The Bungalow, 

Woods, J. C, Capital' and Counties 

Bank, Trowbridge 
Woodward, C. H., Exchange Buil- 
dings, Station Road, Devizes 
Wrangham, Rev. F., Long Newnton 

Rectory, Tetbury, Gloucs. 
Wyld, Rev. Canon Edwin G., 

Vicarage, Melksham 
Wyld, Rev. C. N., 68, St. Ann 

Street, Salisbury 

Yale University Library, New 
Haven, Conn., U.S.A., per 
Messrs, E. G. Allen & Son, 
Ltd., 12 and 14, Grape Street, 
Shaftesbury Avenue, London, 

Young, E. H., Lockeridge, Marl- 

Printed and Published by C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 

#*T °tf\?& 


STONEHENGE AND ITS BARROWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
Magazine in separate wrapper, 7s. 6d. This still remains the best and most 
reliable account of Stonehenge and its Earthworks, 

AUBREY, F.R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Rev. 
Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates. 
Price £2 10s. 

pp. vii. -f 501. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. Price 13s. 

pp. xv., 505. In parts as issued. Price 13s. 

DITTO. FROM THE REIGN OF ED. III. 8vo., pp. 402. In six 
parts as issued. Price 13s. 

WILTSHIRE, STONEHENGE and AVEBURY, with other references, 
by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, Dec, 
1901, of the Magazine. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books, 
papers, &c, by 732 authors, 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
pp. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property in many 
Wiltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15th centuries. Only 150 copies were 
printed, of which a few are left. Price to members, £1 10s., and to non- 
members, £2. 

WILTSHIRE BIRDS. Mr. G. B. Hony, 4, Beaufort Eoad, 
Clifton, Bristol, will be greatly obliged if members would 
kindly send him notice of the occurrence of any rare birds 
or of their nesting within the borders of the County. 


Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

This department now greatly enlarged. 

Wilts Archaeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes. 

We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

C. H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 


North Wilts Museum and 

In answer to the appeal made in 1905, annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s., to the amount of about £37 a year for this 
purpose have been given by about eighty Members of the Society 
and the fund thus set on foot has enabled the Committee already 
to add much to the efficiency of the Library and Museum. 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
£50 a year, in order that the G-eneral Fund of the Society may 
be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum, and 
set free for the other purposes of the Society. 

Subscriptions of 5s. a year, or upwards, are asked for, and 
should be sent either to Mr. 1). Owen, Bank Chambers, Devizes, 
or Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

The Committee appeal to Members of the Society and others 
to secure any 

Objects of Antiquity, 


Specimens of unusual Birds, 
Butterflies, or Moths, 

found in the County of Wilts and to forward them to the 
Hon Curator, Mr. B. H. Cunnington, Devizes; 

Whilst Old Deeds, Modern Pamphlets, Articles, 

Portraits, Illustrations from recent Magazines 

or Papers bearing in any way on the County, 

and Sale Particulars of Wiltshire Properties, 

will be most gratefully received for the Library by the Rev. 
E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon, Hon. Librarian. 

a " u<aaaniAflfl um ■ .- r. r ., -rr-.-. mm 

N.B. — No. CXXIII. for June, 1915, was the last Magazine issued. 
No December number for 1915 was issued. 


JUNE, 1916. 

Vol. XXX IX, 

::: >v. 



lrrJ((H)li)j|iral anil Hiitiirnl l»tim| 


Publteijrti untrer tljr ©trrrttan 

A. D. 185 3 . 


REV. E. H. GODDARD, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 


Printed and sold for the Society by 0. H. Woodward, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 

Price 5s. 6d. Members. Gratis. 

TAKE NOTICE, that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
volumes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each indexed separately. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Annual Subscription to the Society is 10/6, with an entrance 
fee of 10/6. The Composition for Life Membership is £10 10s. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 "The Financial 
Secietary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary : the Eev. E. H. Goddaud, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 


To be obtained of Mr. D. OWEN, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev, A. C. Smith, M.A, One Volume, Atlas 
4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price £2 2s. 
One copy offered to each Member of the Society at £1 lis. 6d. 

504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev. T. A. Preston, M.A. Price to the 
Public, 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

in the SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

Part II. 1911. Fully illustrated. Price 2s. 

Price Is. APPENDIX No. I., II., and III., 3d. each. 

LIBRARY at the MUSEUM. Price Is. 6d. 

COLLECTION. Price 6d. 

BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 5s. 6d. and 
3s. 6d. (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from these prices. 


liTjjaniltfgirnl ani lataral li'atimj 


No. CXXIV. JUNE, 1916. Vol. XXXIX. 

Contents. PAGE 

The Sixty-Second General Meeting at Devizes 147 

Huish and the Doynels (Continued) .. 156 

The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 
(New Sarum) between 1225 and 1612 : By Fanny Street, M.A., 

F.R.Hist. Soc 185 

The Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes of Wiltshire : By G. 

Bathurst Hony, B.A. 258 

Wilts Obituary ., 263 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 280 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors 299 

Wiltshire Illustrations and Pictures 304 

Wiltshire Portraits 337 

Additions to Museum and Library 312 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1915 315 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 




No.CXXIV. June, 1916, 

N<B. — No Magazine for December, 1915, was issued. 



HELD AT DEVIZES MUSEUM, July 6th, 1915. 

The Committee of the Society having decided that, in consequence 
of the war, it was hopeless to attempt to hold the usual annual 
general meeting and excursions this year, the annual meeting, 
held at the Museum, Devizes, on Tuesday, July 6th, took the 
form of a purely business meeting, attended by only a few 
members, the President, Mr. W. Heward Bell, F.S.A., F.G.S., being 
in the chair. The Hon. Secretary presented the annual report, 
which was read and passed ; the officers of the Society and the 
members of the committee were re-appointed en bloc, with the ad- 
dition of Mr. E. H. Stone, of Devizes. 

In consequence of the diminution of the Society's income, from 

I the resignation of a good many members, a loss due no doubt partly 

to the war, the meeting instructed the Editor of the "Magazine" 

to exercise all possible economy in the printing of the December 

i number for this year. [On going carefully into the matter sub- 

, sequently the Hon. Secretary came to the conclusion that it would 

I not be possible to print a second number of the Magazine for 1915 

at all] 

The Hon. Secretary laid special stress on the necessity of ordinary 
members of the Society endeavouring to obtain new members in 


148 The Sixty -Second General Meeting. 

their own localities. At present this work of obtaining new mem- 
bers is too much left to two or three members of the committee. 
If the " Magazine" which is, together with the Museum, by far the 
most important part of the Society's work, is not to suffer, more 
efforts must be made to secure new members in all parts of the 

The most important business at the meeting, outside the ordinary 
routine of the annual meeting, was the consideration of what is to 
be done in the matter of the Great Barn at Bradford-on-Avon, 
which has now been formally conveyed to the Society by Sir 
Charles P. Hobhouse. Mr. A. W.-N. Burder, F.S.A., of Bradford, has 
undertaken the appeal for subscriptions, more especially in the 
Bradford neighbourhood, and up to the date oi the meeting had 
received £138. As the Society has to pay the cost of conveyance, 
and to put up a permanent fence of a substantial kind to divide 
the barn from the farmyard, this will provide but a small sum to- 
wards the £775 which Mr. Brakspear estimated would be necessary 
to put the building in thorough repair. 

Mr. Brakspear himself was present at the meeting and gave an 
alarming account of the present condition of the roof ; he said it 
had got much worse since he inspected it last autumn, and falls of 
tiles were continually taking place. If the building was to be 
saved something ought to be done at once, and it was useless to 
attempt to touch the roof unless about £200 could be found. 

Mr. Brakspear's report, and Mr. Binder's statement that he had 
appealed to everyone he could think of, and that subscriptions had 
practically ceased to come in, seemed to present an almost hopeless 
prospect, when Mr. J. Moulton, of The Hall, Bradford-on-Avon, 
who has been added to the sub-committee appointed to deal with 
the barn, came forward with a suggestion that the great expense 
of providing the necessary new stone tiles for the roof might be 
very much lessened by substituting, on the south side of the roof, 
which is not visible from the town, Bridgewater tiles for the existing 
stone tiles, which would then be available for the repair of the 
northern side. This idea, under the existing circumstances, seemed 
the only course open, especially when Mr. Moulton announced 

The Report. 149 

that if it were acted upon he would give a second donation of £50 
towards the work in addition to his first promised donation of £25. 
Mr. W. Heward Bell thereupon promised a second donation of 
£25, a third member of the Society promised a second donation 
of £5, and Mr. Burder undertook to renew his efforts in the 
Bradford neighbourhood to raise at least enough to provide a 
clear £200 to be spent immediately on the absolutely necessary 

It is to be hoped that this fresh start may encourage all members 
of the public who regard the ancient buildings of the county as a 
possession which the present generation is bound, even in war 
time, to do its best to hand on uninjured to those who come after 
us, to send some subscription, however small, towards the Barn 
Fund, to Mr, A. W. N. Burder, Belcombe Court, Bradford-on-Avon. 

The meeting passed a resolution expressing their commendation 
of the vigilant care and prompt action of the Museum caretaker, 
Mrs, Willis, in the matter of the theft of the cover of the Maori 
Feather Box, to which was largely due the eventual capture and 
conviction of the thief. 


The following was the text of the annual report read by the 
Kev. E, H. Goddard :— 

The committee beg to present the sixty- second annual report of 
the Society. 

Members. — The Society, as is probably the case with most similar 
bodies, has been affected by the condition of things brought about 
by the war, and we have to deplore a considerable diminution in 
our list of members during the past year. We have lost 12 mem- 
bers by death, 2 of whom have fallen in action, and 25 by resig- 
nation or by removal of names in consequence of non-payment of 
subscriptions ; whilst only 8 new members have joined since the 
date of the last report, The Society has now on the list of mem- 
bers issued with the current (June) number of the" Magazine," 13 
life and 326 annual members, or 339 in all, against 370 in 1914, a 
net loss of 31 members on the year. This loss, unfortunately, 

L 2 

150 The Sixty -Second General Meeting. 

cannot be wholly put down to the results of the war, as the number 
of members has been declining now for some years, and unless 
means can be found to arrest this decline the result must be a 
diminution of the Society's usefulness and the cutting down of the 
amount spent on the " Magazine" The committee would urge all 
present members of the Society to do their utmost to secure new 
members in their own neighbourhoods. At present this work 
of obtaining new members is left for the most part to one or two 
members of the committee, and unless members generally will 
exert themselves more than they have done of late in this matter 
it is difficult to see how the number can be increased. 

Finance. — The statement of accounts published with the June 
"Magazine" shows a deficit on the General Account on December 
31st, 1914, of £32 Is, 6d., as against a balance at the beginning of 
the year of £33 9s. Z\d. Three causes combined to bring this about. 
The two numbers of the " Magazine " published during the year 
were both expensive ones, and the last part of the " Wiltshire 
Inquisitiones Post Mortem" also cost more than usual, whilst out 
of a total cost of £56 5s. 2d. incurred in the repair of the Museum 
roof £36 5s. 2d. fell upon the General Fund : as to this, however, 
it is hoped that the Museum Maintenance Fund may be able to 
pay back most of this to the General Fund by degrees. Again, 
the annual meeting at Shaftesbury last year was not sufficiently 
well attended to leave any balance to be carried to the General 
Fund, The second instalment of £13 2s. id. towards the repay- 
ment of £50 borrowed from the General Fund by the Museum 
Enlargement Fund was paid over during the year, and the loan 
will be fully repaid in two years' time. The balance on the Life 
Membership Fund, from which one-tenth is annually transferred 
to the General Fund, was on the 31st December, 1914, £69 14s. Id. 
against £75 lis. Ad. at the end of 1913. In the future the printing 
expenses will be lessened by the fact that the series of " Wiltshire 
Inquisitiones Post Mortem" has for the time been discontinued, the 
British Record Society being unable to continue its agreement with 
our own Society for the printing of these records for some time to 

The Report. 151 

On the Museum Maintenance Fund there was a balance on 
January 1st, 1914, of £25 15s. 6d., and at the end of the year of 
£8 19s. 11^., the total amount received in subscriptions and dona- 
tions amounting to £35 10s. 6d., as against £39 8s. in 1913, whilst 
admissions to the Museum came to £4 16s. 6d. There has thus 
on this fund been a falling off in the regular subscriptions. It is 
greatly to be hoped that there may be no further diminution in 
this fund, which is vitally necessary to the keeping up of the 
Museum properly. In addition to £20 paid from the fund during 
the year towards the expenses of the repair of the roof (£56 5s. 2d. 
in all) the largest items of expenditure were £11 for the making 
of electrotyes of the Bronze Age gold ornaments, which are now 
exhibited in the Museum in place of the originals, and £9 9s. paid 
to Mr. C. H. Cunnington for his valuable work in rearranging, 
naming, etc., the geological collections. It is much to be wished 
that a larger number of members of the Society would show their 
interest in its work to the extent of an annual subscription of 5s. 
or more to the Maintenance Fund. 

The Museum and Library. — The year has been unpleasantly 
marked by the theft from the Museum of the cover of the fine 
Maori feather box which has for many years been exhibited in the 
entrance hall. The thief, who was evidently no novice, had sub- 
stituted for the original a modern copy in wood made by himself, 
but owing to the vigilance of the caretaker, Mrs. Willis, the theft 
was discovered within a very few minutes of the perpetration, and 
though the thief unfortunately got away with the cover at the 
time, the police, who displayed most commendable acuteness, were 
able to apprehend him, and he is now serving a term of six months' 
hard labour. There is little doubt that the robbery, also of Maori 
objects, from the Blackmore Museum, at Salisbury, as well as 
robberies from other museums, were by the same hand. It is to 
be regretted, however, that in spite of the reward of £20 offered 
by the committee for its recovery, the cover of the box has not 
been seen again, and it is in all probability permanently lost to 
the collection. The principal additions to the Museum during the 
year are two deer horn picks found in the vallum at Avebury, and 

152 The Sixty -Second General Meeting. 

several of the pewter objects found manyyears ago at Manton, which 
were secured for the Museum at the sale at Dauntsey House. 
There have been as usual a good many gifts to the library, which 
have been duly acknowledged in the " Magazine" The catalogue 
of birds has been completed by Mr. G. B. Hony, who is now serving 
at the front. It has been bound and placed for reference in the 
Bird Eoom. Since the outbreak of the war the Hon. Curator 
(Capt. B. H. Cunnington) and Mrs. Cunnington have been absent 
from Devizes, the former having been in command of military 
police at Codford, Bournemouth, Winchester, and elsewhere. 

Publications. — Two numbers of the " Magazine " were issued as 
usual for 1914, the December number completing volume xxxviii., 
containing a full index of 75 pages. Part VI. of the " Wiltshire 
Inquisitiones Post Mortem" completing the reign of Edward III., 
and forming the third volume, printed by our Society in con- 
junction with the British Record Society, was issued gratis to 
members. This number contained more than double the number 
of pages usually issued, as well as a complete index filling 58 pages. 
This index was compiled by the hon. secretary on condition that 
the British Record Society printed it for our Society free of cost. 
As has been stated above it has been found impossible to continue 
this series of Inquisitions for the present. The first part of the 
" Register of Bishop Simon of Ghent" which by an arrangement with 
the Canterbury and York Society has been separately subscribed 
for by some 25 members of our own Society, has been issued, and 
it is hoped that a larger part may be issued this autumn. The 
first part cost £3 14s. 4d., and there remains a balance in the 
hands of the Society of £13 15s. 5d. to pay for subsequent parts. 

The Annual Meeting. — In the ordinary course of things the 
Society would have met probably somewhere in the south of the 
county this year, but in view of the condition of things brought 
about by the war, the presence of enormous numbers of troops, the 
difficulty or impossibility of obtaining either accommodation or 
motor vehicles, and the absence on service of the Hon. Meeting 
Secretary, the committee came to the conclusion that it was useless 
to attempt to hold a meeting this year. Last year's meeting at 

The Report. 153 

Shaftesbury was admirably organised by Mr. B. H. Cunnington, 
and was most enjoyable, though the numbers of members who joined 
it were insufficient to make it a financial success. The deficit of 
£9 was, however, made up by extra donations from those present, 
and had not to be met from the Society's funds. 

Stonehenge. — The approaching sale of the Amesbury estate, in- 
cluding Stonehenge, has naturally aroused a certain amount of 
anxiety with regard to the future of the monument, and suggestions 
have been freely made that it ought to be purchased for the nation. 
In happier times this end might, no doubt, have been accomplished 
with comparative ease, but in existing circumstances it is exceed- 
ingly difficult to raise money for any purpose unconnected with 
the war. The Hon. Secretary has been in communication with the 
National Trust, which seems to be the body which should take the 
lead in any such enterprise, and has assured them that the Wiltshire 
Society will do all in its power to assist them, if they decide to 
move in the matter. The subject was carefully discussed at the 
recent general meeting of the Trust, bub no definite decision was 
come to, and further definite information on the matter is being 
obtained. Meanwhile it is a satisfaction to know that the monument 
is protected under the Ancient Monuments Act, though this does 
not provide for any concreting of the stones of the outer circle, 
now dangerously leaning outwards, a work recommended two years 
ago by an expert committee appointed specially to consider what 
steps were necessary for the preservation of the structure. 

Excavations. The work at Old Sarum, under the direction of 
the Society of Antiquaries, had to be brought to a somewhat sum- 
mary end in 1914, owing to the outbreak of the war, and has not 
been continued in 1915. The area between the cloister of the 
cathedral and the city wall to the north was found to be occupied 
by a large house, possibly the Bishop's. A section was also cut 
through the bank encircling the city outside the Norman wall. A 
complete report of these excavations will be issued as in former 
years to subscribers. 

The work of opening up the ditch on the north side of the Kennet 
road at Avebury was to have been completed by Mr. H. St. G. Gray 

154 The Sixty-Second General Meeting. 

this summer, but owing to the scarcity of labour it has been 

Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington just before the outbreak of the 
war carried out excavations at Lidbury Camp, in Enford parish, 
the account of which will be published in a future number of the 
" Magazine." 

At East Grimstead Mr. Heywood Sumner has been engaged on 
the site of what appears to be a considerable Eoman villa. A de- 
tached bath house and six rooms of a large building have been 
uncovered, but much remains to be done ; and here, as elsewhere, 
the war has stopped the work. 

Faculties Committee. — The Bishop of Salisbury has, in acordance 
with the recommendations of the Archbishops' Commibtee,appointed 
a small advisory committee, whom the Chancellor of the Diocese 
may consult as to the issue of faculties for works of church altera- 
tion or restoration, the proposed sale of church plate, and similar 
objects. The committee will consist of the three archdeacons, an 
architect of standing, and an archaeologist, who so far as Wiltshire 
is concerned, will be Hon. Secretary of the Society, ex officio. 

The Hon. Secretary, in virtue of the fact that he is one of the 
three local secretaries of the Society of Antiquaries for Wiltshire, 
will also act as a correspondent of the Ancient Monuments Board 
for England. 

Mr. W. He ward Bell, whose term of office as President of the 
Society has run out, has kindly consented to remain President 
during the present year. 

The Mediaeval Barn at Br ad ford-on- Avon. — In October, 1914, 
Sir C. P. Hobhouse, the owner of the great 14th century barn at 
Bradford, offered to make over the building to the Society without 
payment on condition that the costs of the conveyance and of the 
necessary fencing were borne by the Society, and that the necessary 
repairs should be executed within a reasonable time. As neither 
the Office of Works nor the National Trust were willing to move 
in the matter, and as the alternative was that the building would 
be pulled down, the committee considered it their duty to accept 
the offer and to make every effort to save this remarkable building, 

The Report. 155 

which is such a prominent feature of Bradford. Mr. A, W. N. 
Burder, of Bradford, undertook to act for the Society, and although 
it seemed hopeless to issue an appeal for money to members 
generally, he has, by sending the appeal to persons likely to be 
interested, especially in the neighbourhood of Bradford, succeeded 
in getting together a sum of £138 13s. When, however, the costs 
of conveyance and fencing (say £50) are deducted from this, the 
balance will go but a little way towards the complete repair of the 
roof and main timbers which Mr. Brakspearhas estimated at £775. 
It is thought, however, that if another £100 could be secured the 
building could at least be saved from the imminent danger of 
collapse which now threatens it. The committee appeals to all 
who wish so notable a building to be preserved to send subscrip- 
tions, of however small amount, either to the Hon. Secretary or to 
Mr. A. W. N, Burder, Belcombe Court, Bradford-on-Avon. Possibly 
some might be willing to promise an annual subscription of £1 for 
three years. 

[For further subscriptions promised after the reading of this 
report see account of the annual meeting above, p. 148.] x 

1 Other donations were subsequently received by Mr. Burder, the total 
up to August 7th, 1915, amounting to £252, and the work of repair has been 
begun. It is thought that after all it will happily be possible to keep the 
old stone tiles on both sides of the roof. In addition to the heavy item of 
the tiling the repair of one of the porches, and of some of the main timbers 
of the roof are the most pressing needs, and further donations for this pur- 
pose from members of the Society and others are urgently needed. 



{Continued from p. 99.) 

Writ to John Chokke, knight, and John Fryse, mayor of Marleburgh. 
Wishing to be certified of the truth of a complaint (querimonie) in a 
petition exhibited before him in the chancery by Isabel Seymour late 
the wife of John Seymour knight against John Michell of Marleburgh, 
&c, the king empowers them to call and examine the parties and others 
after seeing the tenour of the petition enclosed, the writ and findings, 
to be returned in the Quinzaine of Hilary next. Westminster, 8 
November, 11 Edward IV (8 November, 1471). 

Transcript of the petition here follows : — 

Endorsed on the writ : — Responsio Ricardi Chokke justiciarii infra- 
scripti. Ego Ricardus Chokke infra nominatus domino regi in can- 
cellaria sua certifico quod virtute istius brevis primo die Decembris 
anno regni domini regis nunc undecimo venire feci et evocavi coram 
me apud Marleburgh in comitatu Wiltes' partes infrascriptas et alios 
quos in hac parte fore videbam evocandos et ipsos et eorum quemlibet 
de et super infracontentis diligenter examinavi que quidem exami- 
naciones patent in quadam cedula huic brevi ac tenori peticionis infra- 
specificatis annexa. 

John Michell the elder sworn uppon a boke s[eith that he] never 
knewe of any suche bargeyn made betwene Sir John Seymour and John 
Bird of the maner of Huyssh as is comprehended in the bill of Dame 
Isabell Seymour Also the said John Michell seith that he was not 
enfeoffed in the said maner to the entent as in the said bille is expressed. 

Also Dame Isabell Birde late the wiffe of John Birde conteyned in 
the seid bill of the age of lxix yeres Sister unto the seid Dame Isabell 
Seymour sworn uppon a boke seith that the said John Byrde hir hus- 
bonde told hir withyn a quarter of a yere before his deth that he hade 
solde the seid maner londez and tenementez to the seid Sir John Seymour 
to have to the seid Sir John after the decease of the seid John Birde 
and of the seid Dame Isabell Byrd. 

Also Nicholas Longe of the age of 1. yerez sworn uppon a boke seith 
that he herd reported aswell by divers servauntez of the seid Sir John 
Seymour as by other persones whos names he remembreth not that the 
seid Sir John Seymour had bought of the seid John Birde the seid 
maner of Huyssh to have hit after the death of the seid Dame Isabell 

Richard Ady of the age of 1. yere sworn uppon a boke seith that the 
seid Sir John Seymour told hym divers tymes that he had bought of 

Hirish and the Doynels. 157 

John Birde the reversion of the maner of Huyssh after the death of 
hym and of the seid Dame Isabell Byrde And also that the seid 
seid (sic) Sir John dely vered hym a letter of attorney withyn xij monethes 
before the dethe of the seid John Birde in the whiche was specified 
that he was attorney for the said John Birde to delyver ceason to John 
Banam clerke and to the seid John Michell and to their heirez of the 
seid maner of Huyssh by^force whereof he so didde to thentent that 
the seid John Birde and his wife shulde have the seid maner for terme 
of their lyves 'and after their deceace the seid Sir John Seymour to 
have the seid maner. And so the seid. Sir John Seymour told hym he 
then beyng his servaunt And alsoe he seith that as well the seid John 
Banam as the seid John Michell were presente atte the seid lyvere 

Also Thomas Helyer of the age of lx yere and more sworn uppon a 
boke seith that he herd Sir John Seymour sey that he hadde bought 
the maner of Huyssh of John Byrde to have to hym and to his heires 
after the deceace of the seid John Byrde and of Dame Isabell his wife. 

Endorsed on the petition, order to parties, 11 May, 12 Edward 
IV [11 May, 1472,] to produce their witnesses, &c. also: — 

Memorandum quod vicesimo die Junii in Termino sancte Trinitatis 
anno regni regis Edwardi quarti duodecimo [20 June, 1472] ista peticione 
per inf rascriptam Isabellam Seymour contra inf ranominatum Johannem 
Michell exhibita ac responsione replicacione et triplicacione superinde 
propositisnecnon confessionibus attestacionibusinstrumentis racionibus 
probacionibus et allegacionibus utriusque partis in hac parte habitis 
coram dicto domino rege in Cancellaria sua visis lectis et auditis eisque 
diligenter examinatis et intellects atque rite discussis habitaque 
superinde matura et diligenti deliberacione per consilium ejusdem curie 
prefatus Johannes Michell est ab impeticione dicte Isabelle Seymour 
super contentis in hac sua peticione absolutus ut que a curia dimissus 
quietus sine die sententialiter et diffinitive. 

Early Chancery Proceedings, Bd. 42, Nos. 32—35. 

In all probability it is not merely a coincidence that John 
Seymour, dame Isabel's grandson and heir, came of age in or 
about the year in which the above proceedings were instituted. 
Sir John, his grandfather, had been dead for six or seven, and 
John Bird for no less than twenty-six years before the claim was 
advanced. The elder generation had apparently acquiesced in the 
situation, while the benefit of such success as might now be obtained 
would eventually accrue, and no great distance of time — for "Dame 
Isabel Birde " was already advanced in years — to the young heir. 
Thus it was upon his initiative, we may reasonably suppose, that 
the suit was commenced. 

158 Huish and the Doynels. 

The pleadings are incomplete ; the Answer, Keplication, &c„ are 
all wanting. On the other hand we get some invaluable depositions 
of witnesses and the decree. John Michell in the result is absolved 
of the alleged fraud, and this is the more remarkable for such of 
the testimony as has been preserved is entirely against him. Most 
noticeable of all is the deposition of " Dame Isabel Birde " that her 
husband had told her, shortly before his death, that the manor was 
sold to Sir John Seymour. 

The history of " Bryddes Chantry at the Altar of St. Katharine 
in St. Peter's Church, Marlborough," has been set out in vol. xxxvi. 
of the Magazine, in an article on " Marlborough Chantries , . . 
in olden days," with such wealth of documents from the public 
records and from the Bishop's Eegisters at Salisbury, and in the 
sequel with such successful drawings by Mr. Ponting, as to make 
the whole not only a valuable and delightful contribution to the 
history of Marlborough, but a worthy memorial to the founder, 
who was no other than our " Dame Isabel Birde." From these 
pages we learn that on 6 February, 1445-6, by the description 
of " Isabel late the wife of John Bridde of Marleburgh,' , she ob- 
tained the king's licence to amortize lands to the value of 81. a year 
for the support of a chaplain of "John Bridde of Marleburgh his 
Chantry." The statutes of this chantry are dated 10 April, 1474. 
By these statutes she gave the advowson of the chantry to Thomas 
Beke of Erleigh Whiteknights, co. Berks, gentleman, and Isabel 
his wife, and their heirs, — and it is somewhat unexpected to find 
that Thomas was the son-in-law, and Isabel one of the daughters 
and coheirs, of that John Michel whom in her deposition of three 
years before she had by inference accused of an abominable fraud 
upon her husband's estate ! 

Just as "Anne" and "Agnes," though quite distinct, are con- 
stantly used in mediaeval documents as interchangeable forms of 
the same name, so too the Hebrew "Elizabeth" (which as such 
appears uninflected on most coins and seals and in many records — 
" Elizabetha " being a comparatively modern corruption) is very 
frequently confused with the name "Isabel," which is apparently 
of different origin — as a Wiltshire jury of 1477 was aware: — 

Huish and the Doynels. 159 

Writ, " Quia Elizabeth' Byrde vidua que de nobis tenuit in capite 
diem clausit extremum," addressed to the escheator in co. Wilts, 4 
February, 16 Edward IV r [1476-7]. 

Inquisition taken at Fyssherton, co. Wilts, Thursday, 10 April, 17 
Edward IV [1477]: — "Qui dicunt super sacramentum suum quod 
nunquam fuit talis persona in rerum natura cognita vel vocata per 
nomen Elzabeth' Byrde vidue prout in brevi predicto fit mernio que 
unquam tenuit aliqua terras seu tenementa in dominico sive in servicio 
de domino rege aut de aliquo alio in comitatu predicto." 

Inq. post mortem. Chancery. Edward IV. File 55 (4) ; 
old refce. 16 Ediv. IV. no. la. 

Thus informed, the Chancery tried again : — 

Writ. "Quia Isabella Byrde vidua que de nobis tenuit in capite 
diem clausit extremum," addressed to the sheriff of Wilts, 7 May, 17 
Edward IV [1477]. 

Inquisition taken at Twyford, co. Wilts, 6 November, 17 Edward IV. 
[1477] :— "Qui dicunt quod Isabella Byrd in dicto brevi nominata obiit 
seisita de duo (sic) mesuagiis cum duobus gardinis cum pertinenciis 
in Maryborough," held of the queen of England service unknown 
worth 10s. She held no other lands of the king or other the day 
she died. The said Isabella died 5 November, 16 Edward IV [1476] 
"sine herede." 

Inq. post mortem. Chancery. Edivard IV. File 54 (4) ; 
old refce. 16 Edw. IV. No. 6 

There is no doubt possible that this inquisition relates to the 
founder of the chantry for the date of death here given is recited 
in one of the subsequent documents relating to Huish. Her piety 
had left her a. couple of houses only, which, unless she had secured 
them by deed or otherwise to her foundation or her friends, now 
lapsed to the Crown, for, according to the findings of this jury, she 
died " without heir." Truly this matter of Huish provides us with 
many surprises ! for in her deposition of 1472 is she not described 
as "Sister unto the seid Dame Isabell Seymour"? Possibly the 
ladies were sisters by their mother, for it has apparently been 
known definitely, since the appearance of an article in the 12th 
vol. of The Genealogist, that Dame Isabel Seymour was daughter 
and heiress of Mark William, of Bristol, merchant, and sometime 
mayor, by which match there came into the Seymour family a good 
deal of house property in Bristol, duly described in their inquisitions. 
Possibly the kinship was an illegitimate one, and the finding 
" without heir " is correct. 

160 Huish and the Doynels. 

Meanwhile, in 1±73, the year after his successful issue from the 
action brought against him. by Dame Isabel Seymour, John Michel 
died. He never enjoyed Huish, for John Bird's widow, the tenant 
for life, survived him, and it was only after her death that his 
representatives, or for that matter, the Crown, troubled to proceed 
to an inquisition, which, when taken, refers exclusively to Huish. 
He possessed further lauds, in Marlborough and the neighbourhood, 
which, it appears, had been settled on his wife, with remainders 
over, but it is tolerably clear that in this instance, as in others 
above, the inquisition was procured solely with a view to prospective 
litigation. In the present case, before even the writ was issued 
(May, 1477) upon which the inquisition was taken (November, 
1477) Thomas Beke and his wife had brought their bill in Chancery 
against Dame Isabel Seymour, reciting John Michell's death and 
that Huish had been assigned them on a partition, and alleging 
that she, and one Alexander Seymour, had entered on the said 
manor by force : — 

To the right reverend ffader in god Bysshopp 
of Lyncoln Chaunceller of Englond 
Mekely besechith youre good lordshipp Thomas Beke and Isabell his 
wyf and oon of the doughters and heirez to John Michell of Marleburgh , 
that where Isabell Seymour late the wyf of John Seymour knyght suyd 
a bill byfore the kyng in his cort of the Chauncerie ayenst the said John 
Michell alleggyng by the same bill the same John Michell to be en- 
feoffed of the maner of Hewyssh and other londez and tenementes in 
Bewyssh with thappurtenauncez by oon John Byrde late of Marleburgh 
to thentente to make estate thereof to the same John Byrd and to oon 
Isabell then his wyf for terme of their lifes . the remayndre therof 
after their decesse to the said John Seymour and to the said Isabell 
his wif and to their heirs And how the seid John Byrd and the seid 
John Seymour were then dede. the seid estate not made / desiryng 
therfor by the seid bill that the seid John Michell might be compelled 
to make estate to the seid Isabell that was wyf of the seid John 
Byrd for terme of here lyf . the remayndre after here decesse to 
the seid Isabell Seymour late wyf of the seid John Seymour As more 
playnly apperith in the seid bill. Wheruppon a writte sub pena was 
directed out of that cort to the seid John Michell to appere and ansswere 
to the premissez . at a certeyn day at whiche day the seid said 
John Michell apperid and made aunswere unto the seid bill as it 
apperith also of record in this cort. Which bill by hym so aunswerid and 
[the]replication thereto had the provez examinacions and allegeauncez of 
bothe partiez theruppon had and ripely understand and examined . it 

Huish and the Doynels. 161 

was considerid and decreed by this cort so that the seid John Michell of 
the seid peticion of the seidlsabellSeymour was dischargid and dismissid 
oute of this corte quyte as it more pleynly may appere of record here 
in this cort And it is so that nowe the seid John Michell is dede. by 
whose deth the seid maner and londez among other londez and tene- 
mentes descendid to the seid Isabell and to oon Elizabeth and 
Cristian as doughters and heirez to the same John by force wherof 
the seid Thomas Beke and Isabell his wyf with the seid Elizabeth and 
Cristian entred in to the seid maner londez and tenementez. and therof 
were seiasid in their demeasne as of fee / and after that made particion 
betwene theym / so that the seid maner of Hewyssh withe the appur- 
tenauncez was allottid to the parte of youre seid besechers in allowaunce 
[of] other londez and tenementez allowed to the seid Elizabeth and 
Cristian / by force wherof youre seid besechers were seiased of the seid 
maner in their demesne as of fee in the right of the same Isabell tyll 
nowe of late the seid Isabell that was the wyf of the seid John Seymour 
knyght . and oon Alexander Seymour . by here commaundement . with 
grete force and myght . have entrid in to the seid maner and trouble 
and vexe your seid besechers [without] . . . to the seid jugement 
and decree of this cort made and yovyu a yenst the same Isabell in 
contempte of this cort and to the grete hurt of youre said besechers 
Wherfor it please your seid (altered to sadd) lordship the premissez 
considred to graunte severeles writtes sub pena . directe to the seid 
Isabell Seymour and to the seid Alexander commaundyng them by the 
same to appere afore the kyng in his Chauncerie ther to aunswere to 
the premysses And over that to doo / as right and conscience shall 
requyre And thus for the love of God. 

This is thanswer of Dame labell Seymour late 

wife of John Seymour knyght un to the bill 

of Thomas Beke and Isabell his wife. 

The said Dame Isabell saieth byprotestacion that the mater conteigned 

in the said bill is not trewe And for answer she saieth that the same 

mater is nott certen nor sufficient in lawe nor in concience to be answerid 

un to And also she saieth that she and the said Alisaundir entred 

not with myght and force in to the said maner in maner and forme 

like as is surmitted in the siid bill Which mater the said Dame Isabell 

is redy to prove if by this court she be rewlyd so to do VVherfore she 

praieth to be restored to hur costis and damages for hur wrongfull 

vexacion And to be dismyssed owt of court. 

Endorsed on bill :— Coram domino rege in cancellaria 
suo in quindena Pasche proximo futuro. 

Memorandum quod termino Pasche anno regni regis Edwardi quarti 
decimo septimo [April, 1477] pro et quod materia contenta in peticione 
infrascripta per infranominatum Thomam Beke et Isabellam uxorem 
ejus versus infranominatam Isabellam Seymour coram dicto domino 
rege in Cancellaria sua exhibita minus sufficiens est ut dicta Isabella 
Seymour eidem respondere cogatur consideratum et adjudication est 

162 Huish and the Doynels. 

per venerabilem patremThomamLincolniensem episcopum cancellarium 
Anglie ac curiam cancellarie predicte quod pret'ata Isabella Seymour a 
curia antedicta de et super eadem peticione et materia contenta in 
eadem dimittatur et sic superinde dimissa est quieta sine die per 
consideracionem predictam. 

Early Chancery Proceedings. File 50, JVos. 133, 134 

Thus Thomas Beke and his wife took nothing by their bill, and 
Dame Isabel was dismissed the court, doubtless with her costs, 
wrongfully incurred. This was in April, 1477. In the following 
May the writ, already referred to, issued, as follows, with the in- 
quisition taken upon it : — 

Writ of Mandamus to the sheriff of Wilts ; what lands &c. did John 
Michel hold, <fcc. the day he died, their value, the time of his death, 
his next heir, the age of his heir, and who occupied the premises after 
his death, and by what title. 8 May, 17 Edward IV [1477], 

Inquisition at Twyford, co. Wilts, 6 November, 17 Edward IV [1477], 
before John Gylbert, esquire, escheator . . . John Mychell named 
in the writ was seised of the manor of Hiwyssh, held of the king in chief 
by fealty and 13s. 4d rent yearly at Michaelmas, for all service, worth 
10 marks. 

He died 5 July, 13 Edward IV [1473]. Isabella, wife of Thomas 
Beke, Cristina wife of William Fitz Geffrey and Elizabeth Mychell are 
his daughters and heirs, aged 28 and more, 27 and more, and 25 and 

Isabella Byrde, widow, took all the issues and profits of the said 
manor of Hiwyssh from John's death to 5 November, 16 Edward IV 
[1476] by what title the jurors know not. 

John Mychell held no other or more lands or tenements of the kingf 
or any other in demesne or service the day he died. 

Inq. post mortem. Chancery. Edward IV. File 60 ; 
old refce. 17 Edward IV No. 15. 

It is sufficiently clear from his description, in 1471, as " the 
elder," and from a definite statement to that effect, in Chancery 
Proceedings of the year 1530, that John Michell had a son, of botl^ 
his names, who survived him, but died shortly afterwards, leaving 
the succession open to his three sisters — although this rather 
essential fact is not mentioned in the above inquisition or in 
several others cited below. That nothing is said about the par 
tition, alleged in the bill (above) of Thomas and Isabel Beke, or 
about other the lands of John Michell is less serions : but the 

Huish and the Doynels. 163 

statement with regard to the age of Isabel Beke is clearly in 
error, and probably by a good ten years. If she was aged, as here 
stated, 28 in 1477, she was born in or about 1449 ; but her son, 
Marniaduke, was born (see below) in 1459, and her grandson, 
Thomas, in 1487, or thereabouts, and it is obvious accordingly 
that 1439 is a far more probable date for her own birth than 1449. 
If the ages of her sisters are allowed to stand as given, and there 
does not appear to be any particular evidence to the contrary, it 
is fair to conclude that John Michell, the elder, was twice married, 
and that perhaps John, and certainly Isabel, were his children by 
a first and Christian and Elizabeth his children by a second wife, 
and the accompanying pedigree is drawn upon that assumption 1 , 

Thomas Beke's petition was dismissed in 1477. In the following 
year died Cristina, the elder of his wife's sisters, upon which oc- 
casion it was found by inquisition, in direct contradiction to the 
statement in his petition, that the whole manor of Huish had been 
allotted to him and his wife in allowance of other lands, that she 
died seised of a third of that manor. 

Writ, "Quia Oistina que fuit uxor Willelmi Fitz Geffrey que de 
nobis tenuit in capite diem clausit externum" addressed to the escheator, 
co. Wilts, 28 June, 18 Edward IV i[1478], with memorandum of ex- 
ecution endorsed. 

Inquisition taken at Marleburgh, 18 October, 18 Edward IV [1478], 
before John Boteler, escheator, by the oath of John Edmundez . . 
Cristina who was the wife of William Fitz Geffrey . . . named in 
the writ held of the king in chief the day she died a third part of the 
manor of Hywysh in the said county by fealty and a rent of 4s. b^d. at 
Michaelmas, as daughter and one of the heirs of John Mychell deceased. 
The said third is worth 44s. b%d. 

She died 5 June, 18 Edward IV [1478]. John Fitz Geffrey is her 
son and heir and is aged 10 and more. William Fitz Geffrey, late her 
husband, by the courtesy is tenant of the said third of the said manor 

1 A considerable quantity of evidence is available with regard to the 
1 descent of the manor of Whiteknights. From this (Berkshire) material it 
i appears that Thomas Beke was born about 1420 and that the manor of 
j Whiteknights was settled on him and Isabel his wife, in 1446. If this 
| Isabel of 1446 is the Isabel Michel of Marlborough a correspondingly earlier 
| date must be assigned for her birth. 

I g 4 FmM and the Doynels. 

and hasten all the issues of the said third from the time of the death 
of the said Cristina by that title. , 

Inq. post mortem. Chancery. Edward IV. File 65 ; 
old refce. 18 Edward IV, no. 15. 


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There is mention, after this date, of thirds into which the Michell 

Huish and the Doynels. 165 

inheritance was divided, but there is nothing to indicate the sub- 
sequent devolution of Cristina's share. The name Fitz Geoffrey 
drops out of the' story. 1 

From 1477 to Dame Isabel Seymour's death in 1485, so far as 
we know, there was peace. Her grandson and heir, John Seymour, 
esquire, attempted something, as appears by a subsequent bill — in 
which he is misdescribed as her son and heir — but I have failed to 
find the record of the proceedings thus recited. According to the 
statement in this subsequent bill, he took nothing for his pains, 
but on the contrary was ordered by the court to meddle no further 
with the manor of Huish. In 1491 he died, in October; in May 
of the same year died Thomas Beke, 

From 1479 onwards there is no evidence that Thomas Beke had 
interested himself in Marlborough or his claims there, his activities 
are all in connexion with Beading. In 1475, as " T. Beke of 
Arlegh Whyteknyght, gentleman," he had presented, jointly with 
Isabel Bird, to the newly-founded chantry in St. Peter's Church, 
but he did not exercise his right in 1479. As " Thomas Beke, 
dominus manerii de Arley Whyteknyghts, generosus," he presented 
to Huish in 1476 and 1479, but not in 1488, when there was a 

I voidance there in his lifetime. In Canon Wordsworth's article on 
the Marlborough Chantries, referred to above, mention is made of 
** Beak's Chauntre founded within the parishe church of Ogborne 

: Saynt G-eorge," and inasmuch as it was found by inquisition after 

i the death of Marmaduke Beke (Thomas Beke's son) that he died 
seised of land in that parish, there can be little doubt that this 

• chantry was founded for the souls of persons of this family, possibly 
of Thomas and of Isabel (Michell) his wife ; but I have seen nothing 

'< further to throw light on the matter. In his will, dated 14 March, 
1490-1, and proved at Lambeth 29 October, 1491, 2 by the de- 
scription of "Thomas Beke of Erie Whyteknyghts, diocese of 
Salisbury," he directs to be buried in the church of the Friars 

1 Pedigrees of a family of this name (Fitz Geoffrey) were entered at the 
Visitations of Bedfordshire, in which, however, the match with Michell 
does not occur. 

2 Kindly communicated by Mr. John Sadler. 

M 2 

166 Huish and the Doynels. 

Minors of Beading, gives 10 marks (6/. 13s. 4=d.) for glazing a window 
in Queynton Church, wills that Isabel Beke, his wife, shall have 
his manor of Whiteknyghts for life and appoints her his residuary 
legatee and sole executrix. By an inquisition taken after his 
death, 22 October, 7 Henry VII. [1491], it was found that he died 
on 6 May last, seised in fee of the manor of Whyte Knyghts, co. 
Berks, worth 201. held of the king in chief and of five messuages 
in Beading, worth 10^, held of the abbot there, and that Marmaduke 
Beke, aged 32 and more, was his son and heir. 

Of Marmaduke Beke, son and heir of Thomas, there is little to 
relate. He had a grant, 23 September, 1485, for life of the office 
of keeping the manor and park of Easthampstead in the forest of 
Windsor, — a grant made in the first year of King Henry VII, and 
an indication accordingly of his and his father's political sympathies. 
He died 26 October, 13 Henry VII [1497], according to the state- 
ment in an inquisition taken four years later, mentioned below. 
The lands in Berkshire were in his mother's possession for life,, 
under the terms of his father's will, and for this reason presumably 
no inquisition with regard to them appears to have been taken after 
his own death. 

John Seymour, esquire, grandson and heir of Dame Isabel 
Seymour, had died, as mentioned above, in October, 1491, that is 
to say, in the same year that Thomas Beke died. In the following 
June (1492) an inquisition had been duly taken as to the lands 
whereof he died seised in Wiltshire, and a long list of manors, &c, 
is recorded, in which, however, the manor of Huish does not appear. 
In 1498, the year after Marmaduke Beke's death, this omission was- 
remedied and a further inquisition was taken upon a writ of "Que 
plura." The writ issued on 10 November, and on 14 November, 
14 Henry VII (1498) it was found that John Seymour, long before 
his death, was seised in fee of certain lands not specified in the 
previous inquisition (of 1492), viz., of the manor and advowson of 
Hewyshe beside Marleburgh, 40$. land, 30a. pasture and 40$. 
heath, in Hewyshe and Ore, whereof he was subsequently disseised 
by one Thomas Beke and Elizabeth Hall ; the said manor, &c, are 
held of the king, by fealty and 13s. 4:d. at Michaelmas yearly ; John 

Huish and the Doynels. 167 

Seymour, knighfc, aged 21 and more, is his son and heir; the said 
Elizabeth has occupied the said manor and lands and has taken 
the issues and profits thereof, by virtue of the said disseisin, from 
the death of the said John Seymour to the present time. 

Here, for the second time, we meet with the writ of " Que Plura " 
and the inquisition taken thereon used as an incident in, or a 
starting point for fresh, litigation. The Roches' claim to Huish 
and Erdescote was resuscitated in precisely the same way in 1411, 
eleven years after the death of Sir John de Roches, and irrespective 
of the fact that by an inquisition [1408] in the interval it had 
been found that Lord Lovell had died seised of both places in fee ; 
while the inquisition after the death (in 1473) of John Michell, 
taken in 1477, though returned to a writ of " Mandamus," was pro- 
cured, there can be little doubt, for precisely the same end. The 
position of the jury in such cases is obscure; they accept, ap- 
parently, an ex parte statement, with no title disclosed; and every- 
thing is arranged presumably by a fee paid to the escheator. In 
j the present instance (1498) the move, it must be supposed, was 
directly connected with the death of Marmaduke Beke in the 
\ previous year. 

The nature of the renewed litigation for Huish will shortly 
appear : meanwhile there occurred two deaths by which the stage 
was further cleared. A writ of diem clausit issued on 15 October, 
17 Henry VII (1501) after the death of Alice Michell, widow, 
and an inquisition was taken accordingly on 22 October in the 
same year, whereby it was found that : — 

Long before her decease, Richard Beauchamp, late bishop of Salis- 
bury (died 1481), William, late earl of Arundell (died 1488), John 
Denham, knight, late (sic) lord Denham (died 1509), Richard Ohokke, 
knight, John Wroughton, esquire, Thomas Passhe, clerk, Thomas 
Cromehall, clerk, Christopher Hanyngton and Walter Mayne, were 
seised of six messuages, six gardens, 60a. land, in Marleburgh, Elcot 
and Everley, co. Wilts, in fee, by the feoffment of John Michell, the 
elder, late of Marleburgh, formerly her husband, and being so seised 
demised them to her for life, with remainder to one Thomas Beke and 
his heirs for ever. She was seised thereof accordingly in her demesne 
as of freehold and died ; and the said Thomas Beke died ; after whose 
deaths the premises descended to one Thomas Beke as cousin and heir 
of the said Thomas, viz., son of Marmaduke his son. The said 

168 Huish and the Doyneis. L 

messuages, &c, are held of Elizabeth, queen of England, as of her 
manor of Marleburgh, and are worth 10 marks yearly. 

She died 31 January, 16 Henry VII (1500-1). The said Thomas 
son of Marmaduke, is aged 15 and more. 

Even this plain and; brief statement of fact should be received 
with caution ; it is directly controverted in subsequent proceedings 
in Chancery. The omissions are also regrettable ; for instance, we 
are not informed who were Alice Michell's heirs. Had Thomas 
Beeke, the younger, been one of such heirs, the fact would probably 
have been stated ; and it is difficult to believe that she could have 
been the mother of a lady (Isabel, the wife of Thomas Beke, the 
elder) born certainly as early as 1440, and possibly ten years or so 
earlier, (See p. 163 above and note.) It is preferable to suppose 
that Alice, or Alison, Michell, was the second wife of John Michell, 
the elder, and not the mother of his son, already mentioned, John 
Michell, the younger (who by that description was returned to 
Parliament in 1467 as one of the burgesses for Marlborough 1 ), and 
not the mother of Isabel, wife of Thomas Beke. 

This Isabel survived the said Alice Michel for only a few 

months. She is described in the writ of diem clausit, issued 6 May, 

16 Henry VII (1501) as "Isabel Beek formerly the wife of 

Thomas Beek, and late the wife of Edward Lancastre." By the 

inquisition taken accordingly 31 October, 17 Henry YII (1501) it 

was found that : — 

One John Norrys, esquire, was seised of the manor of Erley, White- 
knyghtes, 200<x. land, 30a. meadow, 3a. pasture, 50a. wood, 200a. heath 
and 6d. rent, in Sunnyng, Erlegh, White! e, Hurst, and Redyng, and of 
the advowson of the chapel of the same manor of Erlegh Whiteknyghtes 
in fee, and being so seised, by fine levied 4 Edward IV (1464) gave 
them to one Thomas Beek for life, with remainder to the said Isabel 
for life, with remainder to the heirs of Thomas of his body begotten. 
The said Thomas was seised thereof accordingly in his demesne as of 
freehold by the form of the grant and had issue of his body lawfully 
begotten Marmeduke Beek, and afterwards died so seised ; and the 
said Isabel survived him and was solely seised thereof by survivorship 
in her demesne as of freehold by the form of the grant ; and after- 
wards the said Marmeduke had issue of his body lawfully begotten 

1 It is possible, of course, that there were three John Michells in succession 
and that the " John Michell the younger "of 1467 had become "John Michell 
the elder" by 1471. - 

Huisli and the Doynels. 169 

. Thomas Beek and died, whereupon the reversion thereof descended to 
the said Thomas as his son and heir. 

She was seised, the day she died, of two messuages, formerly "Bot- 
lers," five virgates of land, 18 d. quit rent from certain lands of Gilbert 
Bullocke, in Erlegh aforesaid, in her demense as of freehold. 

The said manor <fec. are held of the king by service of i of a knight's 
fee, and are worth 111. yearly ; the messuages called " Botlers " &c. 
are held of William Fetiplace, as of his manor of Erlegh, service un- 
known, and are worth 30s. yearly. 

She died 1 April, 16 Henry VII (1501). The said Thomas Beek, son 
of Marmeduke, is both cousin and heir of the said Isabel, viz. son of 
Marmeduke her son and heir, and cousin and heir of the said Thomas 
Beke, father of Marmeduke, of his body begotten, viz. son of Marme- 
duke son of the said Thomas father of Marmeduke, and is aged 14 and 

Upon any showing of her age — and in the above inquisition the 
year 1464 is assigned for the settlement on her and Thomas, her 
husband, of the manor of Whifceknights — it is somewhat remarkable 
to find that Isabel Beke had re-married. Her second husband, 
Edward Lancaster, is mentioned in the subsequent litigation for 
Huish, but I have failed otherwise to identify him. 

Yet another inquisition remained to be taken to establish the 
i title of the boy, Thomas Beke. Upon a writ of " Mandamus," dated 
15 October, an inquisition was taken 22 October, 17 Henry VII 
[1501] — on the same dates, that is to say, as the writ and inquisition 
in the case of Alice Michel — to ascertain of what lands, in co. 
Wilts, " Marmaduke Beke " died seised, &c, as follows : — 

Marmaduke Beeke, named in the writ, died seised in fee of the 
manor and advowson of Huysshe, a messuage or tenement called 
" Shaa," seven messuages, 200a. land, 10a. meadow, 200a. pasture, 30a. 
wood, in Huysshe and Okeburn Seynt George, held of the king in 
chief by fealty and 13s. 4a". rent at Michaelmas yearly. The said manor 
of Huysshe and [lands in Huysshe and Okeburn Seynt George perhaps 
omitted here] are worth U. yearly beyond reprises. 

He died 26 October, 13 Henry VII (1497). Thomas Beke is his son 
and heir, aged 15 and more. 

Everything in this series of three inquisitions is found to be of 
the inheritance of Thomas Beke, the boy. They were procured, 
loubtless, to be taken by the guardian, whoever he was, to whom 
;he Crown had committed his wardship, and it is permissible to 
suppose that they were framed, as to their findings, as much to the 

170 Huish and the Doynels. 

disparagement of the claims of the other co-heirs of Michel and 
of Edward Lancaster as of the claims of the family of Seymour. 

In the following spring [1502] the litigation — as apart from the 
physical encounters which were doubtless always in progress — was 
resumed between the Michell and Seymour factions, in the form 
of a bill by Elizabeth Hall, John Michell's youngest daughter. 
She was unmarried at the time of his death and in 1477. She 
now sues as a widow, but I have failed to recover any facts as to 
her husband, — Hall. In her bill she treats the inheritance as 
shared between her sister Isabel and herself, without any reference 
whatever to the third sister, Cristina Fitz G-eoffry, or her heirs, or 
to any settlement on Thomas Beke. She recites the litigation with 
John Seymour, esquire, and proceeds against his son, Sir John, with 
whom, five years previously, she had tried a fling, and come off 
successfully. The Chancellor alluded to as dead was, I suppose, 
John Morton. The Chancellor now addressed is Henry Deane, 
who between the drafting of the bill and the injunction had been 
translated from Salisbury to Canterbury : — 

To the most reverend fader in god Henri Bushop 
of Salisbury keper of the kyngis greate seale. 
Mekely besechith your gode lordship your humble oratrice Elizabeth 
Hall widowe / that wher as one John Michell her fader was seased of 
the manor of Hewyssh and of other landes and tenementes in Hewissh 
in the countie of Wiltes in his demene as of fee / And so beyng seised 
one Isabell Seymour suyed in the court of the kynges Chauncerie a Sub 
Pena ageyn the seid John of the seid manor landis and tenementes / 
upon which Sub Pena after that the mater thereof was answered re- 
plyed and rejoyned . and the proces duly examyned and herd in the seid 
courte it was ajuged by the same court that the same John Michell 
shold be clerely dismyssed / and he had thereof jugement and sentence 
diffinytife ayenst the seid Isabell as pleynly apperith of record in the 
seid courte of the Chauncerie / of which record your seid oratrice hath 
an exemplificacion under the kynges greate seale / And after the seid 
Isabell Seymour died / and the seid John Michell dyed ther of seised 
in his demene as of fee / At whos dethe the same maner and landes 
discended to your seid oratrice and to one Isabell her sister late 
decessed as doughters and heires of the same John Michell / And one 
John Seymour Esquier sone and heire of the seid Isabell Seymour 
entred into the premisses / upon whom your seid oratrice and her seid 
sister reentred / wher upon the seid John Seymour brought ageyn 
theym assise. And your said oratrice and her seid sister had upon the 
forseid mater of record in the Chauncerie a Sub Pena ageyn the same 

Huish and the Doynels. 171 

John Seymour / wherupon he was commaunded by the auctorite of the 
seid courte that he shold noo ferther carry his seid assise nor medle 
with the possession of the seid maner and landis / And after the seid 
John Seymour died and one John Seymour knyght sone of the said 
John Seymour esquier entred in to the premisses aboute . v. yeres 
passed and therof troublid your said oratrice and her sister / Wherupon 
your seid oratrice and her sister had a nother Sub Pena ageyn the seid 
John Seymour knyght / upon which Sub Pena he apperid and seid 
that he entred not into the premysses and entretid your said oratrice 
that she shold noo farther procede in that sute / by whos trety she 
surcessed thend of her sute / So it is gracious lorde that notwithstand- 
yng all the premises the seid Sir John hath now late entred and 
disseised your seid oratrice of the premisses and puttith her to greate 
trouble seying that now my lorde Chaunceler is ded . he ferith noo 
thyng the mater / Please it therfor your gode and gracious lordship to 
graunt a writte Sub pena to be directed to the seid Sir John Seymour 
commaundyng hym by the same to appere before the kyng in his 
Chauncery at a certeyn day and uppon a payn by your grace to be 
lymyted ther to aunswer to the premysses accordyng to reason and 

Thomas Morley de London 
Plegii de prosequendo mercer 


Ricardus Fulston de 
eadem skynner 

Endorsed Coram domino rege in Cancellaria sua in xv a sancti 
Johannis Baptiste proxima {corrected to Octabis Sancti Michaelis]. 
. . . videlicet undecimo die Februarii anno regni regis Henrici 
Septimi xvij (11 February, 1501-2) injunctum fuit per reverendissimum 
in Christo patrem Henricum Cantuariensem archiepiscopum custodem 
magni sigilli dicti domini regis Johanni Trevethen attornato infrascripti 
Johannis Seymour militis sub pena quadraginta librarum de terris et 
catallis ipsius JohannisSeymour ad opus dicti domini regis levandis quod 
idem Johannes Seymour manerium de Hewyssh infraspecificatum vel 
aliquam partem ejusdem non intrabit nee se aliqualiter cum possessione 
aut proficuis dicti manerii aut alicujus inde parcelle intromittet donee 
et quousque materia infracontenta jam in cancellaria dicti domini regis 
pendens indecisa in eadem cancellaria plenarie fuerit discussa et deter- 
minata vel aliter per dictum custodem aut per curiam cancellarie 
predicte licenciatus fuerit in hac parte. 

Early Chancery Proceedings. File 21+1 (2). 

From the date of this injunction in 1502 to 1530 there is nothing 
available for the history. If we fall back on the presentations to 
Huish there is only one institution recorded in the interval. In 
1488, as we have seen, the Bishop presented : in 1518 Sir John 
Seymour is acknowledged as patron : and thereafter the Seymour 

172 finish and the Doynels. 

family carries it— so far as the list is complete— without inter- 
ruption. How the position was gained there is nothing to show. 
Persistence and the ever-growing might of the Seymour family 
doubtless were not to be denied. They bought out the interest of 
Thomas Beke, the grandson, — that is definitely stated, The ex- 
haustion or extinction of Michell's immediate heirs contributed. 
Finally there is the revival and re-assertion of the old Garton — 
Eoche — Beauchamp — Sturmy claim. The pedigree, for once, is 
quite clear : — 

Sir William Sturmey, 
died 23 March, 1426-7. 

Roger Seymour = Maud. Agnes. 

Sir John Seymour = Isabel William. 4* 

(1) 1 (2) 

John Seymour, esquire = Elizabeth Coker. 

John Seymour, esquire = Elizabeth Darell. 
(3) . | 

Sir John Seymour. 

Notes :— 

(1) Found one of the heirs to his grandfather Sir William Sturmey 
in 1427, then aged 26 and more (therefore born about 1401). By inq n . 
(Edw. IV, file 14) at Wilton, M. 4 Feb^, 4 Edward IV (1464-5) after 
the death of Sir John Seymour, knight, it was found that he died 20 
Dec r last (1465). John Seymour is his cousin and heir, viz., son of 
John Seymour his son, aged 14 and more (therefore born about 1451). 

(2) By inq n . {Richard III, file 7) at New Salisbury, 25 June, 2 
Richard III (1485) after the death of Isabel Seymoure, widow, it was 
found that she died 14 April last (1485). John Seymour of Wolfhale 
is her cousin and heir, viz., son of John her son, aged at the time of her 
decease 34 and more (therefore born about 1451). 

(3) Found heir to his grandfather Sir John, and to his grandmother 
Isabel, as above (born 1451). By inq. (C. series II. vol. 6, no. 65) 3 Nov. 
6 Henry VII. (1490) he was found heir to Margaret Stourton, widow, 
viz., son of Elizabeth daughter of Robert (Coker) brother of John 
(Coker) father of the said Margaret, aged 40 and more (therefore born 

Huish and the Doyrtels, 173 

' about 1450). By inq n (C. Series II, vol. 8, no. 16) 2 June, % .Henry 
VII. (1492) it was found that he was seised jointly with Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Darell, knight, his wife, &ot ; that he died F. be- 
fore All Hallows last (F. 28 Oct., 1491) ; and that John Seymour is his 
son and heir, aged 18 and more (therefore born about 1474). . 

The last-named (Sir) John Seymour (knight) survived till 1536, 
and it is against him that Robert Eenger, in 1530, brought his bill 
for. the manor of Huish. The rise of the fortunes of the Seymours 
in North Wilts — founded mainly upon the Sturmy succession- 
would make an interesting study. Sir William Sturmey died, in 
1427, at Elvetham, his Hampshire manor, in the arms of John 
Spencer, vicar of Collingbourne Kingston, his chaplain. On his 
very death-bed he was executing deeds of feoffment, of Wolf Hall 
and other his manors, to John Benger, to whom William Tournay 
(perhaps kin to that Robert, mentioned above as one of the 
feoffees of Sir William, whose presentation, in 1428, to Huish 
apparently failed) delivered, or attempted to deliver seisin. Over 
twenty years later, in 1452, Sir John Seymour, the grandson and 
one of the heirs of Sir William Sturmey, was litigating the matter 
in Chancery against this John Benger. 

. There can be very little doubt that John Benger was a person 
trusted by Sir William. On 11 February, 1443-4, there is licence 
for John Benger to grant in mortmain to the prior and convent of 
Eston, of the foundation of Sturmy's ancestors, the advowson of 
the church of Stapleford, co. Wilts, a joint inheritance of the 
families of Sturmy and Tournay. Of the existence of a sharp 
antagonism between John Benger and Sir William's heir, apparently 
there is no doubt at all. For the greater part of the fifteenth 
century frequent commissions, &c, bear witness to the position 
and activity in Wiltshire of "John Benger," and from about 1450 
of "John Benger the younger," presumably his son. Whether 
there is any pedigree, or connected account, of the Benger family 
in existence, I do not know: — but some descendant of it having 
settled in Kent, in a visitation of that county, in 1619, is entered 
a pedigree tracing him back to his county of origin, Wiltshire, and 
beginning with the marriage of "John Benger of Maningford " to 
"Beatrice sister to John Michell of Marlborough." The Kentish 

174 Huish and the Doynels, 

pedigree is probably nob quite satisfactory. It mentions Sir 
Thomas Benger, a person who can be dated, and the generations 
between him and the match of Benger and Michell seem insufficient ; 
but however it works out the entry which records such a match is 
immediately acceptable, since it explains completely why Robert 
Benger came to be enfeoffed in Huish and why he figures as the 
depository of the Michell claim. Richard Benger, of Alton, clerk, 
mentioned in the bill, can be fully traced. He was fellow of New 
College, 1499-1521, and vice-chancellor of the University of 
Oxford in 1520:— 

To the most reverent Father in God Thomas lord 
Cardynall legate a latere archebisshop of York pri- 
mate & Chaunceller of Inglond. 
In most humble wyse compleyning sheweth unto your good grace 
your Dayly Oratour Robert Benger that Where oon John Trymlet was 
seassed of & in the maner of Huysshe Twelfe messuages thre hundreth 
acrez of lande xl acrez of medow ffower hundreth acrez pasture & a 
hundreth acrez of woode with theyr appurtenaunces in Huyshe Marle- 
burgh Everley Elcote & Shawe in the Countie of Wilsshire in is demene 
as of ffee & so being seassed therof enffeffed Walter Hungerford knyght 
Christofer Wroughton knyght Richard Benger of Alton & other to 
have to theym & to theyr heyers to thuse of oon Edward Lancastre & 
Elizabeth Hall for terme of theyr too lyfes & the lenger lever of them 
withoute impechement of wast and after theyr deces to thuse of the 
heyers of the body of the seid Elizabeth lawfully begoton and for de- 
fault of suche yssue to thuse of oon Robert Benger ffather unto your 
seid oratour & the heyers of his body lawfully begoten / by force wherof 
the seid Water Hungerford & other his cofeffeez in to the premissez 
entred & therof wer seassed in theyr demean & of fee to thuse aforeseid / 
& they so therof to that use being seassed the seid Robert Benger the 
ffather had yssue your seid oratour and died / And afterward the seid 
Edward La icastre dyed / And the said Elizabeth Hall dyed withoute 
heyer of her body lawfully begoton and after that the seid Walter 
Hungerford & other his cofeoffeez excepte Richard Benger of Alton 
dyed And the same Richard Benger of Alton them over leyvid & hym 
held in in the premissez by right of survivor & therof was sole 
seassed in his demene as of ffee to thuse aforeseid / and he so therof to 
that use being seised therof died by protestacion seised / After whose 
dethe the premissez descendid & came & of right ought to discende & 
come to Richerd Benger Clerke as son & heyer of the seid Richard 
Benger of Alton And by the commaundement of the seid Richard 
Benger the son & in his name & for hym your said oratour into all the 
premissez entrid by force wherof the seid Richard Benger the son was 
therof seassed in his demean & [read as] of ffee to thuse of your seid 
oratour & the heyers of his body lawfully begotten by force of the gift 

Huish and the Doynels. 175 

made by the seid John Trymlet as ys aforeseid / And the same Richard 
Benger the son so thereof to that use being seassed oon S r John Seymor 
knyght of his gret might & power wrongfully hath entred into the seid 
maner <fc other the premissez & also hath obteynid & goten the possession 
of the evydence concerning the same And from the secunde yer of the 
reyne of oure soverayne lord the king that now ys your seid oratour 
then being within age / the seid S r John Seymer syns therof wrongfully 
hath taken the issuez & profites that ys to say by the space of xviij yer 
or ther abought wher of veri ryght and concience aswell all the seid 
evidences concerning the premissez as also all thissuez k profites of the 
same commyng k growing by all the tyme aforeseid doo & owght of 
ryght to apperteyne & belong to your seid oratour &, by colour of the 
havyng of whiche seid evidences the seid S r John Seymer contrarie to 
to all ryght & good concience hath conveyed & causid to be conveyed 
to hym sylff & to his use dyvers estates of & in the premissez intending 
therby therof to dysenherit your seid oratour for ever onles your most 
gracious fevour of pite be to hym shewed in this behalff / And ffor 
asmoche as your seid oratour knoweth not the certentie ne the numbre 
of the seid evidences ne whether they be inclosed in bagge box or 
chest sealled or lokked he hath no remedy to atteyne them by the 
course of the comen law Yt may therfor plese your good grace the pre- 
missez conciderid to graunt a writ of Subpena to be directed unto the 
seid : S r John Seymer commaundyng hym by the same personally to 
appere before your grace in the Kynges court of Chaunceri at a certeyn 
day & uppon a certeyn peyn by your grace to be lymited ther to make 
answer whye that he ought not as well to make delivere unto your 
seid oratour of the seid evidences & to avoide the possession of the 
premissez as also to satesfye unto the same your seid oratour all thissuez 
& profites by all the tyme aforeseid so therof by hym receyvid and 
taken and further to abide suche order & direccion herein as shall seme 
unto your grace resonable / And your said oratour shall daly prey to 
god for the preservacion of your good grace long to continue & endure. 

Re' Ryche 

Willelmus Pepper de London 
Taillour & 
Plegii de prosequendo 

Ricardus Roo de eadem 


Endorsed. Memorandum quod termino Pasche videlicet x die Maii 
anno regni regis Henrici viij xxij [10 May, 1530] dies datus est partibus 
predictis ad producendum testes ad probandum materiam infracontentam 
hinc inde usque Octabas Sancte Trinitatis proximo futuras et interim 
ad rejungendum per Curiam / Et ulterius termino Sancti Michaelis 
videlicet x die Novembris anno dicto dies datus est partibus predictis 
ad producendum testes ad probandum etc. ut supra hincinde usque 
crastinum Purificacionis beate Marie proximo futurum per Curiam / 
Et postea termino Pasche videlicet x die Maii anno xxiij Henrici pre- 
dicti [10 May, 1531] dies datus est partibus predictis ad producendum 

;17t) c Huish and the Doynels. 

: testes ad probandtim ; ut supra hincinde usque quiridenam Sancte 
Trinitatis proximo futuram peremptorie per curiam. 

Ss. Coram domino Rege in Cancellaria sua a die Pasche proximo 
- futuro in unum mensem. 

Barham Hussy 

The Awnswer of Syr John Seymor knyght unto the 
Byll of Complaynte of Roberte Benger. 

The seyd Syr John Seymor saythe that the seyd Byll of Complaynt 
ys uncerten & insuffycyente in the lawe to be awnsweryd unto And 
also the mater therein conteynyd ys mater determynable att the Comen 
Lawe <fc not in thys honorable courte of the Chauncery And the ad- 
vantage of the insuffycyence of the seyd Byll & of the Comen lawe to 
hym savyd yff he be compellyd by thys honorable Courte ffurther to 
make awnswer ffor the declaratyon of the trowght & ffor ffurther 
awnswer The seyd Syr John sayethe how that on' Walter Beauchamp 
Elizabeth hys wyff were seasyd of the maner of Hewysche & of the 
londes & tenementes in Hewysche & Schawe in the seyd byll of com- 
playnt especyffyed in theyr demane as of ffee & ffor greate sommys of 
money unto the seyd Walter Beauchamp by on' William Esturmy 
knyght payyd the seyd Walter Beauchamp & Elyzabethe hys wyff gave 
the premyssys amonges other londes & tenementes unto the seyd 
William Esturmy to have the seyd maner & other the premysses in 
Hewysche & Schawe & unto the seyd Wylliam & vnto hys heyres ffor 
ever / by force wherof the seyd Wylliam Esturmy was therof seasyd in 
hys demane as of ffee &, the seyd Wylliam Esturmy beyng therof seasyd 
dyed therof by protestacyon seasyd / after whoys dethe the seyd maner 
of Hewysche and the seyd londes <fc tenementes in Hewysche & Schawe 
desendyd as of ryght hytt owythe to descende unto the seyd Syr John 
►Seymor Knyght as cosyn & heyr unto the seyd Wylliam Esturmy 
knyght that ys to witte son of John Seymor Esquier son of John 
Seymor Esquier son of John Seymor Knyght son of Maude dowthter & 
heyre unto the seyd William Esturmy beforce wherof the seyd Syr 
John Seymor nowe def endaunt entry ed into the seyd maner of Hewysche 
& into the seyd londes & tenementes in Hewysche & Schawe & therof 
was & yit ys seasyd in his demane as of ffee by ryght tytele of in- 
herytaunce / And as to the third parte of the resydew of all other, the 
messuag londes & tenementes &other the premyssiz in Elcote E verleyght 
and Marleborough the seyd Syr John Seymor now defendaunt seythe 
howe that on' Thomas Beke was seasyd of the seyd thyrde parte in hys 
demane as of ffee & so seasyd ffor grete sommys of money to hym payed 
by the seyd Syr John Seymor solde the seyd thyrd parte of all the seyd 
messuag & other the premyssiz in Elcote Everleyght & Marleborowgh 
& all evydences consernyng the same amonges other londes & tene- 
mentes unto the seyd Syr John Seymor & to hys heyrs ffor ever & made 
estate accordyng by force wherof the seyd Syr John Seymour entryd 
into the seyd thyrd parte & therof was & yett ys seasyd in his demeane 

-Huish and the Boy nets, ,1^7 

as of ffee by the reason of the bargen & sale aforeseyd as lawf ull was 
ffor hym to doo / And as to the too partes resydewe of the messuag 
& other the premyssyz in Elcote Everleyght & Marleborowght the seyd 
Syr John Seymor deffendant saythe that he nothyng claymythe ther 
in to hys owne vse but he saythe that on' John Dudeley knyght pre- 
tendythe & makythe tyttle unto the seyd too partys & prayyth that 
the seyd John Dudeley knyght may be callyd into thys honorable 
Courte to entreplede wythe the seyd Robirde Benger And suche 
proffyttes as he the seyd Syr John Seymor have taken of the seyd 
too partys he the seyd John Seymour ys redy to accompte for 
the same And further to be orderyd in that as thys honorable Courte 
wyll adward And all suche evydences wrytynges & other mynymentes 
as the seyd Syr John Seymor hathe consernyng the seyd maner of 
Hewysche & the londes & tenementes in Hewysche and Schawe & also 
consernyng the seyd thyrd parte of the londes and tenementes in Elcote 
Everleyght & other the premyssys he kepythe for the preservacyon of 
hys estate of & in the premyssys Withe owte that that the seyd John 
Trymlett anything hadde in the seyd maner of Hewysche & in the seyd 
londes & tenementes in Hewysche & Schawe & the thyrd parte of the 
seyd londes & tenementes in Elcote Everleyght & Marleborowght & yff 
the seyd Trymlett ony thing hadde hytt was only by on' Elyzabeth 
Hall the wyche nothyng hadde in the prem[i]ssyz but only by dyss 
[eisjin done unto the Auncestres of the seyd Syr John Seymor And 
wythout that that the seyd Walter Hungerford knyght Christoffer 
Wroughton knyght & Richard Benger of Alton were seasyd of the 
premyssys by ryght tytele unto the use of the seyd Edwarde Lancaster 
& Elizabethe Hall for terme of theyr lyvys the remaynder therof unto 
the seyd Elyzabethe & to the heyrs of hyr body lawfully begoten as by 
the seyd byll hyttjys untreuly surmysed / And wyth out that that the 
seyd Rychard Benger of Alton the son was seasyd off the premyssyz or 
of ony parcell therof in his as of fee by ryght / And wyth out 
that that he the seyd Syr John Seymor hathe conveyd ony estate in 
the premyssyz or hathe enteryd into the same wrongfully And wythe 
oute that that any other thyng materyall or awnswerable in the seyd 
Byll of complaynte specyfyed and nott be ffore in thys awnswer con- 
ffessyd avoydyd or traversyd ys trewe Al wyche maters the seyd Syr 
John Seymor ys redy to avere & prove as thys honorable Courte wyll 
adwarde & prayythe to bee dyssmyssyd out of thys honorable Courte 
wythe hys reasonable costes & charges ffor hys wrongfull vexacyon & 
trowbele in that behalfe susteynyd 

Dancaster Bedon 

The Answere of Sir John Dudley Knyght brought in to 
the interplede by Sir John Seymour knyght ayenst Roger 

The seid Sir John Dudley sayeth that the tytle in the byll of the 
seid Roger Benger and also the tytle in the answere therunto made by 

178 Huish and the Doynels. 

the seid Sir John Seymour arre untrue and feyned and sayeth that 
nother of them have tytle to the manour of Hewyshe the londes and 
tenementes in Hewyshe and Shawe ne to the other londes mencyoned 
in the seid byll ne to eny parte thereof ne to the evydences concernynge 
the same / 

ffor the seid Sir John Dudley sayeth that one John Michel the 
elder was seasyd of the manour of Hewyshe & of the londes & 
tenementes in Hewyshe and Shawe and of all other londes &, tenementes 
in the seid bill namyd in his demeane as of ffee / And so seasyd 
infeoffyd Rychard by the sufferance of god bysshop of Salisbury 
Wylliam Erie of Arundell John Borurechirche knyght lord Berners 
John Denham knyght lord Denham Rychard Chokke knyght John 
Wroughton Master Thomas Passhe Master Thomas Oromehale 
Christofer Hanyngton Walter Plommer & Walter Moyne of & in the 
seid manour & other the premyssez to the use of the seid John Michell 
& of his heyrez and to the performance of his last wyll / by vertue of 
whiche feoffment the seid bysshop & other his cofeoffez werr seasyd of 
the premyssez in their demeane as of ffee to the use before declaryd / 
And after the seid John Michell wyllid and declarid by his last wyll 
That the seid ffeoffez should stonde and be seasid of & in as muche of 
the landes & tenements aboverehersyd to the yerely value of twentye 
poundes to the use of Alison his wyff for terme of her lyffe / And 
fferther wyllid that the seid ffeoffez should receyve and perceyve of 
the proffyttes of the resydue of the londes & tenementes above rehersyd 
ffor the maryage of Elizabeth his dough ter two hundred markes / And 
after seid cc markes receyved of the yssuys & proffyttes of the 
premysses / Then he willyd that his seid ffeoffez should make astate 
of all his landes except the seid xx li. assigned to his wyff to his sone 
John Michell the younger and to the heyrez of his bodye laufully be- 
gotten / And yf the seid John Michell the younger should fortune to- 
dye with out yssue of his bodye laufully begotten / then the said John 
Michell the ffather willyd that all & singler manourz londes & tene- 
mentes above rehersid should remayne to the seid Alison his wyff & to 
her heyrez for ever / And dyed after whois death theseid bysshop & 
other his cofeoffez werre seasid of & in the premysses to the use above 
declaryd / And after theseid feoffez did perceyve & receyve of the 
yssuys & proffyttes as is above rememberid cc markes for the maryage 
of the seid Elizabeth / And after the seid John Michell the yonger dyed 
with out yssue of his bodye / After whois death the seid bysshop & 
other his cofeoffez werre seasyd of & in all the seid manour & other 
the premysses to the use of the seid Alice and of her heyres for ever 
The astate right tytle use & inter est of the seid Alice of & in the seid 
manour londes & tenementes in Hewysh & Shawe & other londes &. 
tenementes in the seid bill namyd the seid Sir John Dudley by juste 
& good conveyance in the lawe now hath / With out that that the seid 
Wylliam Esturmy was seasid of & in the said manour of Hewysh & the 
other londes & tenementes in Hewysh & Shawe / And with out that 
that theseid manour & londes in Hewysh or Shawe discendyd or of 
right ought to discende to theseid Sir John Seymour as in the answere 

Huish and the Doynels. 179 

of theseid Sir John is alledgyd / & with out that that theseid Sir John 
Seymour is cosyn & next heyre of theseid Wylliam Esturmy & that 
theseid Sir John is seasid of & in theseid manour londes & tenementes 
in Hewysh by right & true inherytaunce as he hath also alledgid in his 
seid answere / & without that the seid Thomas Beke was ever seasid 
laufully of the third parte of thesame other londes & tenementes in 
Elcott Everley & Marlebrogh / & without that that the seid Beke 
dyd bargayne & sell theseid third parte unto theseid Sir John Seymour 
& made therof astate accordyng as in the Answere of theseid Sir John 
Seymour is also surmysid & with out that that theseid John Trymlett 
was ever lawfully seasyd of & in theseid manor of Hewysh & other 
londes mencyoned in theseid bill / & infeoffyd theseid Sir Walter 
Hungerford knyght Christofer Wroughton & other to the use of Edward 
Lancaster & Elizabeth Hall for terme of their lyffes & after their decease 
to the use of the heyrez of the bodye of theseid Elizabeth and for lake 
of suche yssue to the use of theseid Robert Benger ffather to theseid 
compleynaunt & to the heyrez of his bodye laufully begotten or that 
theseid Sir Walter Hungerford & other his cofeoffez werre ever seasyd 
to thesame usez as in the byll of theseid Benger is untruely surmysid 
and with out that that eny other thynge materyali or answerable 
alledgyd in theseid bill or in the answere of theseid Sir John Seymour 
not beyng in this answere confessid avoydid or traversid is true / A.nd 
for as muche as it is confessid [by] theseid Sir John Seymour that two 
partes of the londes and tenements in Elcott Everley & Marlebrogh & 
the evydences concernyng thesame do belong & apperteyne of right 
unto theseid Sir John Dudley / The same Sir John Dudley prayeth 
that he by the ordre of this honrable court maye be restoryd to the 
possessyon of theseid two partes & the evydencez therunto belongyng 
with all the rentes revenuys yssuys & proffytes recey vyd by theseid Sir 
John Seymour by the space of theseid xviij yere to the some of cc 
poundes All which maters theseid Sir John Dudley is redye to prove 
as this honorable court will awa[r]de and prayeth that he by the grace 
of thesame maye be restorid to the possessyon of the premyssez with 
the yssuez & proffyttes of the same accordyng to right justice and 

Horwood Ryche 

The Replicacion of Robert Benger to the Annyswere of 
Sir John Seymour Knyght 

The said Robert Benger sayth that the said annyswere is uncerteyn 
& insufficient in the lawe to be replied unto. And moreover saith that 
the said Richard Benger the son of the said maner & londes in the bill 
specified was therof seased in his demeane as of ffee to the use of the 
said playntiff & of the heyres of his body laufully begotton unto suche 
tyme as by the greate myght & power of the said Sir John Seymour 
unlawfully & wrongefully thereof was put oute in maner & fourme as 
by the said bill ys allegged And ferther the said playntiff saith that 

180 Huish and the Doynels* 

longe tyme sythen that the said William Esturmy knyght of the said 
maner & londes in the said annyswere specified was therof seased or 
theryn any thyng had that one Edward Lancaster by true and juste 
title & lawfull conveyaunce amongest other londes & tenementes was 
therof seased in his demeane as of ffee . and he so being seased for 
dyvers & many greate consideracions be twene hym & one Elizabeth 
Hall in accomplisshement & f ulfillyng of the will & mynde of one Alice 
Michell mother unto the said Elizabeth of the said maner & londes 
infeoffed John Trymlet in the said bill specified to have to hym & 
to his heyres in fee . by force whereof the said John Trymlet in to 
the said maner & londes entred & therof was seased in his demeane as 
of ffee to the use of the said Edward Lancaster & of his heyres. And 
the said Trymlet so beyng seased in consideracion as is afforsaid at the 
instaunce of the said Edward Lancaster of the said maner & londes 
amongest the said other londes & tenementes infeoffed the said Walter 
Hungerford knyght Cristof er Wroughton knyght Richard Benger of 
Alton & other in the bill specified to have to them & to there heyres to 
the use of the isaid Edward Lancaster & Elizabeth Hall for terme of 
there lyves & the longer lever of them without impechement of wast. 
And after there deceases to the use of the heyres of the body of the 
said Elizabeth laufully begotton. And for defaught of suche issue to 
the use of Robert Benger father unto the said playntif & of the heyres 
of his body laufully begotton in maner & fourme as by the said bill is 
allegged. And the said complaynaunt fferther seyth & averreth in all 
& every thyng as he hathe before allegged in his seid bill & shalbe at 
all tymes redy to iprove the same to be true accordyng to the effecte 
thereof Without that that the said maner & londes disended & came 
or of right ought to discende & comme unto the said Sir John Seymour 
nowe def endaunt by right title of inheritaunce, or by any other laufull 
conveyaunce . or that the said William Sturmy thereof died seased. 
or that the said Sir John Seymour ys cosyn & heyre unto the said 
William Sturmy in maner & fourme as by the said annyswere is 
allegged. And without that that the said Mawde in the said annyswere 
specified or John Seymour knyght son of the said Mawde or John 
Seymour Esquier son of the said John Seymour knyght or John 
Seymour Esquyer father of the said defendaunt or any of them or any 
other to there uses any thyng theryn had by right or therof laufully 
toke any issues of profittes . or that the said Sir John Seymour nowe 
defendaunt or any other to his use any thyng theryn had by right or 
therof laufully toke any issues or profettes in maner & fourme as by 
the said annyswere is also surmysed. And as to the thyrde parte of 
the said londes & tenementes ■'in Marleburgh Everley & Elcote in the 
said annswere specified the said playntif sayth .. that longe tyme 
before the said bargayn & sale by the said Thomas Beke of the said 
thirde parte unto the said Sir John Seymour defendaunt therof made. 
Howe that the said Edward Lancaster amongest other landes and 
tenements was therof seasyd in his demeane as of ffee . and he so 
beyng seased in consideracion as is afforsaid therof infeoffed the said 
John Trymlet to have to hym & to his heyres in ffee by force wherof 

Huish and the Doyncls. 181 

the said John Trymlet into the said thyrde parte entred & therof was 
[qui]et[ly] seased in his demeane as of ffee to the use of the said 
Edward Lancaster & of his heyres. And the said John Trymlet so 
beyng seased in consideracion as is afforsaid at the instance of the said 
Edward Lancaster of the said thirde parte amongest the said other 
londes & tenementes infeoffed the said Walter Hungerford knyght & 
other his cofeoffeis to have to them & to there heyres to the use of the 
said Edward Lancaster & Elizabeth Hall for terme of there too lyves 
& the longer lever of them withoute impechement of wast & after there 
deceases to the use of the heyres of the body of the said Elizabeth 
lawfully begotten. And for def aught of isuche issue to the use of 
Robert Benger ffather unto the ;said playntiff & of the heyres of his 
body lauf ully begotton in maner & forme as by the said bill ys allegged 
Without that that the said Thomas Beke or any other to his use any 
thyng theryn had by right or therof laufully toke any issues or profittes. 
And as to the other too partis residue of all the saide londes & tene- 
mentes in Marleburgh Everley & Elcote in the said annyswere specified 
the said playntif seith that for asmoche as the said defendaunt utterly 
hathe disclaymed to have any thyng theryn to his owne use & that the 
said Richard Benger the son at altymes was & yet is by right therof 
seased in his demeane as of fee to the use of the said playntif & of the 
heyres of his body laufully begotton therfor the said plaintiff praith 
that the said Sir John Seymour defendaunt may not only be compelled 
by the order of this honorable Courte by Injunccion of the said too 
partis to avoide from the possession & therof to make restitucion unto 
the said playntif of the issue & profites so by hym wrongef ully percevyd 
& takyn by all the tyme & space in the said bill specified . but also to 
release unto the said plaintif in extinguysment of his clayme for of his 
owne confession right hath he none. Without that that the said 
Elizabeth Hall of the said maner & londes or of the saide thirde parte 
disseased any of the auncettours of the said Sir John Seymour de- 
fendaunt. And without that that any other thing materyall or anny - 
swerable in the said annyswere conteyned & not before in this replicacion 
confessed & avoided or traverssed is trewe. All which matters the 
said playntif is redy to averre & prove as this honorable Courte shall 
awarde & prayth as he is in his said bill hathe before praid, / 

The replicacion of Robert Benger to 
. . . . of Sir John Dudley knyght brought 
. . . in to enterpledde by Sir John Seymour 
knyght .... nst the said Benger. 

The said Robert seyth that the . . . ys uncerteyn & insufficient 
in the lawe to be replied unto. And moreover seith that the said 
Richard Benger the son of the said maner & londes in the bill specified 
was & yet is by right therof seased in his demeane as of ffee to thuse 
of the said playntif & of theyres of his body laufully begotton in maner 
and f ourme as by the said bill is allegged. And f erther the seid playntif 
seith that longe tyme sithen the said Busshop of Salisbury William 

N 2 

182 Huish and the Doynels. 

Erie of Aroundell & other there cofeoffees in the said annyswere speci- 
fied of the said maner & londes were therof seased or any thyng theryn 
had to thuse of the said Alice Michell that one Edward Lancaster by 
true & juste tytle & lauful conveyaunce was therof seased in his 
demeane as of ffee. And he so beyng seased for dyvers & many greate 
consideracions be twene hym and one Elizabeth Hall in accomplisshe- 
ment & f ulfillyng of the mynde & wille of the said Alice Michell mother 
unto the said Elizabeth of the said maner and londes infeoffed John 
Trymlet . to have to hym & to his heyres in ffee by force whereof the 
said John Trymlet in to the premissis entred & therof was seased in his 
demeane as of ffee to thuse of the said Edward Lancastr' & of his heyres- 
And the said John Trymlet so beyng seased in consideracion as is 
afforsaid at the instaunce of the said Edward Lancastr' of the said 
maner & londes infeoffed the said Walter Hungerford knyght Christofer 
Wroughton knyght Richard Benger of Alton & other in the bill specified. 
to have to them & to there heyres to thuse of the said Edward Lan- 
caster & Elizabeth Hall for terme of there lyves & the lenger lever of 
them without impechement of wast . & after there deceassez to thuse of 
theyres of the body of the said Elizabeth lauf ully begotton & for def aught 
of suche issue to thuse of Robert Benger Ifather unto the said playntif 
& of theyres of his body lauf ully begotton in maner & fourme as by the 
said bill ys allegged. And the said complaynaunt fferther seith & 
averreth in all & every thyng as he hathe before allegged in his said 
byll & shalbe at all tymes redy to prove the same to be true accordyng 
to theffecte therof Without that that said Sir John Dudley nowe hathe 
by just & good conveyaunce the estate right use & interest of the said 
Alice Michell of & in the said maner londes & tenementes in the bill 
named or of & in any parte or parcell therof in maner & fourme as by 
the said annyswere is allegged. And without that that . . . other 
thyng materiall or annyswereeable in the said annyswere conteyned & 
not before in this Replicacion confessed & avoyded or . . . ed is true 
All which matters the saiy playntif is redy to aver & prove as this 
honorable Courte shall awarde & praith as he in his said bill hath 
before praid. 

The Rejoynder of Sir John Seymour knyght 
unto the Replycacion of Robert Benger. 

The seyd Sir John seyth that the seyd Replycacion ys insuffycyent 
in the law to be rejoynde unto and fferther seyth that his seyd aunswere 
is good & suffycyent yn the law and averyth every thyng yn the same 
to be good & trew accordyng to the purporte of the same And ferther 
seyth that the seyd Thomas Beke yn the seyd aunswer mencyoned was 
lauffully & justeley seassed of the third parte of the seid londes 
tenementes in Maleburrowh Everly & Elcotte yn the seyd byll 
Replycacion specyfied yn his demean as of ffee & that be good juslj 
tytle of ryght by dissent from his auncetours and so seassed of th 
seyd thyrd parte infeoffed the seyd Sir John Seymour & his heyers So 
ever & made a state accordyng by fforce wherof the seid Sir Joh; 


Huish and the Doynels. 183 

Seymour ys now seassed of the seid thyrd parte in ffee be tytle of 
ryght with owt that that the seid Rychard Benger the son yn the seyd 
byll & Reply cacion specyfyedwas unlauf ully & wrongfully putowt of the 
seid manner londes & tenementes yn the seid byll & Replycacion 
specyfyed by the seid Sir John Seymour And wyth owt that that ony 
oder thyng materyall or aunswerable yn the seid Replicacion conteyned 
& not by the seid Rojoynder confessed avoyded or traversed ys trew 
All which matters the seid Sir John ys redy to prove as this honorable 
Courte wyll awarde And praiyth as before yn his seid aunswer he 
hath prayed. 

Early Chancery Proceedings. Bd. Ifi2, nos. 59 — 64- 

The following writ was noted too late for insertion at page 67 
above. It is a grant, 6 December, 1247, for the executors of 
Robert Duynel, or Doynel : — 

De execucione testamenti Roberti Doynel. 

Mandatum est Henrico de Wengham et coescaetori suo in comitatu 
Wiltes' quod accepta securitate ab executoribus testamenti Roberti 
Duynel de debitis si qua idem Robertus regi debuit regi reddendis 
ipsos execntores plenam administracionem omnium bonorum que 
fuerunt ipsius Roberti habere permittant ad execucionem testamenti 
sui faciendam. Et si qua forte de bonis et catallis hiis receperint, eis 
sine ullo retenemento eis (sic) reddi f aciant. Teste rege apud Merle- 
berge vij. die Decembris. 

Close Roll. 32 Hen. III. [1247]. m. 16. 

Preserved among the Records of the Duchy of Lancaster (Knights' 
Fees, Bundle 1, no. 14), there is a list of: — 

Les ffees le Counte de Hereford de la Conestablerie Dengleterr', 

followed by a list of : — 

Les ffees de la Baronie de Farlegh'. 

which begins :- — 

Richard de Vernon tient en Kyngestone Deverel en Wiltesshir' un 
fee est deit la suite a la court de ffarlegh' de treis symaignes en treis 

184 Huish and the Doynels. 

The 16th entry on this list is : — 

Peres Doynel tient en Erdescote en le dit contee la quarte partie de- 
un fee et deit la service avaunt dite ; 

from which we gather that Sir Peter Doyneil held his land in 
Erdescot, mentioned above (pp. 86, 88), of the Earl of Hereford, 
as of the barony of Farlegh, by service of \ of a knight's fee and 
suit of the earl's court. 

The name Doynel occurs in other counties. Thus John Doynel 
is in the commission of the peace for the county of Hertford, 13 
October, 1348. On 7 November, 1404, John Doyneil has letter 
of attorney to receive seisin from the earl of Westmorland of lands 
in Yorkshire. Possibly this last-mentioned John belonged to those 
of the name very anciently seated in Nottinghamshire. Thus in 
1201 "Walter Doisnel was amerced half a mark in county Notting- 
ham ; William Doynel occurs as donor of a rent in West Ketford 
before 1272 ; Thomas Doynel was amerced in the same county 
before 1275 ; John Doynel, of Misterton, co. Nottingham, is par- 
doned a trespass done by him with other scholars of Oxford, in 
Bernwood Forest, in 1281 ; William Doynel, in or about 1310, 
claimed to present to the church of Misterton ; and Thomas 
Doynel, of Misterton, occurs in 1412. 

In Cornwall the name is found, in several branches, that of' 
Menhenniot ending in an heiress married to Trelawney after 1375, 
and another in an heiress married, a hundred and fifty years or so 
later, to Beare. As early as 18 November, 1224, Walter Doignell 
and Ermengard his wife, late the wife of Walter Foliot, released 
her dower in half a knight's fee in Penhanger, in Menhenniot. 

185 . 



By Fanny Street, MA., F.R.Hist. Soc. 

I. Introduction. Distinction between Old and New Sarum. (Note 
on the error of this name.) 

II. Foundation and Development of the City. 

(a) Original grants and their significance. 

(b) Traces of early municipal organisation. 

III. Formulation of the Constitution of the City. 

(a) Tallage Controversy, 1302—6. 

(b) Composition between Bishop and Citizens. 

(c) Municipal Constitution, 1306 — 1465. 

IV. Later Controversies. 

(a) Incidents of period 1306—1465. 

(b) Dispute with Bishop Beauchamp, 1465 — 1474. 

(c) Incidents of period 1474 — 1537. 

(d) Controversy with Bishop Shaxton, 1537 — 9. 

(e) Incidents of period 1539—1593. 

(f) Dispute with Bishop Coldwell and its sequel 1593 — 8, 

V. The Final Emancipation of the City. 

(a) The granting of the new charter. 

(b) Government under the new charter. 

VI. Summary and Conclusion. 

List of Abbreviations Employed. 
B. and H. Old and New Sarum ... ... Benson and Hatcher. 

B.B.C. British Borough Charters ... ... Ballard. 

B.C. Borough Customs ... ... ... Bateson. 

{ B.T. Burgage Tenure ... ... ... Hemmeon. 

D.N.B. Dictionary of National Biography 

\t.A. Gleanings from the Archives ... ... Swayne. 

r.J/. The Gild Merchant ... ... ... Gross. 

&.M.C.R. I. Repor -t of Historical Manuscripts Commission Vol. L, 1901. 

K M.C.R. IV. „ „ ,, „ „ Vol. IV., 1907. 

tt.R. Hundred Rolls 

l.N. Liber Niger 

p. and P. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. ... Gairdner. 

I.B.S. Muniments of the Bishop of Salisbury 
I.C.S. „ „ „ Corporation of Salisbury 

*.H. Prohisiones Historicce ... ... ... Duke. 

and M. History of English Law ... ... Pollock and Maitland. 

IP. Records of Parliament, 1305 ... ... Maitland. 

•P. State Papers — Domestic Series — James I. ... Green. 

'.C The Tropenell Cartulary ... ... ... Davies. 

Detailed particulars of these references are given in the Bibliography. 

186 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

I. Introduction, 

The history of the relations of the Bishops of Salisbury with 
their citizens offers an interesting example of municipal development 
on the land of an ecclesiastical lord. It exhibits many character- 
istics which are to be found in the history of other cities similarly 
placed, such as Exeter, Wells, and St. Alban's. Successive Bishops 
acted as good landlords, in that they did their best to increase the 
city's opportunities of trade and to secure ever wider privileges for 
it ; but they were singularly tenacious of their rights of control 
and unwilling even to sell or commute these so as to leave the 
citizens free to govern themselves. The citizens, on the other 
hand, while accepting all that their lords conferred upon them, 
began to struggle for independence as soon as their community 
was well established, and maintained the conflict with varying 
success until they achieved their purpose. In the course of the 
struggle they opposed the Bishop's claims by every means, but, 
because of the weight of evidence on his side, throughout the 14th 
and 15th centuries in vain. Not till the 16th century brought a 
general attack upon the power of the Church did they gain any 
measure of success ; for complete freedom they had to wait till 
the beginning of the 17th century, when at last they succeeded in 
achieving self-government and freed themselves from the Bishop's 

The Lordship of the Bishops of Salisbury over the city of that j 
name dates from the founding of the new city in 1220, when the 
see was transferred from Old to New Sarum, 1 and the building of 
the new Cathedral was begun. More precisely it may be dated j 
from the grant made in 1225 by Bishop Richard Poore 2 to the! 
citizens who had begun to settle at the new site; this grant wasj 
subsequently confirmed by the Charter of King Henry III. dated J 
January 30th, 1227, 3 No such relationship between Bishop and 
citizens appears to have existed in the older city from which the 
see was tranferred, According to Domesday, 4 Sarisberie was held 

1 See below for note on these names. 

2 Printed in the Tropenell Cartulary, ed. Davies, pp. 187 — 8. 

3 Sarum Charters, Rolls Series, ed. Jones &, Macray, pp. 175 — 8. 

4 Domesday, fol. 66a. 

between 1225 and 1612. 187 

by the Bishop, but there is no mention of any borough, although, 
as Mr, Ballard points out, the Sheriff of Wilts accounted to the 
King for its third penny, and it had been the site of a pre-Conquest 
mint. 1 The area of the Bishops' jurisdiction was 50 hides, and the 
seignorial franchises granted to them by the charters of subsequent 
kings were very extensive, as is clear from the long list of juris- 
dictional rights granted by King John. 2 But none of these 
privileges, however advantageous to the Bishops' tenants, were 
such as to imply a municipal organization. The right to hold a 
fair at Old Sarum annually for seven days : — " tres dies ante 
festum Sancte Marie Septembris et post festum tres dies et in die 
festi" — was granted by Henry I. 3 "ad communam canonicorum 
Sar' Ecclesie," and subsequently confirmed with many other grants 
by Henry II., but this was not granted to the Bishop at all. It 
would appear, nevertheless, that some municipal organization de- 
veloped at Old Sarum during the reigns following the Conquest 
and the settlement of the see at that place. Dr. Gross quotes 
from the Charter Kolls a grant of a gild merchant made directly 
to the Burgesses of Saresberie by King John in 1200, in which 
there is no mention of the Bishop. " Johannis Dei gratia, etc., 
Sciatis nos concessisse burgensibus nostris de Sarisbir' ufc habeant 
giidam mercatoriam ad Sarisbir' . . ." 4 The charter refers 
also to charters granted by Henry I. and Henry II. and appears 
therefore to be a confirmation of older rights. 

Thus it seems clear that in the older city, while the Bishop was 

1 Ballard, Domesday Boroughs, pp. 10, 43, 120. 
2 , Quoted in an inspeximus by H. III. S.G. pp. 178 — 80. See below. 

3 Printed in B. &, H. Appendix pp. 721 — 2 from Bp's Records. Conf. of H. 
II. in H. M.Cfi. I. 1901, p. 368. 

4 Gild Merchant, II., p. 209. Dr. Gross' references to the gild merchant 
in Salisbury appear to ignore the difference between the two cities. The 
illustrations given by him in Vol. II., pp. 209 — 10 are printed continuously 
as if referring to the same place. Thus the extract quoted above, which 
relates to Old Sarum, is immediately followed by a mention of the com- 
position of 1306 between the Bishop and the citizens of New Sarum, and a 
quotation of the clause in it which prescribed the first formation of a gild 
merchant in the younger city. But, as will be seen later, the two organi- 
sations were distinct and not continuous. The disputes about markets 
between Old and New Sarum recorded in the Hundred Rolls in 1274 
{II. R. II. 266 b), show that the city was not transferred as was the see. 

188; The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

lord of the soil and occasionally, as Sheriff of Wilts, custodian of 
the castle, 1 he was never lord of the city. In the new city, subse- 
quently founded on his demesne and under his protection, his 
relationship with the citizens was naturally closer. The lordship 
of this new city was retained by successive Bishops, in spite of 
repeated attempts of the citizens to free themselves, until 1612. 
In this year they succeeded in their endeavour, securing by charter 
from James I., control of the city by its own officials, while the 
Bishop retained exclusive jurisdiction over the Close. 

Note on the Name of the City. 

Throughout the preceding introduction, for the convenience of 
distinguishing between the old and new cities, the incorrect but 
commonly used forms, Old Sarum and New Sarum, have been 
employed. The error arose in the first place through confusion 
between the abbreviation Sa^ for the full name Saresberie or 
Sarisberiensis, and the regular contraction for the genitive plural 
ending " rum." The form Sarum, or Sarrum, thus created became 
current in the course of the thirteenth century but was not adopted 
at any precise date as the regular name of the city, to be used in 
legal documents and upon official seals, 2 Mr. E. L. Poole, in his 
Report on the Muniments of the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, 3 
points out that on the same documents in the 14th century are 
found the common seal of the city, " nove civitatis Saresburie," and 
that of the mayoralty " majoris Sarrum"; thus both correct and 
incorrect forms were in use at the same time. Sarum or Sarrum 
when once in use, is treated as indeclinable but of varying gender. 
In the documents read for the purpose of this thesis it is most 
often construed as feminine singular, e.g., " civitas Nove Sarum," 
which, as Mr. Poole notes, indicates the influence of the old " civitas 
Nove Sar[esberie]." 

1 B Sf H., p. 30. 
2 Numerous illustrations are given by Canon Wordsworth in Wiltshire 
Notes and Queries, March, 1904, and by W. Clark-Maxwell in the same 
publication, Dec, 1904. 

3 Report of the Historical MSS. Commission, Vol. I., 1901, p. 342. 

between 1225 and 1612. 189 

The earliest instance found of expressed dissatisfaction with the 
current use of the form Sarum is that by the Rev. W. H. Jones in 
1871, 1 but he throws no light upon the source of the error. This, 
however, was clearly explained by Mr. H. J. F, Swayne in 1886, 2 
in the course of his researches into the Municipal Archives during 
his tenure of office as Recorder of the city. 

II. The Foundation and Development of the City. 

(a) Original Grants and their significance. 

The new City of Salisbury owed its creation to the Bishop on 
whose land it lay. The new Cathedral, founded by Bishop Richard 
Poore in 1220, was the determining cause of its growth. From 
the numerous legends which surround the story of the choice of 
its site one important fact emerges : the new Cathedral was built 
upon a portion of the Bishop's own land. A 15th century copy 
of an older chronicle not now extant says : — " predictus locus, qui 
jam est civitas, fuifc uiium maris 3 vocatum Merifield pro averiis 
pascendis et pertinens manerio de Mulford." 4 A more precise 
statement appears in Bishop Beauchamp's Representation, made to 
the King in the course of his dispute with the citizens between 
1465 and 1474; according to this the Cathedral was built upon 
"a certayn voide ground, called Maryfield, parcell of the maner of 
Milford, of olde long tynie and at that tyme perteyning to the 
Bishop, as by right of his churche." 5 In 1274, the manor of the 
Bishop of Salisbury is described in the Hundred Rolls as " maneria 
de Wodeford et Muleford," 6 though in Domesday no land under 
these names is assigned to him. 7 Hatcher suggested that the 
name of the manor was changed at some time unknown between 

1 Wilts Arch, Mag., XIII., November, 1871, pp. 49—50. 
2 Gleanings from the Archives, No. 52, Introduction. Salisbury and 
Winchester Journal, Dec, 11th, 1886. 

3 Maris=marish or marsh. 4 T.C., p. 185 ; Introd., pp. xix — xx. 
5 Muniments of Bishop of Salisbury, in Diocesan Registry, Liber Niger, 
fob 163a. Printed in B. & H. p. 164. 

6 H.R. II., 279b, 3 Ed. I., 1274. 7 Domesday fol. 66a. 

190 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

these two dates, 1 but of this no evidence is available. In any case 
the Bishop's possession of it was not questioned ; this is clear from 
the subsequent grants made by him to the citizens and by the 
King to him. 2 

The removal of the see and founding of the new Cathedral in- 
evitably led to the growth of population round the new centre. 3 
"Workmen engaged upon the task of building the church, pilgrims 
attracted by the special indulgences attached to it, and tradesmen 
to supply the needs of the growing community must rapidly have 
gathered and formed the nucleus of a thriving city. On March 
25th, 1225, the Bishop defined the position of these new settlers 
on his land by granting tenements of a specified size at a regular 
rent, " liberis civibus nostris de nova civitate nostra Sarum." 4 Each 
holder of a plot measuring seven perches in length and three in 
breadth was to pay twelve pence annually, sixpence at Easter and 
sixpence at Michaelmas, and holders of more or less than this in 
proportion. This rent was to be a quit rent " pro omnibus serviciis 
et demandis." Further, the nature of the tenure and the powers 
which it conferred were specified : " Ita, videlicet, quod, presents 
ballivo nostro, liceat ipsis et heredibus suis tenuram suam [or, 
tenementum suum] dare, vendere, et obligare cui voluerint preter- 
quam ecclesiis et domibus religiosis." The term " burgage ■' is 
not here applied to the tenure created, the phrase used throughout 
being " liberum tenementum " ; it was, however, generally applied 
in subsequent royal charters, e.g., that of Henry III., Jan. 30th, 
1227. 5 The characteristics of the tenure, as described in the 
Bishop's grant, were clearly those which distinguished burgage 
tenure, namely, a fixed money rent for all services and complete 
freedom of gift, sale, and mortgage, 6 Nothing was said of liberty 

1 B. andH.,v- 41. 2 See below. 3 T.C., p. 185. 

4 See T.C.; pp. 187—8, for whole charter. Slightly different text, from 
which one alternative rendering appears in square brackets above, is given 
in Appendix to B. and H., p. 728, from Liber Evidentiarum in Bishop's 

5 S.C., p. 276. 
6 Ballard's Borough Charters, p. xliv. Pollock and Maitland, History 
of English Law, vol. I., pp. 295—6. Morley de Wolf Hemmeon, Burgage 
Tenure in Mediaeval England, p. 5. 

between 1225 and 1612. 191 

of devise, and the only restraint on this mentioned in the Compo- 
sition between the Bishop and citizens in 1306 was the regulation 
that wills must be exhibited in court to ensure that no bequest 
should place land in mortmain. 1 This was quite in accordance 
with the terms of the foundation charter quoted above and probably 
recorded what had become the established practice in Salisbury as 
in most other 13th century boroughs. 2 On the whole, in respect of 
this question of burgage tenure, Salisbury falls into the class which 
Dr. Hemmeon describes as " charter-created, twelve-penny, baronial 
boroughs," 3 and therefore finds less interesting than earlier cases 
in which the gradual development of such tenure may be studied. 
Of the list of burgage rents which he gives, forty-one out of one 
hundred are at twelve pence per annum, which thus seems the 
most usual rent for such a charter-created borough, 4 

Mr. Ballard's collection of Borough Charters belonging to the 
period immediately preceding the creation of New Salisbury affords 
many close parallels. Thus Swansea, Cardiff, Tewkesbury, and 
Okehampton, 5 show an annual rent of twelve pence ; Drogheda, 
Pontefract, and Burton-on-Trent 6 have an arrangement for half- 
yearly payments of sixpence, Similarly, the precise measurement 
of the plots granted is sometimes specified, as at Burton-on-Trent 
and Stratford-on-Avon. 7 The last-named charter, like that of 
Salisbury, is the grant of a Bishop, John de Constantiis. Again, 
the right to give, sell, or mortgage the tenement appears in most 
of these charters, with the same prohibition of transfer to religious 
persons or communities. 8 The Salisbury charter does not, however, 
mention sale dues, as do those of several other boroughs, 9 but the 
stipulation that valid sale could only take place in the presence of 
the Bishop's Bailiff may possibly have had the same practical 
result. 10 

Having thus established a new city upon his land, the Bishop 

proceeded to secure from the King various rights and franchises 

for its use and advantage, 11 and at the same time a recognition of 

1 See Section III. B. 2 Bateson's Borough Customs, Vol. II., pp. cxviii — ix. 
3 B.T., p. 75. 4 B.T., pp. 67—70. 5 B.B.G., pp. 44—8. 
6 B.B.C., pp. 48—9. 7 Ibid, p. 51 and footnote. 8 Ibid, pp. 64—8. 

9 B.B.C., pp. 65—7 ; 70—71. Also B.T., p. 54. 

10 T.O., p. 187. B.T., p. 54. n Ibid, p. 185. 

192 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

his position and claims as lord. He procured two new charters 
from Henry III,, who had from the first taken a personal interest 
in the founding of the new Cathedral, and also an inspeximus and 
confirmation by the same King of a charter granted to a former 
Bishop by King John. 

The first, dated January 30th, 1227, confirmed " episcopo, suisque 
successoribus, et canonicis ejusdem ecclesiae et hominibus suis, 
omnes libertates et liberas consuetudines quas habuerunt tem- 
poribus praedecessorum nostrorum regum Angliae." x New grants 
were then added decreeing that "locus ille qui dicitur Nova 
Sarisberia sit libera civitas in perpetuum," 2 and that its citizens 
should have all liberties and quittances as held by the men of 
Winchester and the usual freedom from tolls and customs through 
all the King's demesnes. The Bishop's rights were amply recog- 
nized and increased. He was given power to enclose the city with 
a ditch "et teneant in perpetuum sicut proprium dominicum 
suum," saving the King's rights of advowson and custody during 
the vacancy of the see, One clause in his grant to the citizens 
received confirmation, namely the prohibition of the alienation of 
their tenements to Churches or religious houses " sine licentia et 
voluntate praedicbi episcopi et successorum suorum." Power was 
given him to make or change ways and bridges and to hold an 
annual fair ; the date fixed for this, from the vigil of the Assumption 
(August 15th) to the morrow of the octave, 3 is different from the 
date of the fair granted by Henry I. to Old Sarum, which was to 
extend from three days before the Nativity of the Virgin (Sept. 
8th) to three days after that feast, 4 another indication that the 
two cities were quite distinct. Both the privileges just mentioned 
were such as to increase the trading facilities of the city and make 
it prosperous and wealthy. That this should prove to the adr 
vantage of the Bishop no less than of his Citizens was secured by 
the grant of power to take tallage or reasonable aid from the 
citizens whenever the King should take a tallage of his demesnes. 

On March 22nd of the same year, 1227, the Bishop secured also 

1 S.C.y p. 176. 2 S.C., p. 175—8, for full text of charter. 
3 i.e., August 14th to 23rd. 4 i.e., Sept. 5th to 11th. 

between 1225 and 1612. 193 

from the King an inspeximus and confirmation of the charter of 
King John 1 which had granted to the Bishop and his successors 
extensive franchises, such as : " omnes terras et possessiones suas 
et tenementa sua ubique, cum socca et sak, thol et them, et in- 
fangethef et utfangethe[f], etc." ..." soluta libere et quiete 
de omnibus geldis et danegeldis et hydagiis et carucagiis, auxiliis, 
placitis, querelis, summonitionibus, scyris, hundredis, et sectis 
scyrarum et hundredorum, de misericordiis comitatum et hundred- 
orum, de murdris et latrociniis, et de auxiliis vicecomitum, forest- 
ariorum et ballivorum eorum, et de aliis omnibus ad eos pertinen- 
tibus et de custodiis et operationibus castellorum et wardpeny et 
averpeny et thething peny, et hengwite et flemenswite, leyrwite, 
blodwyte, fizthwyte, et grithbreche et fremensfrith et forstall et 
hamsok et herfare et de francoplegio, ita tamen quod visus franci- 
plegii fiat in curia episcopi coram serviente nostro. Et si aliqua 
misericordia vel forisfactura inde pervenerit episcopus earn habeat: 
. . Et sint quieti et homines sui de thelonio et pontagio, 
passagio, paagio et lestagio, stallagio, cariagio, pannagio et omni 
alia consuetudine per totam terram nostram." 

Thus extensive rights of jurisdiction were secured to the Bishop 
and wide exemption from tolls was confirmed to his men as such ; 
the view of frankpledge, however, could only be held in this court 
by a royal official, 2 though in other of the Bishop's franchises, such 
as the Hundreds of Eamsbury and Underditch, in 1255 he held 
this jurisdiction also : " sine Vicecomiti ex antiqua libertate." 3 

Another fresh charter was ' granted at the same time, dated 
March 23rd, 1227. 4 This was a grant to the Bishop of amerce- 
ments from various sources with the sole exception of those arising 
from the pleas of the crown, and of full power to distrain for the 
said amercements, and seize the chattels of those condemned, 
" quando ballivi nostri, si catalla ilia ad nos pertinerent, ea in 
manu nostra seysire possent et deberent." 

Finally provision was made against the lapse of any liberty 

1 Sarum Charter 's, pp.. 178—80. 

^ History of English Laiv — Pollock and Maitland, L, 578. 

3 H.R., 231b, 125b. 4 S.C., pp. 180—182. 

194 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

claimed by the Bishop through breach of continuity or disuse, in 
the following clause: "Praeterea concessimus saepedicto episcopo et 
successoribus suis, quod licet processu temporis aliqua libertatum eis 
a nobis concessarum, quocunque casu contingente, usi non fuerint, 
ea nihilominus libertate praedicta utantur absque omni contra- 
dictione, non obstante eo quod aliquo casu contingente ea usi non 
fuerint." At the trial of the dispute between Bishop and citizens 
in 1305, 1 this clause proved of decisive importance and was held 
to cover not only the various liberties enumerated in this charter 
but also all liberties and privileges granted to the Bishop in the 
two previously quoted. 

In none of these foundation charters is there any grant of or 
reference to a municipalorganization ;the King's grant of franchises 
and liberties is made to Bishop, Dean and Chapter, and their men, 
while the Bishop's grant relates only to conditions of tenure. It 
is obvious that the development of some kind of organization in 
the community was inevitable, and the indications of this during 
the eighty years after 1225 must be traced. As much was due to 
the fostering care of the Bishop as to the energy of the citizens 
themselves ; their co-operation is a marked feature of this period. 

(b) Traces of early Municipal Organization. 

There is little positive evidence to show the nature of the re- 
lations between successive Bishops and their citizens from the 
date of these foundation charters until the dispute over tallage in 
1302 — 6, but what there is indicates peaceful growth and the co- 
operation of both parties in developing the commercial possibilities 
of the new site. It is also clear that some kind of municipal 
organization, involving the appointment of the usual officials, had 
arisen at least by the middle of this period. 

The situation of the city, and its proximity to the river, 
as well as the presence of the Cathedral in its midst, 2 made it a 
much better centre for trade than Old Sarum had been. Eapid 

1 See below, Section III. A. 
2 See long list of indulgences given in an article by Canon Wordsworth, 
in Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxviii., 15. 

between 1225 and 1612. 195 

increase of buildings was possible in the level plain round the 
Cathedral, and this was encouraged and regulated by the allotment 
of measured places in accordance with Bishop Poore's grant. 

Bishop Bingham (1229 — 1247) built a bridge over the Avon, 
to the south of the Cathedral, which connected the city with the 
main road from Old Sarum to Dorchester. 1 This gave the city 
increased opportunities of trade, which were promptly taken. 

Bishop Walter de la Wyle (1263 — 1274) procured a grant of 
another annual fair, of eight days' duration, by charter of May 
3rd, 1270, 2 and it is evident from the complaints made by the 
neighbouring towns of Old Sarum and Wilton in 1274, 3 that 
additional markets not sanctioned by any charter had also been 
held ; both these facts prove the increasing popularity of the new 
city as a commercial centre. 

No question as to the Bishop's lordship seems to have arisen ; 
the statement of the jurors who represented the city in 1274 — 
" veredictum civitatis Novarum Sarum " — is quite clear as to his 
claim : " Dicunt quod episcopus Sarum tenet civitatem Sarum cum 
suis pertinenciis de domino Kege in capite pertinentem ad baroniam 
suam et est capitale manerium tocius baronie." 4 

In 1281 there was some question as to the extent of his franchises 
but solely from the King's point of view ; his right to the assize of 
bread and ale and to a gallows was allowed,but his claim to entertain 
actions " de vetito namio " was questioned. 5 Possibly this accounts 

1 Custody of this new bridge at Harnham was given by the Bishop to the 
Dean and Chapter on May 31st, 1244. See the Cartulary of S Nicholas' 
Hospital, ed. for the Wilts Record Soc. by Canon Wordsworth in 1902, p. 23. 

2 G.A., No. 27, Oct. 25th, 1884, with correction of Hatcher's date as given 
B. & H. App., p. 736. The original cannot now be found among M.C.S., 
but the charter is extant in Rot. Cart. 54 H. III., memb : 9. The fair was 
to be on the vigil, feast, and morrow of St. Remigius and five days following, 
i.e., Sept. 30th to Oct. 7th, inclusive. 

3 H.R. II., 266b, 280 b. 4 H.R. II., 266 a. 

j 5 Placita de Quo Warranto ; Record Comm. Edn. p. 801 b. Cognisance of 
'; cases of unlawful distraint was a regality very rarely granted to a mesne 
j lord ; see P. & if., vol. II., p. 577. The jurors of 1274 had said : " Episcopus 
! Sarr' tenet placita de vetito namio et habet furcas et assisas panis et 
j cervisie et hoc per cartam Regis ut credunt." {H.R. II., 268a.) But this 
| particular right does not seem to have been specifically named in any 

196 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

for the precaution taken by the next Bishop of securing from 
Edward T, in 1285 an inspeximus and confirmation of his previous 
grants. 1 

There is little evidence to show the working of the Bishop's 
court in this period ; no early court rolls are extant. 2 The compo- 
sition of 1 306 repeatedly refers to the usual practice and reads as 
if it were a record of this rather than a set of original regulations. 3 
It mentions the City Domesday, 4 an enrolment of deeds which 
had been produced or witnessed in court, but the volumes of this 
still extant belong to a later period. 5 Of the mass of wills and 
conveyances which are to be found among the muniments of the 
corporation, very few date from the period before 1306. One will 
exists, 6 that of William Pinnock, dated 1270, but this is endorsed 
only in reference to its probate in the ecclesiastical court of the 
Subdean. Later wills have at least two endorsements, the first 
relating to probate in the Subdean's court as above, the last re- 
cording their production in the Bishop's court before his Bailiff and 
the Mayor. 7 There is thus nothing to prove that this last custom 
may not have dated from the time of the Composition of 1306, but 
it seems highly improbable that this was so. The prohibition of 
transfers to religious houses in Bishop Poore's charter 8 would 

charter. It has been impossible to find the final decision on the point. 
The case was adjourned to Exeter, whither the justices were proceeding, 
but there the Bishop sent an excuse. The next adjournment was to Easter 
of the next year. " Coram Domino Rege ubicumque fuerit in Anglia." 
{Assize Roll 185.) 

1 Rot. Cart., 13 E. /., Memb. 24. The original is in the Cathedral Library 
and is catalogued in H.M. C.R. I., 1901, p. 385. Here the dates appear to 
have been confused, and that of the charter of Henry III., which is con- 
firmed, is given as Jan. 13th, 1227, whereas it is rightly given in the charter 
as Jan. 30th, 11 H. III. The date of the confirmation is June 12th 13 E. I. 
It was produced at the trial in 1305 and enrolled with the other evidences 
offered. See below, and references there given. 

2 The earliest fragment belongs to the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; H.M. 
C.R. IV., p. 191. 

3 See below, and note especially Art. 5. 4 T.C., p. 194, Art. 15. 

6 H.M.C.R. IV., p. 191. The index of deeds goes back to 1317, but the 
actual enrolments only to 1357. 

6 Muniments of the Corporation of Salisbury ; Drawer W., No. 1. 
Translated in G.A., No. 38, Sept. 26th, 1885. 

7 See numerous translations in G.A., Nos. 7, 9, 35, 41. 8 See above. 

between 1225 and 1612. 197 

probably have made it as necessary to exhibit wills publicly in 
court as to perform conveyances there, and the reference to the 
City Domesday 1 as already in existence in 1306 strengthens the 

Two conveyances belonging to the period before 1306 are in ex- 
istence among the municipal archives and are valuable evidence 
of the transactions in the Bishop's court at that time as well as of 
its composition. One is a conveyance by Eadulph Farlip dated 

1290. 2 the other a conveyance by William le Marreis dated 

1303. 3 The latter may be quoted as a good example of transactions 
in court just before the formal record of its rules. It exhibits the 
joint action of husband and wife, the form of transfer and the 
witness and seal of the Mayor ; it also gives evidence of the officials 
who were essential members of the court before the dispute had 
arisen. " Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Willelmus dictus le 
Marreis Cementarius et civis Nove Sar' de assensu voluntate et 
consensu Agathe uxoris mee tunc mecum in plena curia dicte 
Civitatis personaliter competentis et concedentis dedi concessi et 
hoc presenti carta mea confirmavi Henrico Baudry civi dicte civi- 
tatis pro quatuor marcis sterlingorum in ipsis manibus solutis 

utiam schoppam cum Solario desuper illam 

Eeddendo inde annuatim eidem capitali domino duos denarios 
argenti ad terminos in dicte civitatis statutos pro omni servicio 
seculari exaccione et demanda salvis debitis et usitatis consuetudini- 

bus ad predictam civitatem appertantibus 

Et ad majorem hujus rei securitatem dicto Henrico et heredibus 
siiis et suis assignatis faciendam sigillum majoritatis civitatis pre- 
dicate presenti scripto personaliter apponi procuravi. Hiis testibus 
Ricardo de Lutegareshall seniore tunc maiore Sar' Johanne Lestute 
et Philippo Aubin tunc coronatoribus Simone deExonia et Eicardo 
de Christi ecclesia tunc prepositis Sar' etc. Datum Sar' die dominica 
in festo Sancti Dunstani Archiepiscopi (May 19) Anno regni 
regis Edwardi tricesimo primo." 

1 T.G., p. 194, Art. 15. 
2 M.C.S., No. 1, Drawer T. G.A. No. 28, Nov. 15th, 1884. 
3 M.C.S., No. 1, Drawer E. G.A. No. 31, Jan. 31st, 1885. 


198 The Belations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

The seal remains, though broken, and shows clearly the words 
" Majoris Sarrum." 

Deeds of this kind are, moreover, specially important as evidence 
of the existence of officials acting on behalf of the community 
before the formal record of their functions and mode of appointment 
in 1306. Of the several discrepant lists of Mayors which are to be 
found among the Corporation muniments, none goes back to this 
period, and the earliest mention of a Mayor of New Sarum is that 
found by Hatcher among the witnesses to the deed of foundation 
of the College de Valle in 1261, namely Eeginald de Wych. 1 
Hatcher gives a list of twelve Mayors between 1261 and 1303, but, 
as a rule, without references. 2 The two conveyances mentioned 
above both give the names not only of a Mayor, but also of two 
" prepositi," or reeves, and of one or two coroners ; that of Eadulph 
de Farlip gives also the name of the then Bailiff and places it first 
in the list. A similar group of officials is named in several docu- 
ments among the muniments of the Bishop and of the Dean and 
Chapter. 3 It is thus quite clear that these six officials were 
regularly in existence before 1306 and that the rules then set down 
did not originate the municipal organization, but recorded the 
established practice, as indeed they clearly state. 4 Finally, the 
trial of 1305, shortly to be related, shows that not ouly was the 
office of the Mayoralty in existence and officially recognized, but . 
that a common seal belonging to the community in its corporate 
capacity was in use, as well as that of the Mayor. 5 

Thus, by the time of the first great conflict with the Bishop, the 
city had attained the status of an organised community and was 
recognised as such by the highest court in the land, though it 
could show no precise grant as a basis for the position of its officials. 

III. — Formulation of the Constitution of the City. 

(A) Tallage Controversy, 1302 — 6. 

Until early in the fourteenth century no difficulties or conflicts 

1 S.C., p. 336. 2 B. & H., Appendix, p. 695. 

3 S.C., pp. 342, 351 ; H.M.CR, I., pp. 345—6. 

4 T.C., p. 191, Art. 2. 5 See below. 

between 1225 and 1612. 199 

arose between successive Bishops and their citizens of Salisbury. 
Both parties profited by the growth of the city in extent and 
wealth, and both seem to have been satisfied with their respective 
shares in this prosperity. The first conflict broke out in 1302, 
when the reigning Bishop desired to exercise the right of tallage 
conferred upon him by the charter of Henry III. 1 ; the citizens 
objected that this had never before been done and refused to pay. 
The matter was tried before the King and his Council after the 
close of the session of Parliament in 1305. 2 The trial is recorded, 
with the writs and documents cited and the arguments put forward 
by either side, in the Parliament Poll for February 28th, 1305, ed. 
by F. W. Maitland, in the Polls Series. 3 This gives a somewhat 
more complete and accurate version than the compilation in Pyley's 
Placita Parliamentaria, which was apparently used by Benson and 
Hatcher in their History of Old and Neiv Sarumf but there is no 
discrepancy as to the main facts of the case. 

The contention of the citizens, put forward by their accredited 
attorneys, Philip Aubyn, 5 Henry Lespecer (sitting M.P.s in this 
Parliament), 6 John de Braundeston and Henry Lisewiz, 7 was that 
the payments made annually for each tenement according to Bishop 
Poore's grant acquitted them of all services and demands ; in 
evidence of this they produced his charter, and pleaded in addition 
that they had never been tallaged before, and therefore ought not 
to be tallaged now. The Bishop (Simon de Gandavo) based his 
claim on the two charters of Henry III., already discussed 8 — the 
first, dated Jan. 30th, 1227, plainly granting the right of tallage — 
the second, dated March 23rd, 1227, including the special proviso 
that no lapse of time nor non-usage should destroy any franchise 
possessed by him in virtue of a royal grant. He urged also that 

1 See above. 
2 F. W. Maitland— Introd. to Records of Pari., Feb. 28th, 1305, p. xviii. 
— " It is clear that in this case the trial did not take place until the assembly 
of the estates had been dissolved." 

3 R.P. pp. 265—79. 4 B. & II, pp. 73, 77. 

5 T.C., p. 189, gives Aulyn. 6 Introd. to R.P. p. cxx. 
7 Deed of attorney printed in T.C. 190—1, gives Lorewiz. 
8 See above. 

200 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

the citizens' claim to various liberties and quittances depended 
upon these same charters ; these they were willing to acknowledge, 
as had been recently seen in their care to procure and use in their 
own behalf the confirmation granted to the Bishop in 1285. This 
confirmation, and also the two original charters cited by the Bishop, 
were enrolled with these pleadings and appear at the end of the 
account of this trial. 1 

The view put forward by the Bishop was endorsed by the judgment 
of the court, and the citizens were thereupon commanded by the 
King to pay tallage to the Bishop on this occasion on account of 
the advantages that they had received through the King's charters 
granted to the Bishop in the past. Two of the King's officials, 
Richard of Abyndon and Henry of Cobham, were assigned to assess 
and collect this tallage and pay it over to the Bishop. 

For the future the citizens were given a choice of two alterna- 
tives ; either they might retain their accustomed liberties with the 
accompanying burden of tallage at the will of the Bishop ; or, in 
order to avoid tallage, they might renounce all their liberties 
forthwith. They chose the second alternative, or rather their 
Mayor and attorneys did so for them, without any consultation 
with the community, as the preamble to the subsequent recon- 
ciliation with the Bishop asserts. 2 In any case, the Mayor and 
attorneys, whether supported or not by the opinion and approval 

1 R.P., pp. 278—9. Apparently the citizens also had a copy which must 
have been restored to them afterwards ; it is enumerated in Swayne's list 
of charters, G.A., No. 27, Oct. 25th, 1884, and is now among the Corporation 

2 T.C., p. 190. This preamble purports to express the views of the loyal 
party, over-ridden at the time of the trial by a factious minority which 
deliberately exceeded the power of attorney granted for the purpose of the 
trial. This is quoted in R.P., p. 266 ; " Et ad lucrandum vel. perdendum 
in loquela praedicta, et etiam ad omnia alia facienda nomine suo et nostro 
quae de jure secundum legem et consuetudinem regni Angliae in hac parte 
fuerit facienda et quae facere deberemus seu possemus si presentes essemus." 
But the agreement to which this preamble belongs was drawn up when the 
citizens had submitted to the Bishop, and under the guidance of a mediator 
appointed for that purpose by him. (T.C., pp. 190, 198—9). Its tone 
throughout seems to indicate that the view it expresses was that of the 
ecclesiastical lord or rather the view which he felt the citizens ought to 
hold. (See Section III. B. for further quotations from it.) 

between 1225 and 1612. 201 

of their community, were its accredited representatives in court, 
and their decision to renounce the liberties it had formerly enjoyed 
was accepted as decisive. 

On April 6th, 1305, they formally surrendered the Mayoralty of 
the city " per maims Kicardi de Lutgareshale tunc majoris ibidem," 1 
and he and the attorneys formally renounced the liberties which 
they had enjoyed by virtue of the charter and confirmation just 
exhibited. They found also six sureties to undertake that they 
would, during the coming Easter, surrender the actual copy of the 
confirmation of 1285 and their common seal, the token of their 
corporate existence. Thereupon the Bishop was enjoined to make 
no further claim upon them except for the rents of the "places " 
as laid down in the grant of Bishop Poore, and this one tallage 
adjudged to him by the court. 

From a memorandum in Bishop Beauchamp's Liber Niger, a copy 
of a miscellaneous collection of episcopal rights made under his 
direction from 1448 onwards, 2 it appears that the citizens resisted 
the payment of the tallage adjudged to the Bishop by removing 
their goods from the city ; consequently the Sheriff of Wilts was 
directed, by a writ dated May 27th, 33 E. I. (1305), to see that 
the task assigned to the two collectors was effectively accomplished. 3 

The consequences of this renunciation of privileges was extremely 
serious for the growing city. Since all their trading privileges had 
depended upon grants to the Bishop in which they had now no 
right to participate, they had left to them their holdings in the 
city as tenants according to Bishop Poore's grant, but none of the 
commercial advantages which rendered them valuable. Their 
annual fairs and weekly markets, their freedom from tolls and 
customs throughout the realm were all lost. Possibly they did 
not lose such protection as the Bishop's court afforded them, since 
as his tenants they would still have to perform their " rationabilis 
secta." But their own corporate organization, so far as it had 

1 B.P., p. 170. 
2 M.B.S. Diocesan Registry. Liber Niger, fol. 9. See H.M.C.R., 
IV., 1907, p. 7, for description of this book. 

3 L.N.< fol. 9a. 

202 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

developed, was dissolved by the surrender of the Mayoralty and the 
common seal, Thus, as the preamble to the subsequent reconcilia- 
tion with the Bishop expressed it : " Tunc non cives effecti set 
libertatum prerogativis nudati, per tempus aliquod fuimus in 
derisum omni populo et canticum eorum tota die." 1 

After a year of this state of things, a considerable number of the 
citizens submitted to the Bishop on April 1st, 1306 2 ; disputed 
points were to be settled by a conference between their repre- 
sentatives and a mediator appointed by the Bishop, and they 
bound themselves in £100 to accept the articles of reconciliation 
so drawn up. Their submission was promptly responded to by 
the Bishop, who procured from the King on May 28th, 1306, a 
restoration of the privileges renounced and a confirmation of all 
former liberties to the citizens as his men ; for this the citizens 
had to pay a fine of £40 and in it the Bishop's right of tallage was 
explicitly set forth. 3 He then assigned to Master Walter Hervy, 
Canon of the Cathedral and Archdeacon of Sarum, the task of 
directing the citizens in drawing up an agreement which should 
define the position for the future and put on record the mutual 
rights and duties of them and their lord : " faciendo, ordinando, 
mandando et exequendo ulterius in hac parte quod, experta 
vestra diligencia, Deo, nobis, ecclesie nostre supradicte, et preclictis 
civibus, conveniens f uerit et honestum." 4 

At the same time the Bishop sent a letter to the citizens com- 
mending Master Walter Hervy to them for the purpose mentioned 
and enjoining them to follow his counsel. 5 Later, when affairs 
had been settled and the citizens had recovered their common seal 
and the office of the Mayoralty, they appended the seals of the 
Community and of the Mayoralty to this letter, which ratification 
of it was d ated August 25th, 1306. 6 

1 2'. C, p. 190. 

2 L.N., fol. 26 (a) and (b) ; ninety names are given, but the final ratification 
was made by a much larger number, three hundred and three, probably 
because there was considerable danger in remaining outside. 

3 Calendar of Charter Rolls, 34 E. I., mem. 5. Hatcber gives the date 
wrongly as May 8th in his account of the matter ; B. & H., p. 77. 

4 Letter of authority to Master W. Hervy : T.C., pp. 198—9. 
5 Letter to Citizens : 2 T .C, p. 199. 
6 Note and witnessses to sealing : T.C., p. 199. 

between 1225 and 1612. 203 

(B) Composition betiveen the Bishop and the Citizens. 

The articles of agreement are twenty-eight in number and are 
printed in full in the first volume of the Tropenell Cartulary with 
the letters and preamble already quoted. 1 The form in which they 
are drawn up is that of a letter from the then Mayor, Eeginald 
de Toudeworth, and the Community of the city, announcing the 
previous quarrel and present agreement made by those who had 
submitted. The general tone of the preamble is best illustrated 
by quotation: — "Filios enutrivit et exaltavit reverenda mater 
nostra Sarum ecclesia, quos olim ab angusto Augusti Burgo [i.e., 
the old city] ad spacium amenitatis, campum qui [que in MS.] 
nunc Nova Sarum vocatur, translata, in loco illo, quemadmodum 
gallina sub alas congregat pullos suos, diligentissime congregavit ; 
procurans et obtinens a Celebris memorie domino Henrico tercio 
. . . . locum ilium, ut nomen consonum rei foret, am en am et 
liberam fieri civitatem: Ipsosque filios suos in ea cives decerni, 
multiplicibus libertatum prerogativis ciecorari, et ex exempcionum 
titulis a Deo communiri, ut cives illos genus electum populum 
adquisicionis, ac civitatem illam multipliciter gloriosam, publice 
predicabant labia populorum, felicemque se dicebat qui in ea civis 
meruit decerni, et ipsorum civium setu [i.e., coetu, MS. setum] 
congregatus sub proteccione prefate ecclesie libertatum [et] ex- 
empcionum fieri particeps predictarum." 2 It then describes the 
refusal to pay tallage : " quod ecclesie matrici sue predicte prestare 
debebant, sibi cervice superba reddere recusantes" 2 ; and the sub- 
sequent judgment of the King's Council and the renunciation of 
liberties. Lastly it recounts the submission of the citizens in 
unqualified terms : " Verum nos qui residui f uimus ex premissis 
ruinam nostram pariter et dispercionem aperte cernentes, ad 
miseriam nostram nuper reversi predictam, nos supradicto domino 
nostro Symoni episcopo, sponso ecclesie supradicte, pure, sponte, 
simpliciter et absolute submittentes, sibi humiliter suppli- 

1 T.C., 189—198. An original, framed, is among the muniments of the 

2 T.C., p. 189. 

204 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

cavimus et devote, ut circa nos eb statum nostrum secundum 
conscienciam suam faceret, disponeret et eciam ordinaret prout 
melius viderit expedire, promittentes bona fide quod quicquid in 
hac parte duxerit ordinandum faceremus extunc imperpetuum pro 
nostris viribus firmiter observari." x 

The tone of the whole document, with its representation of the 
conflict as the rebellion of a party of the citizens against their 
spiritual mother, shows that "fruitful confusion of the terms 
ecclesiastical and religious " which Mrs. Green has noted as char- 
acteristic of the policy of ecclesiastical lords in such contentions 
as to their rights. 2 The dutiful terms in which the submission is 
couched and the phraseology of many of the articles 3 show the 
Bishop's view of the citizens' proper attitude; the many practical 
provisions for his effective control of them also show his view of 
the relationship, as detailed analysis will prove. 

It will be convenient to group the twenty-eight articles for 
discussion in relation to the Bishop's claims in the following 
matters : — 

1. The Tenure of Burgages. 

2. The Appointment and Duties of Officers, 

3. The Administration of Justice. 

4. The Assessment of Taxation. 

5. The Kegulation of Trade. 

Such division does not entirely exclude overlapping, but is 
designed to bring order into the somewhat heterogeneous list of 
matters discussed and agreed upon between the citizens and the 
Bishop's deputy. 

1. The Tenure of Burgages within the city was perhaps the 
matter least in dispute, as appears from the agreement of both 

1 T.C., p. 190. 

2 Town Life in the Fifteenth Century, Vol. I., p. 278. Date of original 
charter on p. 281 is incorrect. 

3 T.C., p. 191. Clause 1, " prefato domino nostro episcopo, 

suisque successoribus debitam subjectionem et reverenciam deinceps ex- 

hibentes," p. 194. Clause 17, " quamdiu ad eum et ecclesiam 

suam Sarum nos et concives nostri reverenter nos habuerimus ac devote," 

between 1225 and 1612. 205 

parties about it at the time of the trial in 1305. 1 The first article 
of the composition of 1306 acknowledges the binding force of the 
regulations laid down in the Charter of Bishop Poore in 1225. 2 
Care is taken to safeguard the Bishop's rights over unallotted 
land, to provide that the creation of new tenements should be 
within his competence, and that additional rents thence arising 
should accrue to the revenue of his church. 3 Similar power over 
the allotment of stalls or places in the market is claimed for the 
Bishop by Clause 16; no such stall could henceforth be occupied 
without payment of a due to the lord (usually called stallage), and 
formal delivery by steward or bailiff, 4 This was a natural corollary 
of the Bishop's double claim as lord of the soil and also of the 
market, granted by the King to him for the use of his citizens. 5 

Other articles define the customs to be followed in the matter 
of the bequest and transference of tenements. Thus by Article 6, 
wills which bequeathed tenements were, before execution, to be 
exhibited in the Bishop's court to ensure that no tenement should 
come into mortmain, directly or indirectly. 6 Prohibition of any 
transference of tenements within the city to churches or religious 
houses was included in the original charter of Bishop Poore, 1225, 
and confirmed by the royal charter of January 30th, 1227. 7 Since 
these dates, the Statute De Viris Eeligiosis, 1279, 8 had given this 
customary prohibition general force and at the same time made it 
more explicit. The prohibition implied by Article 6 is expressed 
in these more general terms, forbidding the alienation of tenements 
not merely to religious houses but in mortmain generally. This 
widening of the reference of the prohibition was of considerable 
importance to the Mayor and community in the fifteenth century, 
when by the Statute of 1391, 9 mortmain was held to apply not only 

1 See R.P., pp. 267—9. 2 T.C., p. 187—8. 3 T.C., p. 191. 

4 T.C.,p. 194. 5 £.C., p. 177. 

6 T.G., p. 192, " .... quod per aliqua legata tenementum aliquod 

in manum mortuam non veniat, nee in aliqua prestacione annua que idem 

sonat in effectum, per legatum hujusmodi vel. testamentum, aliqualiter 


7 See above. 8 Stubbs' Select Charters, 9th ed., pp. 451—2. 
9 Statutes at Large, 15 R. II., Cap. VI. (1762). 

206 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

to religious bub to all other corporate bodies, such as gilds and 
municipalities. 1 

The endorsements of the numerous wills which are preserved 
among the Muniments of the Corporation, or enrolled in the City 
Domesday, bear witness to this customary exhibition of them in 
the Bishop's court; the endorsements invariably give the names of 
the officials present, chief being the Bailiff and the Mayor, and 
state that seisin or administration was given there of the tenements 
bequeathed. Eeasons for believing this to be a record of established 
custom have already been given. 2 The regularity of the double 
endorsement, i.e., by the ecclesiastical and manorial courts, serves 
to indicate that no conflict over probate arose here between the 
two jurisdictions, as was sometimes the case between ecclesiastical 
and ordinary borough courts over the claims of the latter to probate, 3 
Possibly this was because the manorial lord was himself an ec- 
clesiastic. In any case, the ecclesiastical court, or courts in some 
cases, acted first and the manorial court last. 4 

1 It is difficult to see how Dr. Hemmeon can maintain the distinction 
which he draws between the extent of the prohibition in 1225 — 7 and in 
1306 respectively. According to his interpretation {Burgage Tenure in 
Medieval England, Note 1, p. 126, and again on p. 147) the agreement of 
1306 limited the cases in which the Bishop's prohibition held good. Ap- 
parently he interprets the first grant of leave to give, sell, or mortgage by 
view of the bailiff as a general prohibition of all transfers without licence 
and argues that this later emphasis on mortmain implies the surrender of 
the rest. But Art. 18, next to be considered, shows that the insistence upon 
the public transfer which involved acknowledgment of the Bishop's lordship 
was still maintained. Benson & Hatcher's Old and New Sarum, which Dr. 
Hemmeon gives as his authority, does not include the text of the articles 
but gives a full summary. In another case also Dr. Hemmeon appears to 
have confused matters given quite clearly in that book ; thus, in Note 5, 
p. 147, he describes the royal charter of 1227 as " an adjustment by the 
King of the disputes between the Bishop and the burgesses " which did not 
arise till 1305. 

2 See above, Section II. B., and references there given. 
3 B.C. pp. cxxxviii. — cxxxix. 

4 See the four endorsements of the will of Richard Pynnok, 1311, given 
by Swayne in G.A., No. 9, Oct. 27th, 1883. The will was proved successively 
before officials of the Subdean, of the Archdeacon, of the Prebendary of 
Combe and Harnham, and finally before Bailiff and Mayor. Original is in 
M.C.S., No. 5, Drawer W. 

between 1225 and 1612. 207 

Article 18 describes the regular procedure to be followed at the 
transference of a tenement in the Bishop's court. 1 The title being 
read, the outgoing tenant was to surrender his right to the lord, 
aud the incoming tenant to receive it from the Steward or Bailiff 
upon taking his oath of fealty. When these formalities had been 
complied with, the incoming tenant was to be given seisin and 
corporal possession at the hands of the Mayor and officers of the 
city. As conveyances of the preceding period are in existence to 
prove that the practice of public transfer dates from before 1306, 2 
this article may be taken as a record of established custom rather 
than the creation of a new system. Public delivery of seisin in 
this fashion was the normal procedure of the borough courts. 3 
Nothing is said here of any sale dues, of which several instances 
in other boroughs are given by Mr. Ballard 4 and Dr. Hemmeou 5 ; 
the latter found these most common in mesne boroughs, where 
they formed usually a perquisite of the lord, but no evidence has 
been found of such a practice at Salisbury, In later centuries the 
profits of the court there, under the name of " Green "Wax Money," 
were among the Bishop's most valued rights, 6 retained in commuted 
form when his jurisdiction had ceased to be effective 7 ; but these 
profits were composed of fines and amercements and the name was 
probably taken from the Exchequer name for estreats of fines 
issued thence for the guidance of sheriffs and bailiffs. 8 

Article 27 describes the rights of widows and widowers respectively 

1 T.O. p. 195, Art. 18, " . . . . lecto ibidem titulo perquirentis reddat 
dimittens domino jus, et perquirens illud statim ibidem recipiat a senescallo 
vel ballivo, et prestito domino fidelitatis juramento, ducatur per majorem 
et ministros in seisinam et possessionem corporalem tenementi taliter 

2 See above, Section II. B. 3 B.C., Vol. II., pp. ex v.— cxvii. 

4 B.B.C., pp. 66—7, Lostwithiel, Pontefract, Okehampton ; pp. 70—1, 
Whitby, Egremont, Eynsham, 

5 B.T., p. 54. 

6 See Bishop Coldwell's grievances, printed in B. & H., p. 303, from 
document in bundle at Diocesan Registry, described in H.M.C.R., IV., p. 12, 
| and in Bibliography. 

7 Bishop Seth Ward's Liber Notitiae, pp 60—1 ; in M.B.S. See H.M.C.R., 
IV., pp. 9—10. 

8 Wharton's Laiv Lexicon. Paston Letters, No. 689 and note. 

208 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

in the matter of tenements which had formerly been held jointly 
by husband and wife. Detailed comment is unnecessary here as 
no new light is thrown by this clause upon the question of the 
Bishop's claims and rights. 1 But the fact that the names of twelve 
women, of whom five are described as widows, occur in the list of 
signatories to this composition, is another indication of its character 
as a codification of existing custom. This seems to be generally 
true of the articles relating to tenure, a matter necessarily first to 
be defined in the city's development. On the whole the Bishop's 
rights in this respect were those normally claimed by a mesne lord, 

2. The Appointment and Duties of Officers were more de- 
bateable matters, and, in spite of the precise way in which the 
position of the Mayor is dealt with in these articles, it was a subject 
of perpetually recurring controversy. 2 

There is evidence that most of the officials who appear in the 
earliest ledgers as annually elected, 3 viz., the Mayor, two "pre- 
positi," and four aldermen, date from the period before this 
composition. Examples of the mention of the Mayor and " pre- 
positi " in earlier deeds have already been given. 4 The division of 
the city into four aldermanries before 1306 is indicated by the 
grouping of the citizens' names in the list of those who took part 
in this composition 5 ; mention of these divisions also occurs in 
Article 14, which deals with the assessment of taxation on the 
basis of this grouping. 6 Article 13 mentions aldermen as well as 
servitors 7 as among the influential persons of the city but the 

1 T.G., p. 197. The article is interesting in itself ; it asserts the privilege 
of retaining the tenement for life, in spite of re-marriage and without con- 
ditions as to the birth of children, equally for either partner. That this 
was unusual is clear from B.C> II., Section on the " Curtesy of England," 
pp. cvii — cviii., 112 — 114, and section on "Free Bench," pp. cvii. 120—9. 
2 See below, Sections IV., (A) and (C). 3 See below. 

4 See above. 

5 List is printed in B. h ff., Appendix, pp. 742—3, from Reg. Rubrum in 
the Diocesan Registry: an original, framed, is among M.G.S. The four 
aldermanries were named : — de Novo Vico, de Foro, de S. Martino, de Prato. 

6 T.C., pp. 193 — 4 : " .... exqualibet aldremanrias, eligantur per 
omnes aldremanrias." 

7 T.G., p. 193, " .... in presencia servitorum, aldremannorum et 
aliorum fide digna." 

between 1225 and 1612. 209 

Composition makes no statement as to their numbers, duties,or mode 
of election. 1 The Composition puts on record for the first time 
the rights of election possessed by the citizens, the power of rati- 
fication claimed by the Bishop, and the position and powers of the 
Mayor and the Bishop's officials respectively. 

Article 2 declares the citizens' right of choosing their Mayor; 2 
they might continue the same man in office 3 or choose another as 
they pleased, and then had to present him to the Bishop's Steward 
or Bailiff to be sworn in and admitted to his office. This is said 
to be the custom already in existence. 4 The rest of the article 
carefully defines the Mayor's position as inferior both to the Steward 
and the Bailiff of the Bishop. 5 This is illustrated by the care 
taken in later articles to secure precedence for the Steward and 
Bailiff, and also by the order in which the names and titles of 
officers of the court appear on the endorsements of wills and in 
lists of witnesses to conveyances. In the case of these documents 
the order is not invariable ; three have been found in which the 
usual order is inverted and the Mayor put before the Bailiff; 6 one 

1 The first clear statement as to their duties is that in Bishop Beauchamp's 
Representation, L.JS., fol. 166 b, printed in B. & H., p. 172; they were 
mainly judicial — to present offences and collect fines. 

2 T.C., p. 191, " . . . majorem prehabitum, vel alium ex nobis si 
voluerimus, eligere et senescallo .... vel, eo absente, ballivo, ut 
consuevit fieri, presentare." 

3 This is the only intelligible meaning which can be assigned to " pre- 
habitum " ; the word is unusual and appears to be formed by analogy with 
such words as " prefatus," " predictus," etc. This interpretation is 
supported by the custom as seen working later, e.g., John Aport was Mayor 
for four consecutive years, from 1466 — 1470. (See below, Section IV. B). 

4 No copy of the Mayor's oath is extant before Bishop Beauchamp's time. 
See.Section IV. (B), on his controversy with the citizens over it. 

5 T.G., p. 191, i" .... qui, cum admissus f uerit et juratus de officio 

i majoritatis fideliter exequendo, sciens se senescallo aut ballivo predictis non 
| preesse, set pocius subesse . . . . ita suum exequatur officium sicut 
i eorum noverit consensui convenire." 

6 (a) M.C.S., No. 18, Drawer W— Will of Mariona Tanner ; trans, by 
Swayne. Old Times and Customs, S. Sf W. Journal, June 6th, 1885. (b) 
M.C.S., No. 9, Drawer A.— Conveyance by Wm. Ashleigh ; G.A., 43, January 
23rd, 1886. (c) Indenture of M. Godmanstone, G.A., 41. Nov. 21st, 3 885. 

210 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

occurs without tbe Bailiff's name, 1 as if in his absence the Mayor 
had presided over the court. 

Article 3 provides for the choosing of an undefined number of 
" servientes et ministri " in the same manner as the Mayor, and for 
the community's responsibility for them throughout their term of 
office.' 2 Failure in duty or contempt of the Bishop or his men was 
to be punishable by a fine which the community was bound to 
make up if the defaulting official should be unable to do so. Among 
these " ministri " were probably included the four aldermen already 
referred to and the two " prepositi " : that these last were in ex- 
existence before 1306 has already been shown, though the sole 
reference to their functions in these articles is in connection with 
the taking of distraints. 3 As to the " servientes," definite par- 
ticulars are here given. There were to be two servitors on behalf 
of the city and a third chosen by the Bishop to superintend the 
others, e.g., in collecting amercements. 4 For this official, his 
stipend, and his deeds, the Bishop was to be solely responsible, and 
this stipulation is repeated in article 8, 5 which deals with the 
amercements to be received by him. Similarly, the Bishop was 
to appoint one of the three citizens who kept the keys of the chest 
containing the City Domesday and the common seal. 6 

Several of the duties of the Mayor and officers are enumerated 
in these articles. Article 4 lays down that the Mayor and other 
ministers, probably the aldermen, " prepositi," and " servientes," 
must attend the Bishop's court every fortnight while the rest of 
the citizens need only do so on special occasions. 7 Articles 12 and 
13 describe the manner in which distraints and pledges were to be 
l Grant by .Richard Pynnok, G.A., 40, Nov. 7th, 1885. 
2 T.C., pp. 191—2. 
3 Here again the earliest description extant is that in Bishop Beauchamp's 
representation (L.N., fol. 166 b, printed in B. k H., p. 172). Their duty was 
to collect the Bishop's rents, hence possibly the importance of their wit- 
nessing transfers and bequests of property. 

The Corporation ledgers, as soon as they become readable, show annual 
elections on the same day of Mayor, Aldermen, "prepositi"; and "servi- 
entes." See below. 

4 27.(7., pp. 191—2. 5 T.C., p. 192. 6 T.O., p. 194, Art 15. 

7 T.C., p. 192. 

between 1225 and 1612. 211 

kept under look and key in the custody of the Mayor until they 
were offered for sale in court, and, if not sold, handed over to the 
Bishop's receivers. 1 Article 14 assigns to the Mayor and ministers 
the duty of arranging for the assessment of taxation " cum pro 
iminenti necessitate civitatis Sarum predicte communem oporteat 
facere colectam," i.e., prohably when a tallage was demanded by 
the Bishop. But strict rules as to warning and awaiting the 
Steward and Bailiff are given and provision is made for local 
assessment within each aldermanry, so that little save the duty of 
setting all this machinery in motion was left for the Mayor. 2 In 
the regular business of the assize of bread, Bailiff and Mayor seem 
to have been on an equality ; they might act jointly or individually. 
Finally, any charge for this by the officers, or any other sort of fee, 
was forbidden by Articles 24 and 26, though free gifts of victual 
were specifically allowed. 3 

It is clear throughout that the Mayor's position was entirely 
subordinate to that of the Bishop's officials, though in practice his 
co-operation with them was essential to the orderly government of 
the city. It is not surprising that in most of the later controversies 
the Mayor's oath and independent powers should be among the 
chief subjects of dispute. 4 

3. The Administration of Justice was one of the Bishop's most 
valuable and important rights, as the tenor of his original charters 
has already shown. 5 His jurisdiction was apparently well es- 
tablished, so that the rather vague and general statement of Article 
5 was sufficient recognition of its normal course; 6 but the com- 
position deals with a miscellaneous collection of matters which 
presumably needed precise definition, and thus throws light on the 

1 T.C., p. 193. 
2 T.C, pp. 193 — 4, "premunire teneamur senescallum, vel, eo absente, 
ballivum ut intersint si voluerint,vel saltern clericummanerii ad hoc mittant, 
et antequam faciaraus aliquid in hac parte ipsos per triduum expectare." 
3 T.G., p. 197. Art. 24, Art. 26. 4 See Section IV. (a) and (c). 

5 See above, and charters in full in S.C, pp. 175 — 182. 
G T.C., p. 192. " Item quod placita ilia que de sui natura, consueverunt 
I et possunt in dicta curia placitari, ibidem deinceps placitentur secundum 
! quod consueverunt, et preoptata libertas exigit et requirit." 

212 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

general character of the court. The question of suit appears in 
Article 4, the first which deals with jurisdiction. Here it is laid 
down that the usual duty of the ordinary citizens was only to at- 
tend the court twice a year at the view of frankpledge. On two 
other occasions, however, they were bound to afforce the court ; 
first, when any case lay there touching the King's peace or arising 
out of a royal writ ; secondly, whenever their regular representatives 
there, the Mayor and ministers, should be unable or unwilling to 
proceed to judgment. 1 

From this Article two important conclusions may be drawn. 
First, that the citizens were bound to fulfil the usual " racionabilis 
secta," due from tenants of a manorial court when no special 
bargain for periodic service had been made, 2 Secondly, that the 
Mayor and ministers, though subordinate to the Bishop's officials, 
were necessary members of the regular fortnightly courts. The 
somewhat obscure article 7 seems to be designed to safeguard the 
Bailiff's position and powers. 3 

The competence of the court appears from several articles to 
have been both varied and extensive. Under the heading of 
Tenure, various matters relating to the transfer and bequest of 
tenements have already been dealt with. These must have formed 
a considerable portion of the business of the court ; civil actions 
between tenants would also generally lie there as in any court 
baron. It is clear, however, that the court had more than this 
ordinary manorial jurisdiction; it had control over the assizes of 
bread, ale, and wine, 4 and power to punish by amercement offenders 

1 T.C., p. 192, " . . . . nee sectam facere ultra duas vices in anno, 
que vocatur visus franciplegii, nisi forte breve domini regis placitabile 
pendeat in curia predicta, vel liabeatur placitum de prisonis, vel agatur 
aliis de pace domini regis attingenda, et nisi major et alii ministri, qui de 
quindena in quindenam ad curiam predictam venire tenentur, noluerint aut 
non possint in placitis hujusmodi,aut aliis, procedere et judicia inde reddere 
cum effectu." 

2 Maitland, Select Pleas in Man. Courts ; Introd., xlviii — xlix. 

3 " Item quod retornum brevis alicujus non exigatur a ballivo per majorem 
vel alios, set tantum preceptum." T.C-, p. 192. The translation given in 
T. C, Summary of Contents, xlvi., appears inadmissible, viz., that no return 
of writ be required of the Mayor or others by the bailiff, etc." 

4 T.C., pp. 193, 197; Arts. 11, 24, 25. For good illustration of normal 
action see H.M.G.R.. IV., pp. 204—5, from Ledger B., fol. 71. 

between 1225 and 1612. 213 

against these, forestalled and regraters, and any persons who broke 
the rules governing the sale of provisions within the city. 1 Twice 
a year the view of frankpledge was to be held in the court, 2 though, 
as appears from the charter of 1227, 3 in the presence of a royal 
official, Nor was this the only case in which the King's justice 
was to be done in the Bishop's court. Article 4, already noted, 
makes it clear that pleas of the crown might lie there also. 

Further, since the city was already, through its fairs and markets, 
a centre of considerable trade and therefore frequented by merchants, 
provision was made for the administration of the Law Merchant 
also by the Bishop's court. By Article 10 pleas of trespass, con- 
tracts, and personal actions were to be dealt with by the speedy 
procedure of the courts of pie powder ; this was to be used not 
only for actions between outsiders but also in cases between out- 
siders and residents so that the latter also might benefit by its 
promptitude. 4 Two chief characteristics of the procedure of the 
Law Merchant are noted by Mr. Mitchell. One was the speedy 
procedure; the other the action of a jury of merchants to declare 
the law. 5 Examples appear in the Records of the Fair of St, 
Ives 6 and the Pie Powder Court of the Bishop of Norwich. 7 It 
would appear by analogy with these, that the court at Salisbury 
was probably held as usual by the Bailiff and Mayor ; but it would 
sit from day to day as necessary, instead of fortnightly, and give 
judgment in accordance with the verdict of such a special jury. 8 
The liberties of the citizens of Salisbury in fairs and markets 
outside their own city might be safeguarded by the presence of an 
attorney on their behalf, but special leave of the lord or his officers 

1 T.C., pp. 195—6, Art. 19. 2 T.C., p. 192 ; Art. 4. See above. 

3 S.C, p. 179. P. & J/., L, p. 578. 
4 T.C., p. 192—3 : "Item quod tarn in placitistransgressionum,quam eciam 
<;ontractumetaccionumpersonalmm,ubi pars una est intranea et alia extranea 
. . . . placitetur, de cetero et judicia reddantur, ac execucioni man- 
dentur, ea celeritate, modo, et forma quibus fieri debet et solet ubi ambe 
partes f uerint extranee, que pepouderous communiter appellantur." 
5 Mitchell, The Law Merchant, p. 12 ; pp. 72—3. 
6 Maitland, Set. Pleas in Man. Courts, pp. 142, 149. 
7 Gross, Select Cases on the Law Merchant, Vol. I., pp. 126—9. 
8 B.C., II., pp. 183—4. 
I P 2 

214 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

was necessary before such a representative might be employed in 
pleas of their own. 1 Such pleas, as has been already seen, were to 
be pleaded in the Bishop's court, and there the persons concerned 
would be expected to appear in person. 

To sum up, the Bishop had evidently a seignorial court with 
wide powers ; it exercised not only the civil jurisdiction of the 
court baron but also the criminal jurisdiction of the leet; it could 
act as a court of franchise and a court of pie powder. For the city, it 
took the place of a borough court or portmanmote,such as was char- 
acteristic of boroughs not subject to a manorial lord. As against out- 
side jurisdiction, the citizens lost little by this, since the Bishop's 
court, by charter quit of shires and hundreds, 2 was just as much a 
"jurisdictional oasis " as if it had been a self-sufficing borough court. 
In relation to the Bishop their subordinate position was very clearly 
indicated by the form and jurisdiction of the court. The officials who 
held it were the Bishop's; its jurisdiction over all cases within the 
city was unmistakeably defined ; its amercements had been handed 
over to him by the charter of 1227 and the value of this privilege 
was such as to ensure that no lapse or neglect would be suffered. 

Later we shall see the citizens attempting to secure freedom 
from the Bishop's jurisdiction by attempting to compound for these 
profits, among other payments, at a feefarm rent. 

4. The Assessment of Taxation is dealt with minutely by Article 
14. The language used at the beginning of the article is perfectly 
general, but it appears towards the end that the collection of 
tallage is the matter specially in mind ; 3 this is borne out by the 
strict provision for the presence and information of the Bishop's 
officials. The procedure laid down was as follows : first, notice of 
the proposed assessment and collection was to be sent to theBishop's 
officials and a delay of three days made in order that either the 
Steward, Bailiff, or at least the Clerk of the manor, might be 
present 4 Next, on their arrival, or after the specified delay, in 

1 T.C., Art. 9, p. 192. 2 tf.C, p. 179. 

3 T.C, pp. 193 — 4. "Item cum pro iminenti necessitate civitatis Sarum 
predicte communem oporteat facere colectam "...." tallagium 
hujusmodi, cum de bonis nostris fieri debeat." 

4 ". . . . premunire teneamur senescallum vel, eo absente, ballivum, 
ut intersint si voluerint, vel saltern clericum manerii ad hoc mittant." 

between 1225 and 1612. 215 

their absence, the inhabitants of the four aldermanries were to be 
assembled to elect four assessors to adjudge on oath each man's 
capacity to pay, who should be, in their turn, so adjudged by four 
others. It appears that these assessors were also to be collectors, 
and were to render full account of their doings to twelve others in 
presence of the Bishop's officials. 1 The Corporation Ledgers, 
however, as soon as they become legible, show that from the 15th 
century onwards the regular plan was to elect eight assessors, two 
from each ward, and four collectors. 2 This was probably a natural 
consequence of the increased population of the city, by that time 
one of the wealthiest and most populous in the realm. 3 Finally, 
the assessments were to be recorded on a three-fold roll, one copy 
apiece being kept by the taxers, the Mayor, and the Steward re- 
spectively, in case any complaint or dispute should arise. 

One phrase seems to indicate the possibility of discussion and 
consent by the community to the levy of tallage, 4 but the Bishop's 
right in the matter had been so clearly vindicated in the recent 
trial that no doubt could remain as to his power to tallage at will. 
The reference more probably was to taxing for some other common 
purpose, since the term tallage was applicable also to such a levy. 5 
The phrase "reasonable aid" occurs in the charters and in the 
report of the trial as alternative with tallage, 6 but there is no 
indication of any claim to consent. 

5. The Regulation of Trade is dealt with in several clauses and 
in considerable detail. The particular interest governing most of 
these regulations seems to have been the victualling of the city. 

1 T.G., pp. 193—4. Hatcher says (B. and H., p. 76), that these four col- 
lectors were to be chosen by the Aldermen, but this seems impossible and 
probably founded on a misreading of the MSS. The copy in M.G.S. has an 
alteration here which makes it obscure, but the version of T.G. agrees with 
that in the Diocesan Registry which Hatcher probably used. 

2 M.C.S. Ledger A. ; fol. 84b is earliest legible, dated 9 H. V. 

3 For wealth, see enormous fines payable in 1395 — below, Section IV., A. 
For population, see Oman, Great Revolt, Appendix, pp. 163 and 165. Petit- 
Dutaillis, Introd. to Reville, Le Soulevement des Travailleurs, xlii. 

4 T.G., p. 194 : " . . . . Proviso quod cum necessitas taliter talliandi 
communiter fuerit approbata." 

5 P. and M., Vol. I., p. 663. 
G See above, Section III. A. Also RR., pp. 268—9. 

216 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

Other trades and crafts within it would no doubt come under the 
regulation of the merchant gild now created, but the quantity and 
quality of food and drink and other necessities available more 
nearly concerned the interests of the Bishop, The usual assizes 
of bread, ale, and wine have been already dealt with in connection 
with jurisdiction ; other matters of commercial importance also 
come under that section, such as the safe-keeping and redemption 
of distraints and pledges and the summary procedure necessary in 
commercial actions. 

Articles 19 to 23 inclusive deal with the sale of ordinary ne- 
cessities in such a way as not only to protect the whole body of 
consumers in the city by the prohibition of forestalling and re- 
grating, but especially to give the households of the Bishop and 
Canons a right of pre-emption in their daily marketing. 1 Only 
this last point is interesting from the present point of view. The 
safeguarding of the rights of all residents to share in the purchase 
of victual was a normal borough custom. 2 The general rule which 
emerges from these articles was that no purchase of goods for the 
purposes of retail trade was to be made till after the hour of prime 
(6 a.m.) 3 in order that the inhabitants of the city might buy freely 
for their needs. During this period precedence was to be given to 
those of superior rank, following the order in which precedence was 
given in royal charters 4 ; thus the Bishop and his household, the 
Dean and Canons, and their households, would all have the right 
of buying for their ordinary needs before the mass of the citizens. 

Article 17 deals with toll, — not with the matter of freedom from 
tolls elsewhere, which was fully granted to the citizens by the 

1 T.C, pp. 196 — 7, Art. 23; ". . . . si concurrant ad hoc ministri 
domini episcopi, canonicorum, et civium, ita et eodem ordine inferiores 
superioribus deferant in emendo usque ad horam predictam, quo ordine 
per cartam domini regis sunt libertates quas obtinent assecuti." 

2 B.C., IX, p. lxix. 

3 Hatcher translates 1 o'clock, which is impossible ; the phrase is : "Ante 
horam diei primam in ecclesia cathedrali pulsatam." 

4 As for example in Charter of Jan. 30th, 1227 : "concessisse . . . . 
venerabili patri Ricardo ejusdem loci episcopo, suisque successoribus, et 
canonicis ejusdem ecclesiae et hominibus suis, omnes libertates etc." 

between 1225 and 1612. 217 

charter of Jan. 30th, 1227, 1 — but with the city tolls due to the 
Bishop as lord. By this article exemption from such tolls was 
granted to all dutiful and reverent citizens who had submitted 
themselves to the Bishop at the time of this composition. But the 
Bishop's full right to take toll, should he choose to do so in future, 
and the nature of this exemption as a special "gracia et supersessio," 
are clearly stated so as to maintain the Bishop's full powers and 
to secure an acknowledgment of these from the citizens. 2 

The same limitation of privilege to the citizens who should have 
made full submission to the Bishop appears also in the final 
article 28, which prescribes the formation of a gild merchant. 
The actual list of three hundred and three names is appended to 
the original copy in the Muniments of the Corporation and appears 
also in the copy in the Bishop's Records from which Hatcher 
printed it. 3 It is much longer than the list of those who originally 
made submission, 4 but the reason why more submissions were 
made, possibly during the negotiations, is obvious. All trading 
and other privileges within the city were to be confined to those 
who should thus submit and form the original gild, and to those 
whom they, the Mayor, and the Bishop should subsequently admit 
as members 5 thereof. Those who, having shared in the renunciation 
of the Bishop's authority in 1305, should still persist in their re- 
bellious attitude were to be entirely excluded ; even those who, 

1 S.C. p. 176. 
2 T.C., pp. 194 — 5, Art. 17 ; " Quod exaccio tolnetisive theolonii in dicta 
civitate, a loci civibus levanda, de sua supersedeatur gracia speciali quamdiu 
ad eum et ecclesiain suam Sarum nos et concives nostri reverenter nos 
habuerimus ac devote : ita tamen quod per hujusmodi permissionem et 
supersessionem nullum ecclesie sue supradicte sibi aut successoribus suis, 
ullis unquam temporibus, prejudicium generetur, nee nobis aut concivibus 
nostris predictis exinde crescat vel proveniat immunitas vel. contradiccio 

3 B. & II., p. 743, from Liber Evidentiarum in Diocesan Registry ; Cor- 
poration copy is framed among M.G.S. 

4 See above, Section II., A. 

5 T. C, p. 198, Art. 28. ". . . . durante rebellione sua, a contractibus 
hujusmodi, empcionibus quibuscunque contractibus eciam mercatoriis, et 
in civitate ipsa consiliis et ofticiis publicis,nostraque communitate,segregatis 
penitus et ammotis." 

218 The Relations of the Bishops anal Citizens of Salisbury 

having formerly rebelled, were now willing to submit, were con- 
sidered, at least for a time, ineligible for public office, though they 
might share in private liberties. 1 

The predominance of the Bishop is shown also in the division 
made of the profits arising from the entrance fees of new members 
of the gild ; half was to go to the Bishop, a quarter to the community, 
and the remaining quarter was to be divided between the Mayor 
and the Bailiff. Thus of the whole, three-eighths only was secured to 
the city and its own officials. 2 No gild officials are mentioned and 
no distinction seems to have been made between the government 
of the gild and that of the city ; in fact hardly any mention of the 
gild appears in the regular records of the borough except in its 
social and religious aspect as the Confraternity of S. George. 3 But 
this probably means that from the time of this composition the 
municipal and gild organisations were identical ; the narrow 
governing body, which we shall see acting for the city both in co- 
operation and conflict with the Bishop, was probably formed by 
co-option from among those admitted to the gild. 4 Here, therefore, 
we have a case of identification where the name even of the gild 
seems to have been very little used, and the " Mayor and Commi- 
nalty " or the " Mayor and his Brethren " were the usual phrases 
employed to describe the corporate body. The gild organisation 
at any rate, while permitted and enjoined by the ecclesiastical 
lord, seems to have been intended by him as a means of controlling 
the community. 5 Nevertheless it proved in practice, as Mrs, Green 
suggested, a rallying point in the struggle for freedom. 6 

The last item in the composition was an unreserved promise of 
faithful adherence to all the articles, on the part of the citizens, 
their heirs and successors ; they bound themselves to pay a penalty 
of a hundred shillings for any infringement by the Mayor and 

1 T.C., pp. 197— 8 Art. 28. ". . . Illi veroquilibertatibus renunciaverint 
predictis, et ante confeccionem presencium sese domino submiserint, licet 
publica non exerceant hac occasione in dicta civitate officia, nee ad communes 
admittantur fortassis tractatus, in dicta tamen Gilda existant, et libertatibus 
gaudeant predictis, ratione submissionis sue predicte." 

2 T.C., p. 197. 3 B. & R., p. 79 and Ledgers passim. 

4 See below. 5 G.M., L, p. 90—2. 6 T.L., II., p. 195. 

between 1225 and 1612. 219 

Community, and to suffer amercement at the will of the Bishop for 
any breach by an individual citizen. Failure to submit to such 
penalty was also to carry with it loss of status in the community 
until submission should secure restoration. 

It is quite clear, from this survey of the Articles of the Compo- 
sition of 1306, that the Bishop emerged victorious from the first 
conflict with his citizens. His legal rights were fully recognised 
by the highest tribunal in the land, and also by the voluntary 
acknowledgment of the citizens themselves. Economic necessity 
had forced them to realise that the position of citizens of a mesne 
borough was better than the entire loss of municipal organisation 
and privileges, But they never completely reconciled themselves 
to the limitations imposed by this agreement; they seized every 
opportunity during the next three centuries to attempt the re- 
pudiation of the Bishop's control, though when this proved con- 
venient, they were ready to claim his jurisdiction and assert his 
power. On all occasions of strife, the comprehensive and precise 
recognition of the Bishop's position involved in the articles just 
examined was to prove an effective weapon in his hands. No 
amount of ingenuity on the part of the citizens or their counsel 
could explain away its precise statements and the record of their 
assent. They had acknowledged the Bishop's claims as lord of 
I the soil and the complete jurisdiction of his court ; they had agreed 
that their officers were clearly inferior to those of the Bishop in 
every official act. Their commercial privileges were dependent 
on his grant, regulated by his will, and shared only by his loyal 
subjects; finally, the profits thereby accruing to the city and 
increased by the labour of the citizens were to be shared by him 
when he should so choose. 

To make assurance doubly sure, the charter of 1306 was con- 
firmed by the next King, Edward II., on December loth, 1315, 1 
with a special clause to safeguard the Bishop, canons, and citizens 
against lapse of right by non-user, and yet another weekly market 
and another annual fair were added to the city's privileges. 

I ' : 

1 Hot. Cart. 9 E. II., mem. 14. The fair was to last from the vigil of the 
! Annunciation to the morrow of the octave, i.e., March 24th to April 2nd ; 
I the market was to be held every Saturday. 

220 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

(C) Municipal Constitution from 1306 — 1465, 

No radical changes in the constitution of the city took place in 
this period, but there was a good deal of natural and necessary de- 
velopment owing to the increased amount and complexity of the 
business to be transacted. The chief evidence of this is to be found 
in the Ledgers or Minute-Books of the Community, which form a 
complete series from the end of the fourteenth century onwards, 

The first, Ledger A, has unfortunately been rendered almost 
entirely illegible by water since the fire of 1780. As soon as it 
becomes legible, it affords evidence of the regular annual election 
of the principal officers on All Souls' Day (Nov. 2nd) : the election 
of the Mayor, two " Prepositi," four Aldermen, one for each ward, 
and two " Servientes ad clavam," (or Serjeants-at-mace), can first 
be seen in the 7th year of Henry V. (1406). 1 These elections 
continued annually until the controversy of the citizens with 
Bishop Beauchamp, during which there were several irregularities,, 
from 1465 onwards, 2 until the controversy closed in 1474. When 
the conflict was over, the regular elections were recorded as before, 
from the 14th year of Edward IV., 1474, but not those of the 
"prepositi," who never again appear among the officers of the city. s 

The Ledgers also afford some indication of the nature of the 
body which performed these elections and held regular convo- 
cations, as they were called, for the despatch of business. It was 
composed of two groups, known as the Twenty-Four and the Forty- 
Eight respectively. Their numbers appear to have been recruited 
by co-option,— the Twenty-Four from among the members of the 
Forty-Eight, 4 and the latter presumably from among such burgesses 
as had been formally admitted to the Gild Merchant. 

The officials seem to have been chosen exclusively from among 
the members of the Twenty-Four, 5 but apparently both groups 
acted together for the election and also for the conduct of ordinary 

1 M.G.S. Ledger A., fol. 68 a. 

2 M.C.S., Ledger B, fol. 80 b 5 shows election of Mayor only. 

3 See Section IV. B. for details and references. 

4 See Ledgers A and B, passim, and compare G.A. No. 3, Jan. 6th, 1883. 

5 See Ledgers, passim. 

between 1225 and 1612. 221 

business. The nature of this and its steadily increasing amount 
and importance throughout the centuries covered by this thesis is 
clearly visible in the Ledgers. They show the bulk of it to have 
been concerned with the management of corporate property, the 
necessary government and defence of the city, and the making of 
regulations for its industry and trade, 1 Occasional business of a 
more national character, such as the election of Members of Par- 
liament, or the furnishing of assistance to the King in the form of 
men or money, also occurs, generally with a copy of the royal writ 
or mandate which initiated it. 

The names of those present are regularly recorded in the minutes 
under the date of each meeting, and the oath taken by members 
of the Twenty-Four appears at the beginning of Ledger B. 2 It 
contains no reference whatever to the Bishop, but begins with a 
promise to be "good and trewe unto oure Soverayne Lord the 
Kynge and his hey res, Kynges of England, and to the Mayralte 
and Commonalte of the Cite of Newe Sarum." 

The election of officials other than the nine already mentioned 
appears in the Ledgers less regularly. Two assessors and one 
collector for each of the four wards seem to have been elected 
when the collection of a tallage or other common tax had been 
decreed ; the earliest instance legible was in the 9th year of 
Henry V. 3 Constables, also, generally two, were elected from 
time to time. 4 No question of jurisdiction arises in respect of the 
various subordinate officials such as ale-tasters, minstrels, and 
others, hence no discussion of them is necessary. But some ac- 
count must be given of changes and developments in connection 
with officials charged with judicial and financial responsibility. 

The election of two Coroners must go back to the period before 
1306, as these officials are frequently mentioned among the wit- 
nesses to deeds of that time. 5 Such elections are noted irregularly 

1 See List of Regulations, 1408—1428, trans, in H.M.C.B., IV., pp. 193—5. 

2 M.C.S. Ledger B, fol. 2 b, out of place and bound as fol. 22. See 
II.M.C.R., IV., p. 203. It appears to belong to the middle of the fifteenth 

3 Ledger A., fol. 84 b. 4 Ledger A., fol. 90 b, and other entries. 

5 See above, Section II. B., and references there given. 

222 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

in the Ledgers, as performed in consequence of a royal mandate 1 
or an episcopal order. After the charter of Edward IV., 1462, 2 the 
Bishop issued writs for this election. Au acknowledgment of his 
rights in this matter occurs in the Ledgers 3 ; in 1495 — 6, " William 
Webbe, Mayor of Sarum,and his brethren, your contynuall oratures 
and tenants," as they style themselves, petitioned the Bishop for 
leave to proceed to the election, because of the inconvenience 
caused to the city by the lack of Coroners. They say : " There 
should be 2 coroners iuhabitautes withyu your Cyte and by actorite 
of your comauudement by your letters to us to be derectyd for to 
electe two such iuhabitautes of grete substans so to be chosyn," 

The right to appoint the Justices of the Peace for the city was 
given by the same grant and immediately and regularly exercised. 
A Commission dated 2 E. IV. was directed by the Bishop to a 
number of persons including " . . . , Johaimi Wyse, maiori 
nostro Civitatis nostrae Sar'." 4 Over this claim a good deal of 
later controversy developed. 5 

Further development of the city's activities and resources caused 

the creation of additional offices, and in some cases the leave of the 

Bishop was asked for this purpose. In 1367 the Bishop granted 

the citizens leave to take advantage of the permission given them 

by Henry III. 6 to enclose the city with a wall containing four 

gates. For the keeping of these gates, they might appoint annually 

four keepers, who, like other officers, were to be sworn before the 

Bishop's Bailiff on their election. 7 This permission was apparently 

1 As in 9 Hen. V. Ledger A., fol. 83 a. 
2 Hatcher's dates are more than usually confusing here ; he speaks of a 
general confirmation of liberties on Feb. 20th, 1 E. IV., i.e., 1462, and an 
additional grant of the important and unusual privilege of assigning Justices 
of the Peace and Coroners, which he dates Feb. 20th, 1466, i.e., 5 E. IV. 
As the Bishop appointed J.P.s in 1462 [see Commission of this year, L.N., 
fol. 30) the last date is obviously wrong. In the Patent Rolls 1 E. IV., 
Part VI., Memb. 12 — 9, there is a general confirmation dated Jan. 12th, 1462, 
and in the Charter Poll 1 E. IV., Part II., No. 92 appears the additional 
grant dated Feb. 20th in the same year. 

3 Ledger B., fol. 194 a. H.M.C.R., IV., pp. 211—12. 

4 L.N., fol. 29 b, 31 a. Fol. 30 is a loose leaf. 
5 See below, 6 S.C., p. 176. 

7 Printed in B. and H., 745 — 6 from Wyville Register. The permission 
does not seem to have been made use of. 

between 1225 and 1612. 223 

granted by the Bishop partly in right of his position as lord of the 
soil of the city, since a portion of this would be occupied by the 
wall and ditch ; partly also in his capacity of grantee to whom in 
the first place the King's charters had been addressed. At the 
same time the Bishop addressed a mandate to his Bailiff directing 
him to measure out the land required and safeguard the Bishop's 
rights thereon. 

In matters which did not touch the Bishop's rights and claims, 
however, the Community felt itself competent to appoint such 
additional officers as it thought necessary, In 1406 Henry IV, 
gave it leave to acquire lands in mortmain and in the succeeding 
years a good deal of property was accumulated. 1 Probably for 
this reason in 1408 — 9 the Community decided to appoint two 
Chamberlains annually, " To receive the debts owing to the City, 
and to pay, do and discharge debts owing by the City, repairs of 
houses and all other the like matters touching the City." 2 The 
accounts of these officials were to be supervised by a Comptroller 
and audited by the Mayor and others. The earliest record of the 
election of these Chamberlains appears in the Ledgers in the 
seventh year of Henry V., 3 and two years later the election of 
Auditors is recorded also, 4 two from the Twenty-Four and two 
from the Forty-Eight, to act with the Mayor; there is no mention 
of a Comptroller except in the original proposal. These officials 
were elected and discharged at Michaelmas each year, as is clear 
from several rolls of their accounts, preserved among the Muni- 
ments of the Corporation, 5 

Another official necessitated by the increasing business was a 
Clerk of the City, who appears to have been an important personage 
at least from the early part of the fifteenth century. 6 

Thus the constitution of the city remained throughout the period 
much as it was in 1306, with such developments as were required 

1 See below. 2 H.M.C.B., IV., p. 193. 

3 M.C.S., Ledger A, fol. 67. 4 M.C.S., Ledger A., fol. 83. 

5 M.C.S., Box 3, Chamberlain's Accounts. Several of them were translated 
f by Mr. Swayne. See G.A., Nos. 12, 13, 14, and 16, published Jan. 6th, 
| Feb. 9th, Feb. 16th, and March 8th, 1884. 

6 H.M.G.R., IV., p. 194. He alone is to use the Mayor's seal. 

224 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

from time to time. Successive Bishops took care to safeguard 
their rights and claims over it and to secure additional powers 
when possible. Successive generations of citizens increased its 
strength and wealth and developed such opportunities of self- 
government as it possessed. 

IV. — Later Controversies. 
(A) Between 1306—1465. 

The history of the century and a half following the Composition 
of 1306 is not entirely peaceful, though it seems relatively so 
compared with the storms which preceded and followed it. It was 
scarcely possible that both Bishop and Community should develop 
their powers side by side without conflict, and it is not surprising 
that the orderly and peaceful growth of the city was thus from 
time to time interrupted. 

It is not till near the end of this period that the Ledgers afford 
much material, but there is sufficient proof that contests occurred. 
One notice of such a dispute, given by Merewether and Stephens, 1 
may be at once dismissed as founded on a corrupt MS. of the 
Year-books. This is described as a conflict between Bishop and 
City which gave rise to a Writ of Nuisance in 1310. Maynard's 
edition of the Year Books, which Merewether and Stephens used, 
was founded on a text which gave " Salesbir' " instead of " Salop " 
as the expansion of Sal'. By collation with the other MSS. Mr. 
Turner has corrected this, in his edition of the Year Books for the 
Selden Society, and has shewn that the case in question arose be- 
tween the Abbot and Borough of Shrewsbury, and had nothing to 
do with Salisbury at all. 2 

The first case of conflict after 1306 appears to bave arisen in 

1344, though the nature and cause are uncertain ; but on Dec. 3rd 

of that year a Commission of Oyer and Terminer was issued 3 to 

1 Merewether and Stephens — History of Boroughs — pp. 605 — 6. 
2 Selden Society Publications, Vol. 26. Tear-books of Edward II, ed. 
by G. J. Turner, pp. 93 — 7. The contraction used for Salisbury is always 
Sar' ; when the w 1 " is used it is in the full name. A similar confusion 
appears in another case treated below. 

3 Cat. of Patent Rolls, 18 E. III., Part II., mem. 11 d. 

between 1225 and 1612. 225 

deal with a serious case of assault upon the Bishop's Bailiff when 
in the act of holding pleas in the Gildhall of the City. The assault 
was committed by thirty-three persons, and directed deliberately 
to the hindrance of the jurisdiction of the court. The Bailiff was 
locked in, several suitors were prevented from attending, and the 
rolls and memoranda carried off, so that the action of the court 
was impeded for some time afterwards, to the great loss of the 

Mr. Swayne associated with this case the pardon for a fine of 
3,000 marks which he found among the muniments of the Cor- 
poration. 1 In 1356, at the instance of the Bishop, King Edward III. 
remitted a fine of this amount to which the Community had been 
condemned by William cle Thorpe and other justices of oyer and 
terminer for certain transgressions and contempts. But the list 
of six justices mentioned in the Commission above does not include 
Thorpe, 2 hence either the matter was carried further than the first 
trial or the two documents do not relate to the same case. If the 
latter is true there may possibly have been two outbreaks instead 
of one. It is evident from the pardon that the Bishop was willing 
to use his good offices for the city provided his rights over it were 
fully acknowledged. He took the precaution of securing con- 
firmation of his claims by a ratification of the Composition of 1306 
by the King ; probably this had been put forward as evidence at 
the trial of the case, and it appears in full in the Patent Bolls in 
1357. 3 

Salisbury does not appear to have been greatly affected by the 
Bevolt of 1381, though the evidences collected by Beville show that 
there were disturbances in the city some months before ; but his 
suggestion that the nature of this movement was a conflict between 
the governing oligarchy and the lesser citizens is mainly founded 

1 Still among M.C.S. Printed in G.A., No, 11, Jan. 12th, 1884, with a 
few errors in transcription (Rogeri de Mortiu Mari, for Mortuo. Also in. 
Rot. Pat. 13 E. III., Part II., memb. 16. 

2 Rot. Pat. 18 E. III., Part II., mem. 11 d. 

3 Rot. Pat., 31 E. III., Part I., mem. 5 and 6. 

226 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

on a misreading which once again puts Salisbury for Shrewsbury. 1 
There is no indication that the relations of the citizens with their 
ecclesiastical lord formed the cause of the movement, as was the 
case in other cities in a similar position. 2 In the Commission of 
March 8th, 1382, appointing groups of persons in each locality to 
deal with the rising, the list for Salisbury begins with the Bishop 
and ends with the Mayor. 

Later in the reign of Kichard II., however, a serious contest 
must have taken place. In 1395 the citizens were ordered by the 
King to enter into recognizances in very heavy sums — £2,000 to 
the King — £2,000 to the Bishop from the Mayor and Community 
— and £1,000 each from two hundred other citizens named in an 
appended schedule. 3 These payments were to be exacted from 
them if they failed to obey the Bishop and his ministers, " ratione 
Dominii sui ibidem et libertatum suarum a nobis et antecessoribus 
nostris praefato Episcopo praedecessoribus et successoribus suis 
episcopis Sar(esbiriae) concessarum " ; also if they failed to assist 
his Court as their own articles bound them to do, or refused to 
suppress rebels or put down illicit conventicles or congregations. 
Here also the Composition of 1306 must have been put forward ; 
this is evident from the reference to the articles above. Another con- 
sequence of this struggle was probably the extensive confirmation 
of the Bishop's rights which appears in the Charter Eoll of 15 — 17 
Richard II. 4 ; here again appears the Composition of 1306, for the 
confirmation of it in 1357 referred to above was again recited in 
full. The friendliness which the citizens showed to Henry IV. 5 in 
1399 may very well be due to resentment at this recent action of 
Richard II. and his Council. It was probably also cemented by 

1 Reville, Le Soulevement des Travailleurs d'Angleterre en 1381, ed. by 
Petit- Dutaillis, pp. 280—281, and Note 3. Reference given is to Rot. Pat. 
4 R. II., Part 2, mem. 10 d. In Calendar this is referred to Shrewsbury, and 
in the original in the Record Office Salop in full is quite clear. There were 
no elected Bailiffs at Salisbury such as those mentioned in the passage. 

2 Oman, Great Revolt of 1381, pp. 13—14. 

3 Madox. Firma Burgi, p. 142 and note. 

* P.R.O. Rot. Cart., 15— 17, R. II., Charter 5. 
5 See letter in Ledger A., fol. 52 b ; H.M.C.R., IV., pp. 192—3. 

between 1225 and 1612. 227 

the gifts which the wealthy city was able to make to the penurious 
king. 1 

No great conflict between Bishop and Community seems to have 
arisen under the Lancastrians, but the relations of Bishop William 
Ayscough with his citizens were unfriendly; the covetousness of 
which he was generally accused 2 comes out in his attempts to 
resume possession of tenements bequeathed to the Community. 3 
The mob which murdered him at Edingtou in the course of Cade's 
rebellion in 1450 is said to have been led by a Salisbury butcher. 4 
Mr. Swayne suggests 5 that this episode explains an item in the 
Chamberlain's accounts for that year, which runs as follows: — 
"Et xx s soluti G-alfrido Ponyng pro suis expensis equitante London 
pro le quartier Johannis Mortemer proditoris ; et iii 3 iiii d soluti 
uni homini portante dictum quartier." 6 

The history of the growth of the city's corporate property shows 
an alternation of amicable co-operation and legal conflict between 
the Bishop and the Community. In 1406., King Henry IV., whose 
relations with the city had from the first been friendly, 7 gave it 

I leave to hold land and tenements in mortmain to the value of 
100 marks per annum. The considerations mentioned in the license 

I were the payment of a fine of 100 marks and the fact that "due 
partes civitatis predicte in manibus spiritualium et forinsecorum 

! et vix tertia pars in manibus civiuni ibi existentium per quod iidem 

I cives onera colleccionum et subsidiorum infra eandem civitatem 
absque eorumgravideterioracionesustinere nequeant, ut asserunt." 8 

1 B. & #., p. 108—109. 2 D.N.B. 

3 See Mortmain case, next to be treated. 
4 B. & H., pp. 129—30. 5 G. A., No. 13, Feb. 9th, 1884. 

6 M.C.S., Roll No. 2, Box 3 ; Account of John Paunt and Ancelin Hebbing, 
28—29 H. VI. 

7 See above. 

8 Rot. Pat. 7 H. IV, June 1st, Part II., Memb. 29. A copy of the license 
is given in G.A., No. 5, March 10th, 1883, but with several important errors 
in transcription, such as "tria partes" for "tertia pars," which spoils the 
sense, and " nostra colleccionem et subsidium " for "onera colleccionum et 
subsidiorum." Mr. Swayne appears to have transcribed, not from the 
original license, but from a copy on the back of a certain Roll A which 
cannot now be found among M.C.S. 

228 The relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

The citizens were thus enabled to hold property in their cor- 
porate capacity and to apply the rents thereof to the city's needs, 
provided such property came to them by way of gift, sale, or 
bequest, without damage or prejudice to the King's rights and 
claims. The Bishop, Dean, and Chapter followed suit, granting 
similar permission to the city. Thus in 1412, Bishop Eobert 
Hallam, with consent of the Dean and Chapter, gave leave to the 
city to acquire lands and tenements to the value of forty pounds 
per annum : " ad effectum quod status majoratus civitatis predicte 
melius et honorificencius maiiufceneri, ac cetera onera eidem civitati 
pro tempore incumbencia inter personas ejusdem civitatis pauperes, 
et in facultatibus exiles, levius et quiecius supportari valeant in 
f utururn." 1 

The Community lost no time in putting these permissions into 
effect, and by various gifts and legacies amassed a considerable 
amount of valuable property within the city. Among the deeds 
translated by Mr. Swayne are several relating to such transfers, 
showing that at various times the Community benefited by all 
the three modes of acquisition named in Henry I V.'s charter. 2 The 
Bede Roll of the Benefactors of the City occurs several times in 
the Ledgers, the fullest being that of 1493 with a few later ad- 
ditions; 3 the names of Henry IV. and Bishop Eobert Hallam 
come first in this list. 4 

1 T.O., pp. 199—200. In G.A., No. 6, Ap. 21, 18S3, Swayne gives some- 
what different version, but the Roll A, of which he speaks, cannot now be 
found. The version of T.C. seems the better. 

2 G.A., Nos. 28, 32, 40, 43, 44, 46 ; published Nov. 15th, 1884 ; Feb. 14th, 
Nov. 7th, 1885 ; Jan. 23rd, Feb. 13th, Ap. 24th, 1886. The translation of 
the Inquisition ad quod damnum in No. 32 is not quite correct as to the 
passage with the line through it. The original (M.C.S., Drawer I., No. 2) 
runs as, follows: — "Et quod Episcopus ille tenet de domino Rege per 
fidelitatem tantum. Et quod non est aliquis medius inter dominum Regem 
et prefatum Episcopum." The last nine words are cancelled by a line 
drawn through them and inserted above them runs the following : " sunt 
plurimi medii inter prefatum Robertum, Will', Joh', Will', Ric', ac dominum 
Regem." Either of these alternatives makes good sense, but Mr. Swayne's 
translation confuses the two. 

3 Ledger B., fol. 188 ; printed in G.A., No. 26, Oct. 11th, 1884. 
4 H.M.C.R, IV., p. 211. 

between 1225 and 1612. 229 

Amicable co-operation of this kind between Bishop and Com- 
munity was not invariable, In 1466 the Mayor and Commonalty 
of Salisbury were cited before the Exchequer to show that they 
were not holding lands in mortmain contrary to the Statute of 
1391. x The tenements in question were given or bequeathed to 
the city after the date of Henry IY.'s licence of 1406, as appears 
from the dates recorded in the roll ; five of them were given before 
the Bishop's grant of permission in 1412, six of them after it, and 
twenty others unspecified are referred to, of which the donors and 
dates of gift were unknown. The record shows that there 
had been several previous disputes in connection with portions of 
the property and two Bishops had entered upon the tenements 
bequeathed so as to prevent the Mayor and Community from taking 
possession, on the ground that they had been given contrary to 
statute. These were Bishop John Chandler in 1426 and Bishop 
William Ayscough in 1441 and 1443. 

In 1473, however, the Mayor and Community were able to acquit 
themselves and secure restitution of all their property by referring 
the court to the Exchequer records themselves. 2 From these they 
were able to show that in 1462 they had procured from Edward 
IV. letters patent granting them a very comprehensive pardon, 
which specifically covered any such breach of the statutes of 
Mortmain as well as many other offences for which the community 
might have been penalised, No consideration is mentioned in the 
letters patent, but the Ledgers of the City show that the community 
had given the King much financial assistance in the early years 
of his reign. 3 This probably explains how they had procured 
oblivion, not only for acts committed under Edward IV., but also 
in the time of King Henry " nuper de facto et non de jure Bex 

There is some reason for believing that this case was intimately 
connected with the dispute between the citizens and Bishop 

1 Memda. Roll of King's Remembrancer, 250. Michaelmas Term, 13 E.I V. 
Membrane xxxii. 

2 Memda. Roll L.T.R., 240. Trinity Term 7 E. IV., Mem. xxviii. 
3 Ledger B, passim. See II.M.C.R., IV., pp. 203—4. 

Q 2 

230 The relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

Beauchamp, from 1465 — 74, which is next to be described. 1 A 
breviat relating to a later controversy says that the accusation 
which gave rise to the mortmain case was made by Bishop 
Beauchamp, Much of this document consists of flat denials of the 
Bishop's well-known rights so that little can be founded on its 
assertion alone. 2 But a number of circumstances tend to corroborate 
this assertion. Bishop Beauchamp's controversy with the citizens 
over the Mayor's position, and especially over the question of the 
oath, began in 1465, and was terminated by agreement in 1474, 
The confirmation of his rights which the Bishop secured in the 
course of the struggle in 1472 is enrolled among these same Ex- 
chequer records in 1473, 3 and the contumacy of the last Mayor 
who refused to take the oath during this struggle came before the 
same court. 4 The mortmain case against the city and a concurrent 
attack upon John Aport, who was Mayor at the height of the 
struggle, 5 cover almost the same period. The Inquest upon these 
last two matters was held at Chippenham on Oct. 31st, 1466, 6 but 
by repeated postponements the cases were made to last out til! 
1473. The first postponement of a term, from Hilary to Easter, 
1467, was due to the fact that the sheriff did not return the writ ; 
the next, of a year, till Easter, 1468, was given at the request of 
the citizens who then gave their reference to the Lord Treasurer's 
Bemembrancer's Boll. But the subsequent delays were due to 
the Court, which desired time for deliberation. While they devoted 

1 See Section IV. B. 
2 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 48. " That the same Bishop (i.e., Beauchamp) pro- 
cured an inquisition to be founde that moste parte of the towne lande was 
aliened in Mortmayne without license." The precise date of this document 
is uncertain. It appears to consist of instructions to counsel in a case 
between the Bishop and the City, and, from its detailed treatment of the 
question of the oath, seems applicable to the quarrel with Coldwell between 
1593—6 ; but it refers to Coldwell as " the last Bishop," which would assign 
it rather to Cotton's time. Possibly it was prepared for the case which was 
initiated by Quo Warranto and not finished when Coldwell died in 1596. 
The Community appointed two members to answer this on its behalf in 
1597. (Ledger C, fol. 154.) 

3 Memoranda Roll, K.R.R., 250 Mich. Term, 13 E. IV., Mem. V. 
4 Ibid, 251, Easter Term, 14 E. IV., Mem. IX. 5 See below. 

6 Memda. Roll, K.R.R. 250, Mich. Term, 13 E. IV., Mem. xxxii. 

between 1225 and 1612. 231 

two more years to pondering the problem, the citizens tried to 
expedite matters by securing a writ from the King commanding 
compliance with his pardon already quoted and forbidding molest- 
tation of them. Still the Court delayed sentence by repeated 
adjournments, until finally in 1473, " habitaque matura delibera- 
tione," they gave judgment in favour of the Community and in 
accordance with the King's letters patent; 1 the citizens thus 
regained not only their lands but also the rents and arrears which 
they had lost during the prolonged suit. But the depletion of 
their exchequer during their contest with the Bishop was, of course, 
of the highest importance, as will be seen. 

The same deputation from the city appears from the accounts 
to have dealt with both cases, but this was obviously a matter of 
convenience and economy. 2 The scribe who supplied to the City 
Clerk the transcript from rhe King's .Remembrancer's Roll of the 
memorandum of the proceedings relative to the Mayor's oath did 
it in such a way as to run the two cases together. 3 After tran* 
scribing the record for the Easter Term of 1474, and finding there 
a reference back to the Michaelmas Term of 1473, he completed 
his transcript with the conclusion of the Mortmain case recorded 
on Membrane xxxii. of that year instead of a reference to the 
enrolment of the letters patent given on Membrane v. Though 
he may not have been aware of the confusion, the clerk who copied 
his transcript into the Ledger must have seen it, and allowed it 
to stand, 

There is no statement in the cases against the community or 
John Aport that the Bishop was the complainant but in the former 
the statement of his rights is very fully and clearly given. 4 The 
complaint was that the citizens held a number of messuages within 
the city ; " absque licencia predicti nuper Eegis Henrici quarti aut 

1 Memda. Roll— L.T.R. 240. Trinity Term 7 E. IV. and successive 
postscripts. Mem. xxviii. 

2 G.A. t No. 16. Chamberlain's account for 1473—4. March 8th. 1884. 

3 Ledger B, ff., 173 b, 174 a. The reference given in H.M.C.R. IV. on 
p. 210 is thus a correct copy of the Ledger, but misleading as a reference to 
the Memoranda Roll. 

4 Memda. Roll of K.R., 250, 13 E. IV., Michaelmas Term, Membrane xxxii. 

232 The relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

aliqua regia aut tunc Episcopi Sar' capitalis domini Civitatis predicte 
inde optenta et habita, quod quidem messuagium sive hospicium 
(the same complaint is repeated for each piece of property in turn) 
tenebatur de tunc Episcopo Sar' ut injure ecclesie sue Beate Marie 
Sar' . . et quod tunc maior et communitas civitatis 

predicte perceperunt et habuerunt exitus et proficua inde contra 
formam statuti ad manura mortmain non ponendam in hujusmodi 
casu editi et provisi." Incidentally an account is given of the 
founding of the city and the regulations prohibiting the alienation 
of tenements in mortmain : "Dicunt eciam juratorespredicti quod 
Civitas predicta olim fuit antiquus burgus Episcopi Sar' a tempore 
cujus contrarii memoria homiimm non existat. Et postea dictus 
burgus erectus factus et conditus fuit in civitatem per Henricum 
nuper regem Anglie tercium anno regni sui undecimo in quo quidem 
burgo et nunc civitate inter alia talis habebatur et habetur eon- 
suetudo a tempore predicto videlicet quod quilibet liber tenens 
in civitate predicta suum liberum tenementum in eadem civitate 
possit per suum testamentum legare et dare cuicunque persone 
voluit in feodo simplici feodo talliato ad terminum vite vel annorum. 
Ita quod post mortem testatoris testamentum hujusmodi per exe- 
cutores suos coram Ballivo Episcopi Sar' pro tempore existentis in 
plena curia sua in Guilda aula sua civitate predicta tenta publice 
probetur, proclametur, et legatur et administracio tenementorum 
illorum committatur secundum formam testament! illius illis pei- 
sonis quibus tenementa ilia erunt sic legata et data et si aliqua 
tenementa vel aliquod tenementum per aliquod testamentum in 
forma predicta non probatum, proclamatum et lectum, legata 
fuerint, tunc hujusmodi legacio per testamentum illud quo ad 
tenementa vel tenementum sic legata irrita vacua et valoris sive 
rigoris existat." This record of the trial thus states fully the 
Bishop's position as lord of the city and of its court, as if these 
points were especially material to the consideration of the case. 

Not one of these incidents taken alone would be sufficient ground 
for asserting that the Bishop deliberately initiated the Mortmain 
case as a means of weakening the citizens in their struggle with 
him. But the coincidence of so many slight indications justifies 

between 1225 and 1612. 233 

some belief in the assertion of his responsibility made by the 
citizens in 1593 — 6. Certainly the coincidence of this case with 
the prolonged dispute now to be dealt with was exceedingly in- 
convenient to the city, which needed all its resources for a contest 
with such a formidable adversary. 

(B) Dispute with Bishop Beauchamp, 1465 — 1474. 

The history of a century and a half following the Composition 
of 1306 has shown that the city's dislike of the Bishop's lordship 
and its desire to secure freedom and self-government were always 
latent though only occasionally expressed. The citizens were willing 
to secure additional privileges from a complaisant Bishop, but 
equally ready to seek extensions of their powers by other methods. 

In the middle of the 15th century occurred one of the most 
stoutly fought and perhaps the best known of all their many con- 
troversies with successive Bishops. In this case they were par- 
ticularly unfortunate in having as their antagonist one of the most 
influential of all the mediaeval Bishops of Salisbury, who was ex- 
tremely tenacious of the rights of his see. 1 Bishop Beauchamp came 
to the see of Salisbury in 1450, and was at first on good terms with 
his citizens ; thus in 1450 they made him a grant of 20 marks 
towards the expenses of his installation. 2 But these amicable 
relations did not last. In his representation of his case to the 
King about 1465, the Bishop says that he had had complaints to 
make as to the non-fulfilment of the Composition of 1306 for 
fourteen years past, and had appealed in vain to successive Mayors 
for reformation in the matter: "they daily pretendyng faithful 
chere outeward, with feigned language, have desceytfully thought 
of inward malice and wrought grete and notable wrongs to the 
envacion and final distruccion of the church, and of the lyvelod 
thereto belongyng, as it may clerely appere, bi evident maner in 
withdrawyng of their duete ; not holdyng theym content with such 
dampnable deeds but hopyng more of their sediciouse malice than 

1 See the careful compilation of the records of these rights in his Liber 
Niger in the Diocesan Registry. H.M.G.R. IV., pp. 7, 8. 
2 G.A., No. 13, Feb. 9th, 1884. 

234 The Belations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

in their ryght, makyng of several matters a corny n crye, making 
daily counsaile and conspiracyes to destroy the said bishop, dean 
and channons because that lawfully remedy by theym is desired 
to be had of these premises. 1 

Two incidents during this first part of Beauchamp's episcopate 
deserve notice. Though they are entirely unconnected with the 
main conflict between him and his citizens, they are interesting as 
indications of the temper of the latter. 

The first incident was an independent attempt on the part of the 
citizens to secure additional privileges for the city. From an entry 
in Ledger B it appears that in the time of Simon Poye, Mayor 
1452-3, 2 the citizens prepared a petition to the King for a charter 
of incorporation. The agent whom they appointed for this purpose 
was John Hall, who, as Mayor in 1465, acted as leader at the 
outset of the later struggle. The entry has not been rioted either 
in the account given by Hatcher or in the Report of the Historical 
MSS. Commission, and is therefore worth treating in detail. 3 The 
entry is as follows : — " Be hit had in mynde that Symon Poy, late 
meyre of Sar', by the advice and consent of all his brethren and 
Comminaltie of the same Cite at a commune semble, aggreed and 
awarded that one John Hall, one of hys brethern, shulde labore 
unto the king's highnesse and the lords of his counsel], a bill for 
the welfare pesible rule and confyrmacion of peas of the Citezens 

1 See below for account of this document and references. 
2 Cf. Ledger A., fol. 161 b, for date of this Mayor. 
3 The pages of Ledger B which give it are rearranged and bound in the 
wrong order but the sequence is quite clear. On fol. 21b, the entries 
relating to the Prior of Ivychurch(two of which are printed mH.M.C.R. IV., 
pp. 202 3) break off abruptly. The next folio, numbered 2, is blank; on 
the back appear half-a-dozen items of accounts and the oath of the xxiv., 
which is printed in H.M.G.R. IV"., p. 203. The next folio is numbered 23 
and begins abruptly, in the same hand as fol. 21, with a portion of the 
suggested charter referred to in the text. At the end of it follows the 
memorandum of R. Warmell's bequest, printed in H.M.G.R. IV., p. 203. 
But the folio bound up as 2 in the Ledger is numbered clearly 22, is written 
in the same hand as folios 17 — 23, and headed like them "John Wyly, 
Mayor." It begins with a continuation of the entries relating to the Prior 
of Ivechirche ; then follows, as part of the entry under the same date, Nov. 
30th, 1455, the passage quoted in the text above, and on fol. 22 (a) and (b) 
the draft of the proposed charter. 

between 1225 and 1612. 235 

of the seid Cite and all other inhabitants in the same, for which 
byll to the seid John Hall so dely vered the said Symonds dely vered 
hym out of the common cofer of the seid Cite £5 15s. to labore 
hit, whiche byll ensuyth undre thes wordes underwreten." Then 
follows the Latin text of the desired charter, partially illegible at 
the bottom of the pages through fading. The main point in it is 
a grant of legal incorporation : " quod predicta civitas de uno majore 
et civibus sit imperpetuum corporata et quod iidem major et cives 
et successores sui majores et cives civitatis illius sic corporata sint 
una communitas perpetua corporate [. . . faded . . .] per 
nomen majoris et civium civitatis illius habeantque successionem 
perpetuam. Et quod iidem maior et cives et successores sui predicti 
per idem nomen sint personae habiles in lege ad omnimoda placita 
secta querela et demanda necnon attornes reales personales et 
mixtas motas seu mouendas in quibuscunquecuriis nostris, heredum 
vel successorum nostrorum aut aliorum quorumcunque tarn coram 
nobis heredibus et successoribus nostris quam coram quibuscunque 
justiciariis." Here nothing is said of the Bishop, and the city 
appears as negotiating directly with the King. Nevertheless in 
the latter part of the charter, after dealing with the right of the 
citizens to elect and, if necessary, replace their Mayor, there occurs 
an acknowledgment of the customary oath : " . . ... sacra- 
mentum praestet corporate coram senescallo Episcopi Sar' pro 
tempore existentis prout antiquitus fieri consueverint de officio ad 
quod taliter fuit electus . The rest of the charter 

confirms the Mayor and Community in the possession of all their 
lands and tenements and grants them the additional privilege of 
a Staple to be fixed at Salisbury. In connection with this last 
matter, the detailed scheme they suggest would probably have 
been objected to by the Bishop. The Mayor of the city was to be 
Mayor of the Staple ; there were also to be three constables, elected 
on All Souls' Day with the rest of the officers but sworn before 
the citizens only. An almost illegible passage at the bottom of 
fol, 22 b appears to associate the Mayor and Constables of the 
Staple with the Bishop's Bailiff as " justiciarii nostri infra civitatem 

236 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

Nothing seems to have come of this petition and there is no 
later reference to it in the Ledgers. Very possibly it was inspired 
not so much by dispute with Bishop Beauchamp as by the conflicts 
with the late Bishop Ayscough over the city's corporate property. 1 
The text of the proposed charter carefully confirms its possession 
of lands and tenements, and the formal incorporation seems de- 
signed to give it a better standing in courts of law for purposes of 

The second incident involved an important admission on the 
part of the citizens. In 1455, for their own purposes, they made 
a fairly comprehensive acknowledgment of the Bishop's position 
as follows: — "Civitas predicta fuit olim antiquus burgus Episcopi 
Sar'. a tempore quo non extat memoria quodque omnes homines 
libera tenementa ibidem habentes a toto eodem tempore tenuerunb 
tenementa sua de Episcopo Sar' per certa servicia et per servicia 
essendus Aldermannus, prepositus vel serviens ad clavam pro 
Episcopo Sar' per eleccionem majoris et communitatis ejusdem 
Burgi in die Animarum annuatim faciendain in quo quidem burgo 
talis habeatur consuetudo a tempore supradicto quod Burgenses 
ejusdem Burgi eligerent dictos officiarios ibidem annuatim de 
quibuscunque libere tenentibus Episcopi Sar' videlicet majorem 
Aldremannos prepositos et servientes ad clavam pro Episcopo Sar* 
pro tempore existente in die Animarum et eos nominarent et pre- 
sentarent Senescallo ipsius Episcopi ibidem pro tempore existentis 
ad proximam curiam visus f ranciplegii." 2 

This statement was made in answer to a writ from the King, 

annulling the election of a certain Alderman, thePrior of Ivychurch, 

on the ground that he was a clerk. The said Alderman elect had 

refused to take office and had been " dayly amersed grevously in 

the said Courte." The Community was anxious to prove that it 

had not inflicted the said amercements, but that the whole matter 

of discharge from office was entirely within the power of the 

Bishop or his officials. 3 Ten years later, however, they took a 

very different tone. 

l See above. 2 Ledger B, fol. 21. H.M.C.R. IV., p. 202. 

3 The extract quoted above was cited in a 16th century dispute as evidence 
of the citizens' recognition of the Bishop's position ; but the copy then made 
is not dated nor specifically referred to a particular case. 

between 1225 and 1612. 237 

The great contest with Bishop Beauchamp broke out in 1465, 
over the grant of a plot of land in St. Thomas' Churchyard on the 
usual terms. The grantee was William Swayne, a member of the 
Twenty-Four, who wished to build a house for the priest of his 
newly-founded chantry in St. Thomas' Church. 1 For this purpose 
he obtained from the Bishop a plot of unoccupied land, of which 
as lord of the manor he had full right to dispose. 2 When the 
building had already progressed so that " the walls and chimnies 
were of a good height " 3 the Community objected to the Bishop's 
claim to dispose of the land and to William Swayne's possession of 
it on these terms. From their subsequent petition to the King it 
appears that the citizens claimed it as their own : ". . . . of 
the which grounds with other londes and tenements withyn the 
said Cite the said mayor and Citezens long time peisibly have be 
possessid." 4 This claim was never substantiated in the course of 
the controversy. A reference to the Chamberlain's accounts, so 
far as they are extant for this period, shows that the Community 
had for some time past been endeavouring to establish a claim to 
this plot by entering two shillings for it among their rents. In 
the account for 1473 — 4, at the time when the dispute was on the 
point of closing, the reference is definitely connected with this 
contest. 5 Among the list of rents appears : " Et de ii s - de redditu 
unius gardini , . . super quod Willelmus Swayne edificavit 
domum cantarie sue." 

Below, among the Defaults of Rents appears the entry of two 
shillings for the said garden : "quod pendet adhuc in placito inter 
dictis maiore et communitate et Willelmo Swayne ut in anno 


1 Duke, Prolusiones Historicae, pp. 315-6. But the account here given of 
the ground of Swayne's claim has been shown to be erroneous by Mr. 
■ Swayne, G.A., No. 17, March 15th, 1884. 

2 See Art. 1, Comp. of 1306 ; Section II. B. 

3 Bishop's Representation, L.N. fol. 164. B. & II., p. 166. Hatcher says 
that the grant was made in 1 456 — 7, but gives no reference. B. & II., p. 162. 

4 L. N„ fol. 32 b. Printed in B. & //., pp. 162-3, with modernised spelling 
| and some slips in transcription. 

5 M.C.S., Box 3, Roll 5. Trans, in G.A. 16 ; March 8th, 1884. 

238 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

A similar entry, without the explanatory phrases, occurs in the 
rolls almost thirty years before, and in an account for 1438—9 
entered in Ledger B. Comparison of these accounts shows that 
in 1438— 9, 1 1444— 5, 2 and 1449— 50, 3 the amount was entered 
without default, which implies that someone paid rent for this plot 
to the Chamberlains of the Community. But in 1453 — 4 4 and in 
1469 — 70, 5 default of two shillings was entered for this plot; the 
first of these indicates a failure on the Community's part to secure 
rent before the dispute with the Bishop arose. 

However weak their claim, the Mayor and Community were 
determined to uphold it vigorously. In convocation on April 5th, 
1465, they decided to take forcible possession and to keep such 
goods and chattels as were found there " , , . . in arrest and 
in sure and safe keeping by warrant of the Mayor of the City until 
the said William Swayne shall make amend for his trespass done 
upon the said toft." 6 This they appear to have carried out by 
night, 7 whereupon the Bishop prosecuted them successfully at 
. . . the session of the peas at large, in the shire." 8 But 
this verdict by no means ended the matter, for active prosecution 
of the quarrel still continued. The Community's next step, on 
May 29th, was to summon William Swayne to appear before them 
at their next meeting and answer for his conduct. 9 He duly 
appeared on June 14th, but, proving recalcitrant, was expelled 
from the number of the Twenty-Four till he should submit. 10 

It is difficult at first sight to see why this particular dispute 
should have ■ been carried on with such energy and bitterness. 

1 M.C.S., Ledger B., fol. 185 b. Trans, in H.M.C.R IV., pp. 200—1. 

2 M.C.S., Box 3, Roll 1. Trans, in G.A., 13 ; Feb. 9th, 1884. 

3 M.C.S., Box 3, Roll 2. Trans, in G.A., 13; Jan. 26th, 1884. 

4 M.C.S., Box 3, Roll 3. Trans, in G.A., 14, Feb. 16th, 1884. 

5 M.C.S., Box 3, Roll 4. Apparently not found by Mr. Swayne. 

6 Ledger B., fol. 74 b. Trans, in H.M.C.R. IV., p. 205. 

7 L.N., fol, 164 a. B. & II., p. 166. 

8 Ibid, not in the city because John Hall "... beyng that tyme oon 

of the Comyssioners of the peas within the same Cite, knowyng and beyng 

partyner of the riotte then doon wold not enquire within the said cite." 

9 Ledger B., fol. 75 b. 

10 Ledger B., fol. 76a. and slip sewn to it. 

between 1225 and 1612. 239 

Something, no doubt, was due to the personalities of the chief 
actors in it. Bishop Beauchamp, by his own account, had from 
the first insisted upon his rights, while John Hall had already 
been active in seeking an extension of the Community's powers and 
privileges. 1 Moreover, personal rivalry between Hall and Swayne 
had long existed ; the Ledger shows that they had been accustomed 
to carry their dissensions in the municipal convocation beyond 
the limits of ordinary debate. 2 Apart from these personal motives, 
the history of the preceding period lias shown that the Community, 
now at the height of its power and prosperity, was ready to seize 
every opportunity of contesting with its lord the right to govern. 
The very extensive pardon which it had recently obtained from 
the King possibly seemed a good augury of success by his favour. 
It was determined to appeal directly to him and a petition was 
presented in the course of the month of August ; 3 this describes the 
controversy from the citizens' point of view, accuses the Bishop 
of pure malice and manifold threats, and begs the King's protection. 
It asserts also that on August 6th, the citizens had endeavoured 
personally to achieve an accommodation with the Bishop but in 
vain. If they presented to him the list of demands which Hatcher 
inserts here, 4 it is not remarkable that they had no success. In 
general, the demands amount to a claim to full jurisdiction over 
the city, leaving to the Bishop only the control of the Close and the 
payment of a fee-farm in commutation of all his previous rights. 
The items enumerated were lands and services, courts, fairs, 
markets, and all immunities, cognisance of all pleas, chattels of all 

1 See above. 

2 Ledger B., fol. 31 a and b. Fine of 3s. Ad. imposed for improper language 
by any member of convocation, but John Hall and William Swayne to pay 
20s. for first, 40s. for second, and to be imprisoned foi the third offence. 

3 L.N., fol. 32 b. B. & H., 162-3. It is undated, but the Rishop's 
Representation says that it was put in " . . . . about the 8th clay of 
August last past." One of the errors in transcription is worth noting ; for 
Hatcher's version: ". . . . and such that manifesteth to indict them 
. . . . " : read " . . . . and over that manessith to endite theym." 

4 L.N., fol. 166 a and b. Printed in B. k H., 163—4, with modernised 
spelling and some curtailment. There is no date and nothing can be argued 
from the order of the documents. The Bishop's Representation speaks of 
" the Bill to be made to the King," as if it had been presented to himself first. 

240 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

felons, amerce me ribs, and forfeitures, offices of justice of the peace, 
escheator, clerk of the market, and coroner. The petition concludes 
thus : — " Should it need more perfect grant and establishment of 
the King, that it may please the good lordship of the said reverend 
Father, to be the good and gracious meane unto the King, that they 
may be sufficiently authorised and stablished in them." The Bishop 
naturally considered this an unwarrantable presumption, and in 
his Representation to the King, which appears to belong to the 
same year, rehearsed with care and accuracy the history of the 
original founding of the city and the dispute of 1306. 1 He com- 
plained that the Composition then agreed upon had been recently 
broken and that for fourteen years past he had been trying in vain 
to secure reformation from successive Mayors. In particular, for 
three years and more they had withdrawn the quit-rent of £48 
due to the Bishop, as well as many other " lands, tenements, rents 
and divers services" due to the Dean and Chapter as well as to 
him, Lastly, the Bishop recounted his view of the present con- 
troversy, protesting that the citizens' accusations against himself 
were untrue and that their claim to independent jurisdiction was 
unjustifiable. He therefore besought the King to give order for 
the proper investigation of evidences on both sides. 

In response to these petitions both parties were summoned before 
the Council ; the citizens appeared by a deputation including John 
Hall, 2 and the Bishop came in person. This is evident from a writ 
under the signet, dated Aug. 22nd, 1465, and copied into the Ledger, 3 
which commanded the election of " another mayre of sad, sobre 

1 L.N., fols. 163—4. B. & R., pp. 1646. There are several errors in 
transcription of which the most important are, as usual, the dates and 
numbers. Thus the date of the licence to translate the see is given as 1218 
instead of 1224 and as the 7th year of H. III. instead of the 8th ; the xiiii 
years quoted above is given as thirteen ; the xlviii pounds of quit-rent as 
forty-seven. The spelling is throughout modernised as in all Hatcher's 
transcripts, and some of the words are wrong. Thus in " they should mow 
take a tallage," now is given instead ; and the word transcribed " lieftened " 
should be " lustened." 

2 G.A., 32, Feb. 14th, 1885. Power of Attorney to John Hall and ten 
others, dated Aug. 13th, 5 E. IV. 

3 Ledger B., fol. 76 b. Printed in P.#„ pp 323—4, and in B. & H., pp. 

between 1225 and 1612. 241 

and discrete disposicion " in the place of John Hall, then in prison. 
According to the writ, while the Bishop had " . , , behadde 
himselfe right soberly, discretely and to the peace thereof right 
conformably , . , " John Hall ". . . of the olde rancour 
and malice which he hath borne towarde the saide Eeverende 
Fader, as hit shulde seme, contrary to his parte and dute, brake 
oute of the said mater, concernynge the seid cite, into his oweri 
matiers ..." and had thereupon been " corny tted . . 
unto suche a place as he shal be kepte." 

Another writ, dated September 24th, 1465, 1 makes it clear that 
the citizens took no steps to obey the first; they were therefore 
commanded either to obey at once, or to send up twelve or at least 
eight of their number to explain their behaviour to the Council. 
A deputation for this purpose was appointed on Oct. 4th, consisting 
of William Wootton, deputy Mayor, and others, and a letter craving 
audience for the deputation was prepared. 2 Its members were " to 
utter and declare to your highnesses the causes why we proceded 
nat to th' elleccion of a newe maire to occupie in the rome and 
place of the seid John Hall." 

Thus it appears that the Community preferred the second 

alternative and were determined not to displace Hall, in spite of 

his imprisonment. Whether their explanation satisfied the King 

or not does not appear, records of the Privy Council for this period 

not being extant. The attention of the King seems to have been 

drawn again to the main issue and on October 21st another writ 3 

commanded a deputation of four or six persons to be sent to 

Westminster on Nov. 6th, with full powers from the Community 

41 to comune, trete, answere, appoynte, finyshe and conclude " all 

differences between the Bishop and the City. In answer to this, 

in Convocation on Oct. 28th 4 the citizens agreed to appoint as 

» Ledger B., fob 76 b. P.R., pp. 325—6. 

2 Ledger B., fol. 77 a. P.H. pp. 328—9. Hatcher's date of Oct. 4th for 
the Saturday after Michaelmas is correct and H.M.C.R. IV., Oct. 5th is 

; wrong. See J. J. Bond, Handy booh for verifying dates. 

3 Ledger B., fol. 77 b. PJL, pp. 331—3. B. & H., p. 168, gives date 
wrong— Oct. 16th instead of 21st. 

4 Ledger B., fol. 78 a. L.N., fol. 31 b gives power of attorney. 

242 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

their attorneys John Hall and five others ; at the same meeting 
they determined to continue him in the mayoralty. 1 This was 
flat defiance, promptly answered on Nov. 14th by another royal 
writ 2 commanding the insertion of another name in place of that 
of John Hall, who " for certain offenses and rottous-demeanynge 
[is] in warde and nat atte his liberte." About the same time the 
other five members of the deputation in London addressed a letter 
to their brethren in Salisbury 3 urging them to comply with the 
royal order and so enable their attorneys to finish the business 
speedily, to the " eschuyng of costs of the Cite the whiche be not 
small sitthe oure comyng hider." Accordingly the name of John 
Chafyn was substituted for that of Hall in the power of attorney. 4 
Still, no settlement of the question was reached. Hall was 
evidently set at liberty, for in July, 1466, he was again in his 
place as Mayor. 5 At the end of this year, on Nov. 2nd, John 
Aport was elected to succeed him, 6 but John Hall seems to have 
been unwilling to give way. A letter from the King commanding 
him to do so appears in the Liber Niger? but has not been printed 
either by Duke or Hatcher. It runs as follows: — "Trusti and 
welbeloved, we grete you wele. We have understoude bi credible 
report made unto us and other probable evidence how that in tyme 
passid hit hath be usid and accustomyd the burgeys and Comynaltie 
of Sar' ones in the yere to chese tham a Maiour and hym to present 
unto the Stuard of the bisshop ther for the tyme beyng to take 
his othe in that behalfe, the which usage and custome and all other 
reasonable and honest we conceyve the said bisshop is of a good wille 
ye have and enjoye withoute hurt and dymynucion on his partye, 
notwithstandyng eny controversye beyng betwyxt him and you, 
for such things as either of you clayme to have of other. And 
how it be accordyng to the same custume one John Aport, burgeis 

1 " Quod materia maioratus pendebat in placito." Ledger B., fol. 78 a. 

2 Ledger B., fol. 78 a, and again on 80 a. P.H. p. 334. 
3 Ledger B., fol. 79 a, though dated Nov. 17th. P.H., p. 335 ; but Duke's 
comment is misleading — according to power of attorney in L.N., fol. 31 b, 
both Chafyn and Chippenham were of the original six. 

4 Ledger B., fol. 78 b. H.M.C.R. IV., p. 206. 
5 Ledger B., fol. 79 a. 6 Ledger B., fol. 80 b. * L.N., fol. 158 b. 

hetioeen 1225 and 1612. 243 

of the same Cite was and is chosen as it is said to thoffice of Mair 
of the same cite and to be Mair ther yet he hath differid and so 
doth to take upon him to exercise and occupye the same. And on 
this that on John Hall of the same cite not chosen nor havyng 
any authorite in that behalf of his owne hede and presumpcion 
hath usurped and taken upon him to occupye and indede as it is 
said occupyeth thoffice of Meiralte ther contrary to the privilege 
and liberteis of the Church of Sar' and also contrary to the said 
custume and usage which we woll be observid and kept in all wise. 
Wherupon we have geven in comaundement as wele to the said 
John Hall to sursese of any further occupacion and entermetyng 
of the said office of meiraltie of the said Cite as to the said John 
Aport to take upon him the same office with the othe of olcle tyme 
accustumyd and it to occupye accordyng to theleccion of him made 
in that partye. Wherfor we to thentent that good rule be kept in 
the said Cite and to remove all maner of occasions wherbi minis- 
tracion of justice might be lette woll and charge you that callyng 
afor you the said John Aport and John Hall ye effectually doo 
your part and see that eyther of theyin obey performe and fultille 
our said charge geveyn unto them in this behalfe as is above said 
not failyng so to doo. Upon the perille that may fall. Geven 
under our pryve seal at our Paleys of Westminster the xxvi day 
of November, Anno vi to . 

To our trusti and welbeloved the Burgeys and Comynaltie of the 
New Salesbury." 

From this time onward, John Hall seems to have surrendered 
the leadership in the struggle to John Aport, who was Mayor for 
four successive years, from 1466 to 1470. 1 

In the course of 1466 it was expected that the King and Queen 
would visit Salisbury, and preparations were made to receive them. 2 
Their coming was delayed, and meanwhile the Bishop proposed 
that differences should be settled by arbitration. The citizens de- 
clined this proposal on the ground that it would be impossible to 

1 Ledger B., fols. 80 b, 83 b, 84, 89 b. 
2 Ledger B., fol. 79 a. H.M.C.R., IV., p. 206. 

244 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

enforce the award. 1 Possibly they hoped to gain more by waiting 
for the King, who was expected towards the end of 1468 2 for the 
trial of Courtenay and Hungerford, attainted in connection with a 
Lancastrian plot. 3 Early in 1469 the King and Council were in 
the City, 4 and after dealing with their main business in January 
the latter found time to examine the local controversy. 5 Both 
parties prepared elaborate statements of their claims and desires, 
The Community agreed in convocation 6 to seek license to hold 
the city, with all its liberties and privileges, of the Bishop at a 
fee-farm rent and thus to escape all subjection to him except in 
tliis one particular. The Liber Niger contains several statements 
of the liberties that they wished thus to gain, some of which have 
been printed by Hatcher. 7 From these petitions it is clear that 
the citizens desired a confirmation of all previous charters and 
grants to be given to them directly and not to the Bishop for his 
men. They wished to have all the liberties, privileges, franchises, 
and jurisdictions which the Bishop had previously enjoyed, leaving 
to him only jurisdiction over the Close. They sought also formal 
incorporation in much the same terms as had been used in 1452 . 
At the same time they were careful to include such rights and 
privileges as had been already granted directly to them, such as 
the right to " take Statutes Merchants and to hold land in Mort- 
main," In short, they desired to maintain all the exclusiveness 
which had been the city's privilege while it was the demesne of 

1 Ledger B., fol. 83 — end of entry much faded, see B & H., p 170. 

2 Ledger B., fol. 85. HM.C. R., IV., pp. 206—7. 

3 Ramsay, Lancaster and York, II., pp. 335 — 6. 

4 Ibid. There is no mention of the King in the Ledger under 1469, and 

he does not appear to have heard the case between the Bishop and the 

Citizens. Hatcher concluded that he did not come in person (B. & H., 

p. 171). Probably he departed after the treason case (see below). 

5 Ledger B, fol. 86 a. H.M.C.R. IV., p. 207. 

6 Ledger B., fol. 87 a. H.M.C.R. IV, p. 207. 

7 B. & H., Appendix 762 — 4, gives transcript of draft charter embodied 
in petition to King in time of John Aport ; it is taken from L.N., fol. 
28 29. Hatcher also gives a list of demands in English, incompletely 
transcribed and evidently almost illegible, which cannot now be found. But 
another draft charter in L. A, fol. 41 — 43, agrees with it and appears to be 
the Latin version of which the English is a contemporary translation. 

between 1225 and 1612. 245 

the Bishop, bub to have the finance, jurisdiction, and administration 
of it in the hands of their own community and its elected officials. 
The granting of these petitions would have meant an entire change 
in the relations of Bishop and City and a great gain for the latter 
at the expense of its lord. It is not, therefore, surprising that 
when the Mayor put forward requests of this kind before the 
Council the Bishop utterly refused to consent to the change. 1 His 
own demand 2 was that the citizens should be compelled to perform 
the usual elections, which had lapsed for the past four years 3 and 
more, and to present their elected officials to the Bailiff to take the 
accustomed oaths. 

The matter was not closed at this session of the Council as the 
King had hoped. The entry in the Ledger and the writ subse- 
quently summoning another deputation to London read as if the 
King had not presided in person. 4 Probably he left Salisbury after 
the execution of Courtenay and Hunger ford and left the settlement 
of this local dispute to the Council. On the report of their failure 
to adjust the differences between Bishop and citizens, both parties 
were summoned to Westminster that the King in person might put 
an end to the matter. The outbreak of civil war in 1470 postponed 
this meeting indefinitely, and the citizens found themselves, like 
the writers of the Paston Letters, in a " turning world," beset by 
the demands of both the Yorkist and Lancastrian parties for support, 
and anxious to avoid compromising themselves with either. 5 

1 Ledger B., fol. 87a. H.M.C.R., IV., p. 207. 

2 L.N., fol. 166b— 167a. B. & H., pp. 172—3. No date, but reference 
to lapse of four years and more shows it to be about 1469. 

3 Entries in the Ledger agree with this ; the last regular election had been 
held on All Souls' Day, 4, E. IV. ; Ledger B., fol. 72 b. Since that time no 
Aldermen, "prepositi," or " servientes," had been chosen. 

4 Copy of writ in Ledger B , fol. 87 b. B. & H., pp. 173—4. 
5 See Summary of entries in Ledger B.—R.M.C. R., IV., pp. 207—8. The 
Clerk appears to have taken great care over the dating of his entries ; thus 
on fol. 94 a the date is given as 1470, instead of by the regnal year, which 
was the usual way of dating, evidently to avoid mentioning the name of the 
King. On fol. 95 a there is an elaborate statement : ". . . . anno ab 
inchoatione regni Regis fienrici VI U ., xlix m0 ., et readepcionis regie sue 
potestatis anno primo." On fol. 95 b in one hand the date is given as 
49 H. VI. and in another as 10 E. IV., possibly added afterwards. 

It 2 

246 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

By the middle of 1471 Edward IV. had completely recovered his 
power, and the dispute between the Bishop and citizens proceded 
to a further stage. Three arbitrators were now appointed, ap- 
parently by the King, 1 as one of them, Lord Stourton, had been 
among the members of his Council who heard the case in 1469, 2 
and another, John Cheney, was one of his Esquires of the body. 3 
The entry in the Ledger for Dec. 6th, 1471, 4 appears to be a 
summary and record of the negotiations ; it implies that some 
preliminary submission on the part of the citizens had taken place, 
but of this there is no record. It would seem that they hoped 
thus to secure from the Bishop's goodwill some relaxation of their 
former obligations and some additional privileges. The Bishop was 
willing to make concessions of this kind to a limited extent, as, for 
instance, that the Mayor should be a justice of the peace by his 
appointment, which was nothing new. But he made it a condition 
that the Mayor should take his accustomed oath of office before 
himself or his officials. The citizens, after consultation, resolved 
that unless the King should order otherwise the Mayor should 
take his oath of office only before his predecessor, that is, at a 
municipal convocation instead of at the Bishop's court. This was 
apparently the practice which they had followed during the past 
few years of controversy and on some occasions a note to that 
effect is appended in the Ledger to the entry recording the election. 
Thus John Wyse in 1470, William Johnes in 1471, and William 
Bpket in 1472, are all noted as having been sworn before the 
Community at the assembly. 5 

This matter was therefore referred to the King that a decision 

1 Probably they were at the same time acceptable to the Bishop ; the 
third, Sir Maurice Berkeley, was one of the arbitrators he had himself 
suggested in 1467. Ledger B., fol. 83. 

2 Ledger B., fol. 86 b. R.M.C.R., IV., p. 307. 
3 Ledger B., fol. 103a. H.M.G. #., IV, p. 208. 
4 Ledger B., fol. 103 a and b. H.M.C.R., IV, pp. 208—9. 
5 Ledger B, fols. 95 a, 101b, 107 a. William Johnes, only a few weeks 
before this meeting, was " Juratus coram communitate ad assemblementum 
tentum ibidem penultimo die Novembris," i.e., not on the day of election 
but later, after the usual day for swearing in court, Nov. 15th, had gone by 
(fol. 102). 

between 1225 and 1612. 247 

about it might be arrived at before the negotiations could proceed ; 
a copy of the usual oath, not now extant, was enclosed for his 
approval or modification. As it was approved, probably it was 
the version which was ultimately taken by the Mayor and recorded 
in the Liber Niger} It was returned with a letter, dated Dec. 
1.9 th,147l, 2 commanding its reception by the Mayor, and announcing 
that other letters were being directed to the Bishop, authorising 
him to receive the oath. From this it would appear, as Hatcher 
says/ that the arbitrators had reported to the King in favour of 
the Bishop, and that he had accordingly given his final decision 
against the citizens. Still they were not disposed to submit ; after 
the lapse of almost a year, when apparently another irregular 
election had taken place, the King addressed a second letter to 
the Community. 4 This states that the Mayor elected in 1471 
had taken the oath as commanded, but that his successor, William 
Boket, 5 elected at the beginning of November, 1472, had again 
refused to do so. 

On receipt of this royal command the Community decided 6 that 
the Mayor should offer his oath to the Bishop personally in the 
presence of a number of witnesses. This the Bishop refused, de- 
siring the oath to be administered by his steward as had been 
customary. The Mayor thereupon reported to his brethren, 6 who 
insisted that he should take the oath in the presence of the Bishop, 
and the latter yielded the point in order to secure the control which 
the formal acknowledgment of his lordship would give him. 7 On 
1 See below. 2 Ledger B., f ol. 103 b. H. M. O. E., IV., p. 209. 
3 B. & H., p. 181. 

4 Ledger B., fol. 107 dorso, dated Nov. 18th, and pasted to page as be- 
longing to 1472. Hatcher appears to have inverted the order of these 
letters, as he gives the one of December, 1471, as if it were the second, 
instead of the first in order. 

5 Hatcher misspells this name as Becket. B. & 3., pp. 181 — 2. 

6 Ledger B., fols. 107 b— 108 a. H.M.C.R., IV., p. 209. The date given 
in the latter is misleading. The Mayor was elected on November 2nd, 
sworn before the Community on Nov. 25th, on which date also submission 
to the King's command was agreed on. The oath was taken before the 
Bishop on Dec. 3rd and this reported to the Community on Dec. 7th, that 
is, the Vigil of the Conception B.V.M. Hatcher's Dec. 8th is wrong. 
7 See text of oath, below. 

248 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

December 7th the Mayor was able to report that he had been 
sworn in before the Bishop himself in the church of the Friars 
Minor in Southampton. 1 

Various forms of the Mayor's oath occur among the Corporation 
records and in some of the Ledgers, but none which can be certainly 
dated as belonging to this period or controversy. The first one 
recorded in Bishop Beauchamp's Liber Niger 2 probably represents 
the formula which he regarded as essential, and was that presumably 
taken by the Mayor on submission. It runs as follows : — 
" Juramentum majoris Nove Sar'. 

" You shall swere that ye shall wele and trewly serve our 
Soverayne Lord the King his eires and my lord the Bishop 
Richard, lord of the Cite of Newe Sar' and his successors in doyng 
and beryng the office of mayraltie of this Cite while ye be in hit, 
that is to say, ffirste ye shall as feythfully as ye can or may kepe 
and governe the King's people of this cite to lyve in peas from all 
manor of ryotts, conventicles or insurreccions ayeust the Kyngs 
peas sewerly. 

" Also ye shall at all tymes for the ease and worship of this cite 
in kepyng of the peas be redy. 

"Also ye shall se in all that ye may that the Cite be victuled 
plentiously. Also that thasyse of bred, ale, wyne, flessh and fissh, 
cole and candelle and all other vetelis be observed and kept after 
the law requyreth trewly. 

" Also that ye do your trew part that the sellers of corupt vetelis, 
regrators, forstallers and all mysdoers ayenst the 3 comyn profit 
and worship of this cite be arested and brought befor my lord's 
officers that they may be openly punysshed lawfully after their 

1 A curious construction was put on this in the 16th century ; the citizens 
declared that " uppon the Kinge's letter to receive an oathe before the B. 
the Mayor was contented soe to doe but not before anye his officers, by 
which yt appeareth the B. did yt for the King." M.C.S., Box 4, No. 48— 
" A Breviat between the Mayor and the Bushopp of Salisbury." Possibly 
this desire to regard the Bishop as the King's deputy in the matter explains 
why the Citizens objected to the swearing in of the Mayor before the 
Steward. This explanation could not, however have been given at the 
time ; if it had been, the Bishop would certainly not have given way. 
2 L.N., fol. 1. 3 MS. the the 

between 1225 and 1612. 249 

" Also that all escheats, casualties or any profits that shulde 
longe on to my lord that shalbe come to your knowledge ye enforme 
my lord or his officers in all hast goodly aud to doe your part that 
hit be executed lawfully to my lords profits. 

'■ Also that the rents aud goods of the comynaltie of this cite be 
kept and exspended after the worship and pro fit fc of the same 

" Alsoe that the taxes, colleccions or tallage the which ben 
hereafter to be levied that 1 thei be not levied but as law will in- 

" Also that 1 ye se that 1 all the mynisters and officers the which 
be cowutable afore you and your brethern of your comyn goods that 1 
thei gife a lawfull acownt of such thyngs as thei ar requyred dewly. 

" Also in especial ye shall fulfil le aud kepe in that in you is the 
condicious of the composition before made between my lord and 
this cite so that hit be kept as hit is conteyued in the same com- 
position at large. 

" Also in all mater of substance that 1 towcheth this cite ye shall 
take thadvyse of your brethern and conclude not but by their 

"All these poynts that 1 I have rehersed and all other thyngs 
that 1 belongeth to your office ye shall wele and trewly behave you 
and observe and kepe withoute prejudice doyng to my said lord or 
his successors or of the church. So helpe you God." 

This unreserved acknowledgment of the Bishop's lordship and 
detailed promise to serve him as well as the King on the one hand 
and the city on the other was evidently regarded by both parties 
as of great importance in the struggle. Once secure as to the 
recognition of his seignorial power by the acceptance of this oath, 
the bishop was ready to arrange a compromise with the citizens, 
but first of all he secured a confirmation from the King of all the 
liberties and privileges granted to his predecessors by former Kings, 
and also an explicit recognition of his claims in the points which 
had been the subject of controversy. This was granted by letters 

1 MS. yat. 

250 The relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

patent on Dee. 5th, 1472, 1 and was regarded from this time for- 
ward as the best evidence of the constitution of the city, being 
cited repeatedly in later disputes. 

After confirming the privileges granted by Henry III. and 
Edward III., and by the King's predecessors generally, and em- 
phasising the fact that the city was the Bishop's city and the 
citizens his also, the charter proceeds to deal in detail with the 
special matters in dispute. lb describes the ancient custom of 
electing the Mayor and other officials and presenting them to the 
Bishop's steward to be sworn in ; it gives an account of the citizens' 
recent refusal to comply with this custom as a reason for its precise 
definition by the King. It states fully and precisely the Bishop's 
rights in the various matters at issue. The points dealt with in 
this way are as follows : — the method of electing and swearing in 
the Mayor and other officials and of replacing the first-named if 
necessary; the power to appoint a Mayor within eight days if the 
citizens should refuse to follow the prescribed method ; the right 
to make ordinances and constitutions for the city, with the assent 
of the Dean and Chapter; the duty of the Mayor and citizens to 
obey these and other mandates of the Bishop ; the privilege of ap- 
pointing not more than four "servientes," who should carry maces 
bearing the royal arms ; the liberty of having a gaol within the 
city and the custody of criminals there. 

Thus the Bishop's claims were fully admitted by the King and 
matters that had been imperfectly defined before were now ex- 
plicitly stated and put on record among the Exchequer Eolls. All 
that remained for the citizens was to make as favourable a com- 
promise with their lord as they could. For this purpose negotia- 
tions were opened at the beginning of 1473, 2 in which Sir Maurice 
Berkeley acted for the Bishop, and the Mayor, William Bokett, 
with a deputation from the Community, represented the city. The 
preliminary discussion seems to have resulted in nothing but the 
appointment of four arbitrators to arrange all matters in dispute 

1 Memda. Roll of K.R. No. 250 ; 13 E. IV., Mem. V., printed in Hatcher, 
from exemplification granted to Bishop Coldwell, p. 768. 
2 Ledger B., fol. 109 a and b. 

between 1225 and 1612. 251 

but nob to come to a final conclusion without the assent of the 
Mayor and Community. 1 

Still the matter dragged on for another year, and in November, 
1473, another Mayor, William Eston, was elected without taking 
the customary oath. 2 At the end of this year the Bishop appears 
to have made some new concessions ; the details of these are not 
given, but on Dec. 1st, 1473, a deputation was appointed to ride 
to London to the King in connection with them. 3 

But contumacy was a more serious matter now that the King 
had given his decision in favour of the Bishop and confirmed his 
right of exacting the oath; according to the letters patent of 1472, 
without this formality the Mayor was no Mayor at all. 4 This 
grant had been reported to the Exchequer and recorded upon its 
rolls ; William Eston now found himself cited there and accused 
of contempt by the King's Attorney, William Husee, in the Easter 
Term of 1474, 5 He referred to the confirmation of the Bishop's 
charters and privileges recently made by the King, especially 
quoting the passages relative to the Mayor's oath : " quod cives 
civitatis Nove Sarum ibidem manentes essent cives suos 6 et success- 
orum suorum .... cives sui Civitatis illius annuatim 
eligissent uimm de seipsis in majorem et alios de seipsis in alios 
officiarios ejusdem civitatis et ipsos sic electos senescallo Episco- 
porum ibidem pro tempore existentium successivis temporibus de 

1 Ledger B. The entry is very much faded and difficult to read, and is en- 
tirely passed over in H.M.C.R., IV. Hatcher evidently found it puzzling for 
he says that the decision was to be made without the assent of the Mayor 
and citizens. This hardly seems likely and certainly was not fulfilled. The 
passage runs : " . . . . habeant materias predictas in lite pendente ad ex- 
aminandum audiendum et investigandum non tunc ad finalem conclusionem 
determinandam absque consensu et assensu majoris et communitatis ibidem." 
Fol. 109 b. 

2 Ledger B., fol. 112 b ; he took it about the middle of 1474. See below. 

3 Ledger B., fol. 113 b. 
4 See above, and reference there given. 
5 Memda. Rolls of K.R. 251. Easter Term, 14 E. IV., Membrane ix. 
It is copied, not quite exactly, into Ledger B, fols. 123 b, 124 a, with the 
decision in the mortmain case appended and the reference to the roll 
containing it. H.M.C.R. IV. correctly transcribes this reference, which is, 
however, misleading, as has been explained above. 

6 "Ipsius Episcopi" in copy in Ledger B., fol. 123 dorso. 

252 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

jure presentassent ut idem Senescallus ipsos sacramenfcis suis in 
hac parte debifcis eb consuetis coram eo presfcitis admitteret 1 prout 
a tempore predicto fieri consuevit." He recounted also the recent 
revolt of the citizens, as it is recorded in the letters patent: " Quidem 
tamen cives civitatis predicte deum nee ecclesiam timentes set 
venerabili patri Bicardo nunc Episcopo loci predicti et ecclesie sue 
ibidem malivolentes quedam discordia et discenciones ortas inter cet- 
eros cives civitatis predicte et alios ibidem residentes procuraveranb 
et seminaverant in perturbacionem pacis domini regis . . . • 
Ipsique maiores et officiarii sic electi occasione ilia sacramenta sua 
coram Senescallo ipsius nunc Episcopi in hac parte debita et 
requisita facere recusarunt contra libertates et privilegia eidem 
nunc Episcopo et predecessoribus suis ut permittitur concessa eb 
contra consuetudinem predictam." Finally, after referring to the 
King's recent decision to confirm and make secure all the Bishop's 
ancient privileges, he reported that "quidam Willelmus Eston' 
civis civitatis predicte qui in maiorem civitatis predicte in die 
commemoracionis animarum ultimo preterito apud Civitatein Nove 
Sar' predictam per cives et communitatem civitatis illius electus 
fuit ad officium illud .... ipso electo aliquo tempore post 
electionem predictam coram Senescallo vel aliquo alio ministro 
dicti Episcopi ad sacramentum ipsius electi pro officio maioratus 
civitatis illius prestandum minime presentato nee aliquod sacra- 
mentum coram aliquo ministro dicti Episcopi pro officio maioratus 
exercendo minime presbitit. Sethujusmodi sacramentum prestare 
omnino recusavit in contemptum domini Eegis ac contra formam 
consuetudinum et concessionum predictarum." The Attorney 
thereupon "petit avisamentum curie in premissis," but there is 
no further record of the case in the Exchequer Kolls. 2 From the 
City records, however, it is clear that the citizens now made bheir 
final submission, realising bhab bhe whole weighb of royal aubhoriby 
and bhe machinery of bhe law were on bhe Bishop's side. 

1 " Dimitteret " without " prestitis " in Ledger B. 

2 The submission of the citizens in the next month — Ledger B, fol. 114 b, 
says that " grete and manifold pleeys . . . as yet hangen undiscussed." 

between 1225 and 1612. 253 

At an assembly held on June 4th, 1474, it was reported 1 that 
the Bishop was in Salisbury and willing to negotiate with the 
citizens, Their only hope now seemed to lie in making a submission 
complete enough to conciliate him and induce him to grant them 
favourable terms; the long-continued litigation, still in progress, 
tended " to our hevynesse, grete losse of our goodes and by lyklyness 
the desolation of the said citee." Further, only by full submission 
could the citizens secure their former liberties, since these had 
been confirmed by the King to " the Bishop's citizens." They 
determined, therefore, to make full submission and refer all details 
to the Bishop's judgment alone; as a preliminary it was decided 
that the Mayor should take his oath as his predecessors had done. 
A deed of submission was drawn up and sealed with the common 
seal, reciting the reasons for their action and concluding as follows : 
"And so we submitte us in everich and in all materes depending^ 
concernynge us as citezens and his said Citie ; besechyng hym 
humbly that of all materes, discordes, debates, vexacions, dissencions 
and contraversiis betwene him and us he wolde take our saide 
submission. And we the said Maire, Citezens and Inhabitants 
promitte by these presentes to abide and stande to all suche 
disposition, ordinaunce and fiiia.ll determinacion as the saide 
Keverende Fadre and good lord shal dispose, ordeyne and deter- 
myne, beseching his good Grace that of his faderly pitee he wolde 
conserve us his saide Citezens and Citee in resonable privileges as 
before this tyme hath be graunted by Kinges and Bisshops his 
predecessors." 2 

Apparently the Bishop accepted the submission and a peaceable 
settlement was at last achieved. No record of its details exist, 
but at the next convocation on June 10th the agreement was read 
and confirmed and the vacant offices of aldermen and " servientes " 
filled for the remainder of the year. 3 The only change which can 

1 Ledger B, fols. 114b— 115a. Partly printed in H.M.C.R., IV., pp. 
217 — 10 ; whole deed of submission in modernised spelling is in B. k H., 
pp. 183—4. 

2 Ledger B., fol. 115. H.M.C.R., IV., p. 210. 3 Ledger B., fol. 115 b. 

254 The relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

be traced in the records is the disappearance of the " prepositi " ; * 
on Nov. 2nd, 1474, the other usual elections of the Mayor, four 
Aldermen, and two "Servientes" appear as before. 2 In most 
respects the life of the city seems to have returned to its normal 
course. One last flicker of the old fire was seen. A few weeks 
after the above election the King complained to the Bishop of the 
continued disquiet in the city; his letter 3 is as follows:— 

"Beverende fadre in god, Eight trusty and welbeloved We grete 
you well. Lettyng you wite that it is unto us shewed of the grete 
Eiotts and inordynate demeanyng in sondry wise doon and com- 
mitted within the city of Sar' withoute lawfull punyshment or 
coiTecciou to the greate trouble and noyaunce of our subgetts of 
the same to our mervayle, Sith that by Eeasou of your ffraunchese 
ye have power and auctorite in that behalve and to your charge 
it only apperteyneth. Therfor we wol and desire you and nathelesse 
charge you to geve in straite commaundement to thofficers there 
in such wise to endever them for the lawful correccion and re- 
formacion of suche Eiotts, and othir unfittyng demeanyngs, in 
avoyding of trouble and grete inconvenients that amongs our said 
subgetts mought ensue, that we heere no more therof nor have 
cause to provide for remedy in that behalve. Which we must 
needs if cause slial require and that ye remember this as our trust 
is in you. 

" G-evyn undre our signet at the Oastel of ffarueham the xviiith 
of November." 

On the receipt of this letter the Bishop immediately wrote to 

William Eston, just elected Mayor for the second time, exhorting 

him to keep better order in the City. 4 The cause of the riots 

1 Mr. Swayne suggested that the practice of enrolling deeds disappeared 
with them, as the registers cease about this time ; but these registers may- 
have disappeared; they are fewer now than in Mr. Swayne's time. G.A., 
No. 57. 

2 Ledger B., fol. 119 b. 

3 L.N., fol. 43 b. It is dated Nov. 18th, but no year is mentioned. The 
Bishop's letter, however, mentions William Eston's two years of mayoralty, 
the second of which had begun on Nov. 2nd, 1474. 

4 Ledger B., sewn to fol. 125 ; also dated Nov. 18th but with no year 
mentioned. H.M.C.B., IV., p. 210, omits to state that the letter is from 
the Bishop and its description is therefore misleading. It is printed in full 
with modernised spelling in B. & //., p. 196. 

between 1225 and 1612. 255 

complained of is not given in either letter, but it is clear from one 

passage hi the Bishop's that the Mayor was still somewhat suspect : 

" . . . outhir ye suffer it of malice, (i.e., the disorder) willing 

therby our churche and we shulde loose our privileage .... 

or elles that ye be not worthy to have governaunce." The main 

contest was, however, at an end, and the last record in the Ledger 

definitely relating to it is the transcript from the King's Eemem- 

brancer's Memoranda Koll already referred to, 

Thus the second great conflict between the bishop and his 

citizens left him completely victorious. Throughout its progress 

it is evident that the Bishop's claims were legally indisputable. 

His explicit royal grants and charters, his long and undisturbed 

possession, as well as the frequent acknowledgment of his claims 

by the citizens themselves, constituted a mass of unassailable 

evidence. It was therefore impossible for the citizens to attack 

him by process of law with any hope of success. The alternative 

of buying up his claims or securing commutation of them for a 

fee-farm rent was legally possible only with his consent, which 

was steadily refused. Nothing but intervention by the King on 

behalf of the citizens could obtain this consent from the Bishop, 

and it was in the highest degree unlikely that, in such a troublous 

century, he would bring pressure to bear on so powerful a magnate. 1 

The importance of the Bishop's influence and connections is evident 

all through the conflict. Two of the arbitrators suggested by him 

in 1467, whose judgment the citizens then declined, sat as members 

of the King's Council to hear the case officially in 1469,* 2 while the 

third acted as one of the arbitrators appointed by the King in 

1471. 3 Again, the King's letter of 1472, the second enjoining the 

taking of the Mayor's oath, refers to the Bishop as " our cousin," 

possibly with intention. 4 

1 D.N.B. Bishop Beauchamp acted as chaplain to the Garter but was 
not Chancellor till 1475, nor Dean of Windsor till 1478. Duke, P.H., p. 
319, speaks as if he held these offices at the time of the contest. 

2 Ledger B., compare fols. 83 a and 86 b. H.M.C.R., IV. pp. 206—7. 

3 See above. 
4 See above, and reference there given. The breviat already referred to 
tries to cast doubt on the validity of the grant of 1472 by suggesting that 
it was obtained by favour due to this relationship. 

256 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

However valiant individual Mayors might be in beginning the 
contest, it was difficult for them to hold out long against such an 
opponent; thus John Hall found himself imprisoned by order of 
the King for his behaviour before the Council ; John Aport had 
to prove in the Exchequer his right as an alien to hold lands and 
tenements for which he had long ago secured the necessary licence; 1 
William Johnes and William Boket were commanded by the King 
to submit; William Eston was summoned before the Exchequer 
for contempt. 

Even the collective resources of the citizens were inadequate to 
the maintenance of such a struggle; the costs of the continual 
journeys to London formed a very serious consideration, and the 
Chamberlains' accounts for 1473 — 4 show this unmistakeably, 2 The 
fact that the mortmain case was going on at the same time complica- 
ted matters extremely,especially in respect of finance,since the seiz- 
ure by the Escheator of the lands and tenements in question tended 
to diminish the city revenues at a time when money was specially 
needed. From the Account Eoll just quoted it appears that the 
Mayor and Citizens had ordered the payment of ten shillings to 
the Escheator in order that he should not distrain. But the 
account of the mortmain case indicated that this can have been of 
little use, since there were considerable arrears to be paid up to 
the Community at its conclusion. 

The failure of this determined attempt of the citizens to 
emancipate themselves seems to have convinced them of the 
uselessness of the struggle, and not until the Reformation had 

1 This case is recorded in the Exchequer Rolls concurrently with the 
mortmain case; see Section IV., A, and references given. Separate writs 
were issued but the two parties were summoned at the same time. Both 
Aportand theCommunity vindicated themselves by reference to legal records, 
and it is impossible to avoid the suspicion that both accusations came from 
the Bishop. 

*M.C.S., Box 3, Roll 5. Translated in G.A., No. 15, March 8th, 1884. 
Among the Foreign Expenses appear the cost of the travelling and main- 
tenance of the deputation, expenses for parchment and the writing of deeds 
and transcripts, fees for counsel and entertainment for those skilled in the 
law. Among the gifts is recorded the cost of wine and sweetmeats for the 
King's Attorney. The largest sum of all is £20, to Thomas Pyrie, the City 

between 1225 and 1612. 257 

altered the standing of the Bishop did they attempt to renew it. 
In the fifteenth century an ecclesiastical lord could still be sure of 
the King's support in any contest with his men, and the latter 
could not yet appeal to the royal jealousy of ecclesiastical juris- 

(To be continued.) 



By G. Bathurst Hony, BA. 

In the following pages I have endeavoured to give an account of 
the cold blooded vertebrates of this county. The information on 
which it is based is, however, so exceedingly scanty that I have 
hardly been able to give a definite distribution in a single case; 
but I hope that many more people will send me observations on 
these groups from their own districts, and thus enable a more 
accurate account to be published at some future date. When one 
is working at a local fauna every insignificant fact — negative as 
well as positive — is valuable, and I shall therefore be very grateful 
for any item of news about our Wiltshire vertebrates. 

The order and nomenclature followed is that of the British 
Museum Guide to the British Vertebrates. 


Order Squamata. 
Sub-order Ophidia. 

Grass Snake (Tropidonotus natrix). — Generally distributed. 

[Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca). — This species — the rarest 
of the three British snakes — has not been recorded from this 
county, but examples have been captured in Dorset, Hampshire, 
and Berkshire, and it will probably be found in Wilts eventually.] 

Adder ( Viper a bents). — Found in the south of the county, and 
in Savernake Forest, but not (so far as I am aware) elsewhere. 

Sub-order Lacertilia. 

Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis). — Generally distributed, but not 
usually common. One was seen eating a young adder in Savernake 
Forest on May 5th, 1886 {Marlb. Coll. Nat Hist. Report, 1886) ; 
and two were found fighting in the forest on May 6th, 1894 (/&., 

The Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes of Wiltshire. 259 

Common Lizard {Laeerta vivipara). — Probably generally dis- 
tributed, bub not common. 

[Sand Lizard {Laeerta agilis). — Has nob actually been recorded 
from the comity, but is probably present in South Wilts, as it 
occurs in Hampshire and Dorset. I must state, however, that 
most of the records I have are of " Lizards (species unknown)." 
Dr. Maton {Natural History of a Fart of the County of Wilts, p. 69) 
refers to L. agilis, but this name was used for the preceding species.] 


Order Urodela. 

Crested Newt (Molge cristata). — Probably generally distributed. 
Common Newt {Molge vulgaris). — Generally distributed. 
Palmated Newt {Molge palmata). — Mr. Ne wall remembers catch- 
ing three or four as a boy (Wylye district), but this is the only 
record I have of it in the county. 

Order Anura. 

Common Frog {Bana temporaria) . — Generally distributed. In 
the Hall of the British Museum (Natural History) is exhibited an 
albino frog, which was found in a barley field at Tisbury during 
the harvest of 1890. It was presented alive to the Zoological 
Society by W. Hannaford, Esq., and lived in the Society's Gardens 
until the following summer. 

Common Toad (Bufo vulgaris). — Generally distributed. 

[Natterjack Toad {Bufo calamita), — Has not been recorded, but 
may possibly be present in the county.] 



Order Acanthopterygii. 

Miller's Thumb {Gottus gobio) . — Probably generally distributed, 
bub rarely seen. Mr. Newall tells me it is common in the Wylye 
district, and Mr. Goddard says the same of Hilmarton. 

[Ruffe (Acerina cernua). — Not yet recorded from Wilts, but 
probably present.] 

260 The Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes of Wiltshire. 

Perch (Perca fluviatilis) . — Generally distributed. Montagu 
mentions one of 81bs. from the Avon in Wilts, captured on a night 
line baited with a roach (Day's British Fishes, vol. I., p. 7). 

Three-Spined Stickleback (Gastrosteics aculeatus). — Generally 

Ten-Spined Stickleback (Pggosteus pungitius). — Mr. Goddard 
tells me it is common in more than one pond at Clyffe Pypard. 
It is probably to be found elsewhere in the county if looked for. 

Order Physostomi. 

Common Carp (Gyprinus carpio). — Dr. Penruddocke writes that 
he has caught it in the lake at Compton Chamberlain, where it is 
very plentiful. 

[Barbel (Barhus barbus). — Not recorded from Wilts, but possibly 
to be found in the Thames within our borders.] 

Gudgeon (Gobio gobio). — Generally distributed. 

Eoach (Rutilus rutilus). — Generally distributed. 

[Eqdd (Scardinius erythr ophthalmitis). — Not recorded from Wilts, 
but probably present.] 

Dace (Leuciscus leuciscus). — Generally distributed. 

Chub (Leuciscus cephalus). — Dr. Penruddocke tells me that he 
has caught it in the Bristol Avon at Limpley Stoke, but has never 
seen it in the Wylye. Mr. E. A. Eawlence writes that up till a few 
years ago he had never heard of one in the Salisbury Avon, but 
that now they swarm. He supposes that they were introduced 
into the club waters at Eingwood and Fordingbridge, by pike 
fishers emptying their live bait cans (probably containing young 
chub from the Thames hatcheries) into the river when they had 
finished fishing. 

Minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). — Generally distributed. 

Tench (Tinea tinea). — Generally distributed. 

[Common Bream (Abramis brama). — Not recorded from Wilts, 
but probably present.] 

Bleak (Allniruus lucidus). — Dr. Penruddocke has caught it in 
the Bristol Avon at Limpley Stoke. 

By G. Bathurst Hony, B.A. 261 

Loach {Nemachilus harbatula). — Probably generally distributed. 
Gilberc White (Selhorne, Letter XVIII. , to Pennant) says that he 
procured some at " Ambresbury " (Amesbury), where it was said 
that gentlemen were in the habit of swallowing them alive in a 
glass of white wine — " for sport " ! 

Spined Loach (Cobitis tmnia). — This is one of the rarest British 
fishes, but Day says (British Fishes, vol. II,, p, 202) that it is found 
"in clear streams in Wiltshire," I know nothing definite about 
its distribution in the county. 

Pike (Esox Indus). — Generally distributed. 
Salmon (Salmo salar). — Aubrey (Nat. Hist, of Wilts, p. 63) says 
"Salmons are sometimes taken in the Upper Avon, rarely, at 
Harnham Bridge juxta Sarum." Commenting on this passage Dr. 
Maton (Nat. Hist, of a Part of the County of Wilts, p. 71) remarks 
" I know no person now living who has ascertained its having 
ascended the Avon so far as Salisbury." However Mr. Newall 
tells me that one was caught in Wilton street during the floods in 
1914, and Mr. Kawlence mentions a big cock salmon taken just 
above Crane Bridge, in Salisbury, late in the summer of 1879 or 
1880. He also says that during those rainy seasons some salmon 
got up to Odstock and spawned there ; and that they spawn every 
year just above the big white bridge at Downton. 

Trout (Salmo trutta), — Generally distributed. There is a very 
big trout (about 181bs.) in the Blackmore Museum, which was 
caught in a net at Stratford-sub-Castle ; and Mr. Eawlence tells 
me of two of about 161bs. taken in Salisbury and Downton re- 

Grayling (Thymallus thymallus). — Aubrey (Nat. Hist, of Wilts, 
p, 63) says that in his day the umber was taken in the Nadder 
between Wilton and Salisbury, At the present time it has greatly 
extended its range in the Avon, Wylye, and Nadder. 

Eel (Anguilla anguilla). — Generally distributed. " The Kennet 

is noted for its 'silver eels'" (Britton — Description of the County 

! of Wilts, p. 45). In 1896 Mr. Meyrick said (Marlb. Coll. Nat. Hist 

Report) that though formerly abundant it was then comparatively 

scarce in the Kennet. 

s 2 

262 The Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes of Wiltshire. 


.River Lamprev {Lampetra flaviatilis). — Fairly common in the 
Kenneb (Marlb. Coll. Nat. Hist. Reports) and possibly elsewhere. 

Planer's Lampkey {Lampetra planeri). — Day (British Fishes 
vol. II., p. 363), quotes Flyotes Dictionarie (London, 1559) as 
saying that they " are called in Willshyre prides." I know nothing 
definite about its distribution in the county. 

It will be seen from the above that there are four species of 
reptiles (out of six on the British list) ; five of amphibians (out of 
seven); and twenty-one of fish recorded from the county. I think, 
however, that a careful investigation of all parts of the county 
would add two reptiles — the Smooth Snake and the Sand Lizard ; 
possibly one amphibian- — the Natterjack Toad ; and four fish — the 
Ruffe, Barbel, Rudd, and Bream. But such an investigation would 
do more than this — it would give definite information (at present 
entirely lacking), concerning those species which are on the list, 
and therefore once again I appeal to all those who can do so to 
send me notes on the vertebrate fauna of their own districts. 


Commander Thomas Hector Molesworth Maurice, 

R.N. Eighth son of Dr. J. B. Maurice, of Marlborough. Killed in 
the blowing up of the Princess Irene at Chatham, May, 1915. 
Born May 3rd, 1877, educated at Marlborough College, joined the navy 
1891. Promoted Commander 1909. Married C. Cecily Giffard, second 
d. of H. B. Giffard, of Lockeridge, who, with three children, survives 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 3rd, 1915. 

lit. Commander Robert Pennington Williams, died at 

Totnes, Nov. 8th, 1915, aged 41. Buried at Gorleston, Norf. Eldest 
son of Mrs. Williams, of the George Hotel, Trowbridge. Joined the 
British Indian Steam Navigation Company and became a captain at an 
early age. Served a year in the S. African War with Lumsden's Horse. 
On the outbreak of the present war he was appointed Lt. Commander 
of the Coronia, in the North Sea, where he contracted the illness from 
which he died. After a period of sick leave he was placed for a time 
in charge of the Naval Barracks at Chatham. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 11th, 1915. 

Col. Michael Foster Ward, of Ogbourne St. Andrew and 
Bannerdown House, Batheaston, died Sept. 13th, aged 89. Eldest s. of 
Lt. -Col. Thomas Rawdon Ward, a banker of the firm of Ward,Merriman, 
& Co., of Marlborough, who commanded the Wilts Yeomanry. Educated 
at Eton. Captain in 90th Light Infantry ; Colonel Commandant of 
2nd Batt. Wilts Volunteers 1864—1881. Married, 1854, Helen Christina, 
d. of Robert Clerk-Rattray, of Craighall Rattray, Perthshire. His 
only surviving son is Major T. R. R. Ward, late of the W. Yorks Regt. 
Col. Ward had resided for many years at Upton Park, Slough, where 
he died. He was an old member of the Wilts Arch. Society, and 
possessed at Bannerdown House a fine collection of British birds. J. P. 
for Wilts. He formerly lived at Castle House, Calne, at Easton Piercy* 
and at Bannerdown House, Batheaston. For many years he had lived 
at Upton Park and at Partenkirchen, in Bavaria, where he was in- 
terned on the outbreak of the war, but was subsequently released. 
Obit, notices, Wiltshire News, Marlborough Times, Sept. 17th, 1915. 

lit. -Col. John Elton Prower, died March 19th, 1915, at Bath, 
aged 62. Son of late Major John Mervyn Prower, of Purton House, 

Major Alfred Soames, D.S.O., killed in action in France, Oct. 
13th, 1915, aged 53. 6th East Kent Regt. (Buffs). Third son of late 
Rev. Charles Soames, Rector of Mildenhall. 

264 Wilts Obituary. 

Capt. E. H. B. Richardson, killed in action, aged 23. Eldest 
son of Rev. A. T. Richardson, Vicar of Bradford-on-Avon. Educated 
at Leatherhead School, joined 3rd Wilts, 1911, as 2nd Lieut. Became 
1st Lieut, in 1st Wilts on the outbreak of war and was present at the 
retreat from Mons. Severely wounded at Neuve Chapelle on Oct. 28th, 
1914, but rejoined 2nd Wilts at end of February, 1915, being promoted 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, June 24th ; Wiltshire News, portrait, 
June 25th, 1915. 

Captain Charles Ralph Dixon, 1st Essex Regt, died at 

Alexandria of wounds received at the Dardanelles, May 5th, 1915, 
aged 29. Buried at sea. Son of Stephen B. Dixon, of Pewsey. En- 
tered 3rd Wilts, obtained commission in 1st Essex Regt. July, 1907. 
Served in India and S. Africa. Captain, February, 1915. Proceeded 
to Dardanelles, April, 1915. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, May 13th and June 3rd, 1915. 

Captain Edward Graham Mylne, died of wounds at Rouen, 

June 12th, 1915. Son of Bishop Mylne, formerly Vicar of Marlborough 
St. Mary's. Educated at Marlborough College and Keble College, 
Oxford. Joined Royal Irish Constabulary, 1905, and on the outbreak 
of war joined the Irish Guards with the rank of captain. 

Obit, notice (by " L.G.M." — his father) in Guardian, reprinted in 
Wiltshire Gazette, July 15th, 1915. 

Captain Geoffrey Wilson, of the Wilts Regt., s. of Dr. Mervyn 
Wilson, of Chippenham. Killed in action in France. Educated at 
Marlborough College. Promoted Captain after the battle of Neuve 
Chapelle for the skilful way in which he assumed command of his 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 30th, 1915. 

Captain Evelyn S, Wilson, 2nd East Yorks Regt., aged 22. 
Killed in action in Flanders, Oct. [?] 1915. S. of Dr. Mervyn Wilson, 
of Chippenham. Educated at St. Peter's School, Weston-super-Mare, 
Marlborough College, and Sandhurst. He played in the Marlborough 
eleven. Served two years in India with his regiment, took charge of 
a large camp in Yorkshire, and went to the front in June, 1915, with 
rank of Captain. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Times, Oct. 9th ; Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 14th, 

Captain William Edwin Jenkins, Northumberland Fusiliers, 
killed in action in France, Oct. 1st— 3rd, 1915, aged 33. Son of late 
W. H. Jenkins, of Trowbridge. Enlisted about fifteen years ago, and 
became a N.C.O. Was in India with his regiment when war broke 
out, was given a commission and sent to the front. He was wounded, 
recovered, returned to the front, and was promoted Captain. 
Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 14th, 1915. 

Wilts Obituary. 265 

Captain Charles Gordon Bond, killed in action in Flanders, 
Nov. 25th, 1915, aged 34. Buried in cemetery at Givenchy. Son of 
Rev. Gordon Bond, of Ditchampton House, Wilton, formerly Vicar of 
S. Newton. An officer in the 1st Wilts Rifle Volunteer Corps, joined 
Wilts 2nd Batt. as Second- Lieutenant 1903, Lieutenant 1905, Captain 
1912. Adjutant, 4th (Territorial) Batt., Oct. 1912—1915, doing ex- 
cellent work for the Battalion. Well known as a cricketer in Wiltshire. 
He was killed the day after he joined the 2nd Batt. at the front. He 
leaves a widow and infant son. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 9th, 1915. 

Captain SholtO Douglas, 16th (Public Schools) Batt., Middlesex 
Regt. Killed in action in France, Jan. 28th, 1916, aged 42. Fourth s. 
of late Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas and Lady Douglas, of Belcombe 
Lodge, Bradford-on-Avon. B. at Larkbear House, Norwood, educated 
Dulwich College. Served as trooper in Wilts Yeomanry in S. African 
War, after wards) Headmaster of Hillside Preparatory School, Godalming. 
Joined 16th Middlesex Regt., with rank of Lieut, on outbreak of war. 
Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette ; Wiltshire Times, Feb. 15th, 1916. 

Captain Mervyn Stronge Richardson, ist Royal Welsh 

Fusiliers, died of wounds in France, March, 1916, aged 21. Youngest 
son of Capt. Arthur Percy Richardson, of Purton House. Educated at 
Bilton Grange, Rugby, Radley College, and Sandhurst. At Radley he 
was captain of the boats for two years. He was a member of the 
Leander Club. Gained commission in 2nd Royal Welsh Fusiliers, 
Aug., 1914, wounded April, 1915, promoted temporary captain Dec, 
1915, having returned to the front in September. 

Obit, notices, Times, March 22nd ; N, Wilts Herald, March 24th, 

Lieut. Vivian George Starkey, 7th King's Own Yorkshire 
Light Infantry, killed in action Oct. 14th, 1915. Son of late Rev. 
George A. Starkey, of Whiteparish, and St. James, Piccadilly. Born 
1882, educated at Harrow and Ball. Coll., Oxon. Obtained Doctor's 
degree with highest distinction in philology in Vienna University. 
Professor of Romance Languages at Hartley University College, 
Southampton. At outbreak of war he enlisted and obtained a 
commission in January, 1915. A work by him on the Rumanian 
dialects was about to be published by the Vienna University. 

Obit, notice, Times, Oct. 23rd, 1915. 

Lieut. William James de Vere Scott, killed in action at 

the Dardanelles, June 1st, 1915, aged 25. Son of J. Scott, of the Down, 
Trowbridge. Educated at the Technical School, Trowbridge, and Bristol 
University. B.A., London. He held masterships in technical schools 
and afterwards as English Master at Cairo. Obtaining a commission 
late in 1914 in the 8th Manchester Regt., he went to the Dardanelles. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, June 26th, 1915. 

266 Wilts Obituary. 

Lieut. Sydney Giffard, died of wounds received at the Dardanelles, 
aged 25, May, 1915. Fifth son of H. R. Giffard, of Lockeridge. 
Educated at Marlborough College. Entered army, R.F.A., July, 1910, 
Lieut., 1913. He had already been wounded in France, came home, 
recovered, and went out to the Dardanelles in April. Brother of 
Capt. R. Giffard, killed some months before. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, May 13th, 1915. 

Lieut. Charles Eric MoultOU, killed in action in France, Sept. 
16th, 1915, aged 26. Second s. of John and Alice Moulton, of the Hall, 
Bradford-on-Avon. Educated at Eton, served as apprentice for three 
years at engineering works of Messrs. Stotherd & Pitt, Bath. After- 
wards studied chemistry at London University for a year, and then 
became assistant works manager at the Bradford Mills of Messrs. 
Spencer, Moulton, & Co., where he was held in great esteem. Obtained 
commission as 2nd Lieut. Sept. 22nd, 1914. Gazetted to 6th Wilts and 
promoted Lieut., July 17th, 1915. He was very popular with his 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 23rd ; Wiltshire Nevis, Sept. 
24th ; Wiltshire Times, Sept. 25th ; the two last with portraits. 

Lieut. JlOger Foore, killed in action in Flanders, Sept. 19th, 1915, 
aged 29. Only child of Admiral Sir Richard Poore, of Winsley Corner, 
Bradford-on-Avon. Entered the Navy, but having to leave it on ac- 
count of bad health, went abroad as a rubber planter. Returned and 
entered the R.F.A. on outbreak of war. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 14th, 1915. 

Lieut. Geoffrey Pierre G-uillebaud, 6th North Lancashire 

Regt. Died of wounds at Gallipoli, Aug. 10th, 1915, aged 20. Youngest 
son of Rev. J. A. Guillebaud, Rector of Yatesbury. Educated at 
Marlborough College, which he left in July, 1914, having won a 
scholarship at Oriel College, Oxford. On the outbreak of war he 
obtained a commission and went to the Dardanelles in June. A young 
man of much promise, and much beloved. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 14th, 1915. 

Lieut Hugh Montague Butterworth, killed in action in 

Flanders, Sept. 25th, 1915, aged 29. Only son of G. M. Butterworth, 
of Christchurch, New Zealand ; formerly solicitor, Swindon. Educated 
at Hazelwood, Limpsfield ; Marlborough College ; and Univ. Coll., 
Oxon. Captain of the Cadet Corps, and member of the cricket, football, 
and hockey teams at Marlborough. An all-round athlete. Went to 
New Zealand, 1907, aud became assistant teacher of Collegiate School, 
Wanganui. Returned to England and received commission in 9th 
Batt., Rifle Brigade, March, 1915. Went to the front in May, and bad 
been in command of his company since July 30th. " His name bad 
long been sent in for captain's rank." 

Obit, notices, Times, Oct. 11th; Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 14th, 1915. 

Wilts Obituary. 267 

Lieut. F. C, Coleman, of the 6th Wilts Regt., killed in action in 
Flanders, Sept. 24th, 1915. Educated at Clarence St. Council School, 
and Technical Institute, Swindon. Bristol University, 1909. B.Sc. 
1913, M Sc. 1914. Obtained a commission in 6th Wilts Nov., 1914, and 
went to the front July, 1915. A most popular and useful officer. 

Obit, notices, N. Wilts Herald, Oct. 8th ; Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 
14th, 1915. 

Lieut. Arthur Bertram Randolph, 1st Welsh Guards, killed 

in action in France, Sept. 27th, 1915, aged 32. Son of Capt. Arthur 
Randolph, of Eastcourt, Malmesbury. Married, 1910, Saffron, d. of 
Harry Pickersgill Cunliife, of Staughton Manor, St. Neots. 

Iiieut. H. 0. Jones, died (of wounds received near Ypres on Nov. 
16th, 1915,) Jan., 1916, aged 31. Buried at Christ Church, Bradford- 
on-Avon. Eldest son of C. J. Jones, of Silver Street, Bradford-on-Avon. 
Emigrated to Canada, enlisted in Motor Transport Section of Canadian 
Contingent and came to England with rank of sergeant, afterwards 
gaining a commission as 1st Lieutenant, in the Toronto Battalion. 
Obit, notice and portrait, Wiltshire Times, Jan. 8th, 1916. 

2nd-Lieut. Ferdinand Marsham-Townshend, killed 

near Ypres, May 16th, 1915, aged 35. Younger son of Hon. Robert 
Marsham-Townshend and grandson of second Earl of Romney. Dauntsey 
House and property, left to him by Lady Meux, was sold by him. He 
occupied for some time the Manor House, Wroughton, and was well 
known in racing circles, owning a number of steeple chasers. He 
gained his commission in the Scots Guards in Feb., 1915, and was at 
the front but a short time. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 3rd, 1915. 

2nd-Lieut. Herbert Field Etherington, 2nd Dragoon 

Guards, died of wounds in France, Jan. 8th, 1916, aged 27. Elder son 
of late A. H. Etherington, of Bentham House, Purton. Educated 
Marlborough College. Member of the publishing firm of Herbert 
Relach, Ltd. He contributed frequently to the Yachting Monthly, 
and many magazines and reviews. Commissioned in the 2nd Reserve 
Regiment of Cavalry, from which he was transferred to the 2nd Dragoon 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 27th, 1916. 

2nd-I.ieut. John Harold Clark, 2nd Wilts Regt., killed in 

action in Flanders, Sept. 25th, 1915, aged 24. Only son of J. W. Clark, 
of Salisbury. Educated at Cleveland House School, Salisbury, and 
Lewisham College, Weston-super-Mare. Had been for two years in 
Australia. On the outbreak of war he enlisted in Wilts Yeomanry, and 
afterwards gained a commission in the 3rd Wilts, and was attached to 
the 2nd Wilts. 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Journal, Oct. 9th, 1915. 

268 Wilts Obituary. 

2nd-Iiieut. Edward St, Lawrence Bonvalot, killed in 

action, Oct. 8th, 1915, aged 24. Eldest son of Mr. Bonvalot, of Wick 
House, Downton. Educated at Eton and Trin. Coll., Cambridge. 
Obtained a commission on outbreak of the war in 2nd Coldstream 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 14th, 1915. 

2nd -Lieut. Herbert William O'Reilly, 2nd Irish Rifles, died 

of wounds received on the 19th in action, in France, Jan. 20th, 1916. 
Son of late T. G. O'Reilly, of High Street, Devizes, joined Public School 
and University Corps, Sept., 1914, afterwards transferred to 2nd Royal 
Irish Rifles. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 27th, 1916. 

2nd-Lieut. C. E. T. Tudor- Jones, East Lanes. Regt., attached 
Flying Corps, killed in aerial combat in France, Dec. 15th, 1915. Second 
son of Mr. Tudor- Jones, solicitor, Swindon. Articled as solicitor, he 
joined army on outbreak of war and was attached to the Royal Flying 
Corps in France about a month before his death. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 20th, 1916. 

Lieut John Alexander Thynne, Viscount Weymouth, 

eldest s. of the Marquis of Bath, killed in action in France, Feb., 1916, 
aged 20. Born at Widcombe House, Bath, Nov. 29th, 1895. Educated 
at Eton and Sandhurst Commissioned in Royal Scots Greys, Dec, 
1914. He had been at the front about three months. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 17th ; Wiltshire Times, Feb. 
19th, 1916. 

Lieut. Ronald Barclay Love, aged 23, killed in action in 

France, March 15th, 1916. S. of W. J. Love, of Westbury Leigh. En- 
listed in 9th Gloucester Regt., and obtained commission in 8th Lincoln 
Regt. a year ago. He was educated at Warminster Grammar School, 
1905—1910, and articled to Messrs. Hudson, Smith, Briggs, & Co., 
accountants, of Bristol. 

Obit, notice and portrait, Wiltshire Times, March 25th, 1916. 

Sir John Michael Fleetwood Fuller, BartKC.MGr.. 

died at Cottles, Melksham, Sept. 4th, 1915, after an operation, aged 51. 
Buried at Neston. Born Oct. 21st, 1864, eldest son of George Pargiter 
Fuller, of Neston. Educated Winchester, 1878 ; Ch. Ch., Oxon, 1883. 
B.A. 1887; M.A. 1900. Lieut. Wilts Yeomanry, 1884, Major 1901. 
J.P. W 7 ilts, 1S86. Alderman of Wilts County Council 1889—1911. 
Liberal M.P. Westbury Division 1900-1911. Baronet 1910. Governor 
of Victoria 191 1— 1914. K.C.M.G. 1911. Extra A.D.C. to Gov. Gen. 
of India 1894; unpaid Lord of the Treasury 1906 —7 ; Vice- Chamberlain 
of H.M. Household 1907. Married, 1898, Norah Jacintha, second d. of 
C. N. P. Phipps, of Chalcot, who, with two sons and four daughters, 
survives him. The eldest son, John Gerard Henry Fleetwood, b. 
July 8th, 1906, succeeds to the title. Previous to his election for West 

Wilts Obituary. 269 

Wilts (Westbury) in 1900 he had unsuccessfully contested N.W. Wilts 
1892, Rath 1895, and Salisbury 1897, as a Liberal. He resigned his 
Australian Governorship in 1914, owing to ill-health. He was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute 1911. Up to 1914 he had 
taken a prominent part in the public life of the county and was well 
known and popular with both sides in politics in N. Wilts. 

Long obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 9th ; Wiltshire Times, 
(with two portraits,) and Salisbury Journal, Sept. 11th, 1915. 

Rev, Greorge Randolph HadOW, died July 6th, 1915, aged 70. 
Buried at Warminster. Jesus Coll., Camb., B.A. 1866, M.A. 1870. 
Deacon 1868, Priest 1869 ( Rochester). Curate of Harpenden 1868—71 ; 
Crayford 1871—76; Ashbourne 1876—77; Wilton 1878— 80 ; Rector 
of Calstone 1880—1901 ; Rector of Wylye 1901—191-2, when he resigned 
and went to live at Warminster. Dio. Inspector of Schools for Wylye 
Deanery 1905 — 12. Both at Calstone and at Wylye he was known as 
an earnest temperance advocate,an excellent organiser, and an unusually 
successful parish priest, who won the universal respect of his people. 
He took a considerable part in diocesan committees and institutions, 
especially in educational matters. Possessed of late years of a con- 
siderable income, he was an extremely generous donor to all sorts of 
diocesan objects, and was always willing to help in archaeological objects 
promoted by the Wilts Arch. Soc. Of late years he had been an invalid. 
He published : — 
" The Registers of the Parish of Wylye in the County of Wilts. 
Published by the Rev. G. R. Hadow, M.A., from Transcripts 
made by T. H. Baker and J. J. Hammond. Devices, 1913." 
lOiin. x 7in. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, July 15th, 1915. 

Rev. James Hamlyn Hill, D.D., died July 9th, 1915, aged 68 
Buried at Urchfont. Born in Guernsey ; sen. scholar St. Cath Coll. 
Camb. B.A. (26th Wrangler) 1869 ; M.A-., 1872 ; B.D. 1893 ; D,D. 1896 
Deacon, 1870 ; priest, 1871 (Chester). Curate of Wallasey, 1870-72 
Ass. Math. Master, Manchester Gram. School, 1872—87 ; Charlton-on 
Medlock, 1877—84; Licensed preacher Dio. of Manchester, 1884—89 
Curate, Westbury-on-Trym, 1891 — 6; Vicar of Urchfont with Stert 
1896 until his death; Rural Dean of Enford, 1911 until his death 
During his incumbency the Church was restored, a new organ installed 
and the schools largely improved. He was a Guardian and District 
Councillor since 1901, and was an excellent business man. He was 
never married. As a member of the Wilts Arch. Soc, he was always 
ready to help financially in its undertakings. A considerable scholar 
and theologian he was the author of the following works. — 

" The Gospel of the Lord, an Early version which was circulated 

by Marcion of Sinope as the Original Gospel. Translated by 

J. H. Hill. 1891." 7iin. X 5in. 
"The Earliest Life of Christ ever compiled from the Four Gospels, 

being the Diatessaron of Tatian circ. A.D. 160. Literally 

270 Wilts Obituary. 

translated from the Arabic version. . . . Edinburgh. 1894." 
9in. x 5£in. 
"A Dissertation on the Gospel Commentary of S. Ephrem the 
Syrian, with a Scriptural Index to his Works. Edinburgh. 
1896." 9in. X 5|in. 
Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, July 15th, 1915. 

Edward Baverstock Merriman, died May 28th, 1915, aged 75. 

Buried at St. Katherine's, Savernake. Son of Thomas Baverstock 
Merriman. B. at Marlborough, Dec. 10th, 1839. Educated at Win- 
chester and Exeter Coll., Oxon. He rowed in the Oxford Boat, 1861. 
He followed his father's profession of solicitor and banker. Admitted 
solicitor 1864, and entered the office of his father and uncle at Marl- 
borough, Messrs. T. B. and W. Merriman and Gwillim. He gave 
most of his attention to the bank in Silverless Street, " Ward, Merriman , 
& Co.," which in 1866 amalgamated with the N. Wilts Banking Co. and 
later with the Hampshire Banking Co., developing eventually into the 
Capital and Counties Bank, of which he was elected chairman in 1885. 
He also acted as a solicitor, retiring in 1906, and was at one time 
steward for many estates in Wiltshire, amongst them those of Littlecote, 
Savernake, Froxfield Hospital, and St. John's' Coll., at Wootton Rivers. 
From his Oxford days he had been a keen Volunteer, he succeeded his 
father as Captain of the Marlborough Company of the 2nd Wilts 
Volunteers, and later on commanded the Battalion for thirteen years. 
In later years the large increase of his banking business withdrew him 
more and more from Wiltshire. He was a Lieutenant of the City of 
London, and was a Knight Commander of the Portuguese order of Our 
Lady of the Conception of Villaviciosa. Fie was chairman or director 
of many other businesses besides the bank. Since 1890 he had held 
the office of County Treasurer of Wilts. He lived in former years at 
Manton Grange, Kennet Manor, and Durley House. He was a promi- 
nent Freemason. 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 3rd, 1915. 

Canon Charles Adams Houghton, died Oct. 15th, 1915, 

aged 77. Exeter Coll., Oxon, B.A., 1860 ; M.A., 1863. Deacon, 1863 ; 
priest, 1864 (Sarum). Curate of Coombe Bissett, 1864—68 ; Vicar of 
East Harnham, and Chaplain of Alderbury Union, 1868—75 ; Rector 
of St. Peter's, Marlborough, 1875—98 ; Chaplain of Marlborough Union, 
1877—87 ; Preb. of Salisbury Cathedral, 1881 ; Vicar of W. Alvington 
(Devon), 1887—98 ; Vicar of St. Matthew's, Exeter, 1898—1909 ; Rector 
of St. Petrock with St. Kerrian, Exeter, 1909 until his death. Rural 
Dean of Woodleigh (Devon), 1893—98. He was the author of :— 

"Life and Revelation," 1892. 

"The Joys of the Cross," 1911. 

" Problems of Life," 1911. 

Canon Johnson Baily, died Oct. 18th, 1915, aged 80. Buried at 
Greenside Cemetery. Born at Calne. 1835. Educated at private 

Wilts Obituary. 271 

school at Dorking, King's Coll., and Trin. Coll., Camb. B.A. (Sen. opt.) 
1857, M.A., 1860; Acl eundem Durham M.A. 1872. Deacon, 1859; 
priest, 1860 (Manchester). Curate of Ch. Ch., Salford, 1859-63; 
Bishop Middleham (Dur.). 1863—68 ; Vicar of Pallion (Dur.), 1868—83 ; 
Proctor for Archdeaconry of Durham, 1886 — 1909 ; A r icar of S. Shields, 
1883—91 ; Rector of Rytonon-Tyne, 1891—1909 ; Rural Dean of 
Chester le Street, 1895—1909 ; Hon. Canon of Durham, 1889. Greatly 
interested in educational matters. He was well known and highly 
esteemed in the Diocese of Durham. He leaves three sons and two 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 21st, 1915. 

John Saffrey Whitaker, died Oct. 19th, 1915, aged 75. Buried 
at Bratton Baptist Burial Ground. Son of Joshua Whitaker, whom he 
succeeded at Grant's Farm, Bratton, which has been held by the family 
for many generations. Married d. of James Hancock of Chippenham, 
and leaves one son and three daughters. Represented Bratton on the 
Westbury Board of Guardians from 1865, of which he was chairman 
for many years, and sat on the County Council for eleven years. A 
staunch supporter of the Baptist Church at Bratton. Had been 
President of Wilts and East Somerset Baptist Association. He was a 
trustee of many Baptist Charities, and took a prominent part in local 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, Oct. 23rd, 1915. 

[William Maxwell Hammick, In the obituary notice which 
appeared on p. 118 of this Magazine, Mr. Hammick's father's name 
should have been The Rev. Sir St. Vincent Hammick (instead of Sir 
Vincent), and his son's should have been Capt. Robert Townsend 
Hammick R.A. (instead of A.D.C.) He also left two daughters, 
Georgiana, widow of Capt. Edmund Nelson Fisher, of the Manchester 
Regt., and Miss L. Alexander Hammick.] 

James Strattoil, died Sept., 1915. Buried at Chilcombe, near 
Winchester. Born Nov. 28th, 1837, second s. of Richard Stratton, of 
Broad Hinton, a leading agriculturist of his day. Held Salthrop 
Farm, 1861. Moved to Chilcombe, 1866, where he resided until his 
death. He also held St. Cross Farm, near Winchester, and other farms 
in that neighbourhood, and Alton Priors, Alton Barnes, and Shaw 
Farm, in Wiltshire. At one time he was farming about 6000 acres, 
a part of which he owned as well as farmed, and was perhaps the largest 
tenant farmer in the South of England. In the bad farming days he 
introduced steam cultivation and other new methods, laid arable land 
down to grass, and so made a profit where others were ruined. At one 
time he milked between 300 and 400 cows. He was an acknowledged 
authority on cattle and sheep. For 25 years he represented Hampshire 
at the Central Chamber of Agriculture. He was a member of Mr. 
Yerburgh's Committee on the question of National Wheat Stores, 1898. 
He was a prominent member of the Council of the Royal Counties 
Agricultural Society, whose annual show was held on three occasions 

272 Wilts Obituary. 

on his land at Chilcombe. He took a leading part in all local agricul- 
tural matters. He gave up farming in 1909 and handed over his farms 
to his sons. He was churchwarden of Chilcombe for nearly thirty 
years. He was twice married and had seven sons and five daughters. 
He was a strong Conservative and tariff reformer. 
He was the author of : — 

" Eural Reminiscences." Winchester. [1901]. Cr. 8vo. 
" A History of the Wiltshire Strattons." Winchester, Fred Smith, 
Printer & Publisher, 166, High Street. [1902.] Cloth, Tin. 
X 4fin, pp. 117. 
Long obit, notice, Hampshire Chronicle, reprinted in Wiltshire 
Gazette, Sept. 23rd, 1915. 

Joseph Carpenter, died Nov. 10th, 1915, aged 81. Buried at 
Burcombe. Born at Rowdefield Farm, 1834. Took Lake Farm, near 
Amesbury, 1853, and afterwards Burcombe Manor Farm, retiring later 
on to the Manor House, Stratford-sub-Castle, where he lived until his 
death. He married Miss Mundy, of Enford, and leaves four daughters 
unmarried. J.P. for Wilts ; Chairman of Wilton Rural District Council 
for many years ; an original member of the County Council, representing 
the WyJye Division until the last election, when he retired ; an original 
member of the Wilts Agricultural Society ; and for twenty-one years 
a member of Salisbury Synod. One of the best known agriculturists 
in the county, and widely esteemed and respected. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 18th, 1915. 

Henry Kinneir, died May 20th, 1915, aged 83. Son of Dr. Richard 
Kinneir, of Cricklade, started practice as a solicitor at Swindon, 1864. 
Here he was well known and held many public offices, Registrar of 
County Court, Clerk to Justices of Cricklade Division, &c. He took 
an active part in founding the Victoria Hospital at Swindon, and was 
a prominent Freemason. He married first a daughter of H. C. Tombs 
and secondly a daughter of Samuel Tombs, of Droitwich, who, with 
a son and three daughters, survives him. 

William Chandler, died May 8th, 1915, aged 72. Buried at Aid- 
bourne. Born July 26th, 1842. As tenant of the North Farm he was 
greatly respected in Aldbourne, where he was churchwarden for thirty 
years up to 1906. He was a man of archaeological tastes, was present 
at many of the annual meetings of our Society, of which he was a 
member, and formed a colle -tion of Roman objects, coins, flint imple- 
ments, &c, found at Aldbourne, some of which have since his death 
been presented to the Society's Museum by his widow. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, May 20th, 1915. 

P. T. SwanborOUgh, died July 27th, 1915, aged 45. Born at 
Malmesbury, son of a police sergeant, came to Melksham about 1891, 
and entered the service of the Rubber Company of Messrs. Brown & 
Margetson as a clerk, becoming manager later on. When the business 
became the Avon India Rubber Company, he became co-managing 

Wilts Obituary. 273 

director with Mr. R. F. Fuller, and under their direction the business 
increased by leaps and bounds, until recently 1000 hands have been 
employed. He was held in much respect both in the works and in the 
town, and was a prominent Freemason and Churchman. 

Long obit, notice, with portrait, Wiltshire Times, July 31st, 1915. 

George Monkhouse Wilson, died June 20th, 1915, aged 61. 
Buried at Wilton. Born 1854, s. of Richard Monkhouse Wilson, of 
Salisbury. Educated, Elizabeth Coll., Guernsey. Articled at his father's 
office. He was for thirty-six years Clerk to the Wilton District Council 
and Board of Guardians, and for some years Clerk to the Salisbury 
Commissioners of Taxes. Mayor of Wilton, 1882. Commanded the 
the Wilton Company of the old 1st Wilts Volunteers. He held other 
offices at Wilton, took a prominent part in the revival of the Wilton 
Carpet Factory, and had held many high offices as a Freemason. He 
leaves a widow and two sons, both of whom are serving as Lieutenants 
in the army. 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Journal, June 26th, 1915. 

James Mead, died Sept. 25th, 1915, aged 77. Buried at West Lavington. 
Born at West Lavington. Apprenticed to a carpenter at Beckington, 
returned to Lavington, and for forty-two years acted as under 
steward of the Churchill Estate, retiring when the estate was sold 
to Mr. Thomas Holloway. He took a prominent part in all parish 
matters, and was most highly esteemed at Lavington. 
Long obit notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 30th, 1915. 

ReV. HailWOrth Hart Rackham, died suddenly during 
service in Church on January 22nd, 1916, aged 55. Buried in Swindon 
Cemetery. Wore. Coll., Oxon. B.A., 1889 ; M.A., 1893. Cuddesdon 
Coll., 1890. Deacon, 1890; priest, 1891 (Wore). Curate of Kidder- 
minster, 1890—1900 ; Vicar of St. Paul's, Swindon, 1900 until his death. 
A pronounced High Churchman, he was a man of much influence in 
Swindon. During his incumbency the Dowling St. Mission Hall and 
the new vestry to the Church were built. 

Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald, Jan. 28th, 1916. 

Frederick Victor Dickins, C.B., M,B. (London), 

B.SC, M.R.C.S., died Aug. 16th, 1915, aged 77. Buried at Seend. 
Born May 24th, 1838, eldest s. of Thomas Dickins, J. P., of Edgemoor 
House, Broughton, Manchester. Lived in childhood at Middleton, 
Lanes., where his father had established a silk factory for dyeing, 
printing, &c. Educated at a private school at Atherstone, at Rossall, 
and at the Lycee Buonaparte, in Paris. M.B. and B.Sc, of London 
University. Gold medallist for Physiology and Comparative Anatomy 
1861. M.R.C.S. 1859. Entered navy as medical officer 1862 ; served 
on H.M.S. Sans Pareil and Coromandel 1862 — 63. In sole charge of 
Naval Hospital, Yokohama 1864. Practised as barrister in H.B..M.'s 
Court, Yokohama. Called to Bar, Middle Temple, 1870. Practised in 

274 Wilts Obituary. 

Egypt 1882, in which year he was appointed Assistant Registrar at 
London University, becoming Registrar 1896 to 1901, when he retired 
and received the C.B. He lived at Seend Lodge 1901 until his death. 
He married, 1869, Mary, d. of W. M. Wilkinson, of Ryecroft House, 
Manchester, who, with two sons and two daughters, survives him. He 
was a member of the Athenaeum Club. At: the third " Congres Pre- 
historique de France," in 1908, he read a paper on the Megalithic 
Remains of Japan, and was elected " Officier d' Academic" He was 
Reader in Japanese in the University of Bristol, and was a recognised 
authority on Early Japanese MSS., many of which he edited and 
translated. He had " read widely and was familiar with the chief 
advances in physical and natural science . . . but his speciality 
was Japanese and to a less extent Chinese language and literature." 
Though he took no public part in county matters he was active in the 
affairs of his own parish and the Seend Reading Room owes much to 

Obit, notices, Nature and Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 26th ; Lancet, 
Sept. 4th, 1915. 


Hyakunin Is'shiu or Stanzas by a century of Poets, being 
Japanese Lyrical Odes, translated into English with 
explanatory notes. The Text in Japanese and Roman 


London : Smith, Elder, & Co., 65, Cornhill, 1866. 
pp. ix. + 52, Appendix, pp. xxv., Texts, pp. xix. 

Chiushingura or The Loyal League. A Japanese Romance, 
Translated by Frederick Victor Dickins, Sc. B. of the 
Middle Temple, Barrister-at-law. With notes and an 
appendix containing a metrical version of the ballad 
of takasago and a specimen of the original text in the 
Japanese characters. Illustrated by numerous en- 

Edition. London: Allen & Co., Waterloo Place. 1880. 

Cloth, lOin. X 6in. pp. xiii. + 2 + 202. 29 plates. 
First edition, Yokohama, 1875. 
Third edition, " with notes and an appendix containing the Ballad 

of Takasago." London and Glasgow : Gowans & Gray. L910. 

Pamphlet. " Gowan's new Sixpenny Series. No. 1." 8^in. X 

5jin. pp. 115. 
The Seven Gods of Happiness. Essay on a portion of the 

Religious Worship of the Japanese. Translated from j 

the Japanese by Carlo Puini and from the Italian | 

into English by F. V. Dickins. Read June 11, 1880. j 

[Reprinted from Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 

Vol. viii. pp. 427 to 461.] 
Pamphlet, 8vo. 

Wilts Obituary. 275 

The "Kana" transliteration system. By F. V. Dickins. 

Read March 9, 1880, before the Asiatic Society of 


Fugaku Hiyaku-Kei, or a Hundred Views of Fuji (Fusiyama) 
by Hokusai. Introductory and Explanatory Prefaces 
with Translations from the Japanese, and Descriptions 
of the Plates. By Fredk. V. Dickins, Sc. B. of the 
Middle Temple, Barrister-at-law. London: B.T. Batsford, 
52, High Holborn. 1880. 

Stiff boards, 8|in. X 6in., pp. xxviii. + 70. 2 illustrations. 3 
vols, of plates on Japanese paper same size. 

The Old Bamboo Hewer's Story (Taketori No Okina No 
monogatarl). the earliest of the japanese romances, 
Written in the tenth century. Translated with ob- 
servations and notes by F. Victor Dickins, with the 
original text in roman and three chromolithographic 
illustrations taken from japanese makimono. reprinted 
from the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. London : 
trubner & co., ludgate hlll. 1887. 

Pamphlet, 8vo, pp. 58. 

The Story of Shiuten Doji. From a Japanese "Makimono" 
in six "Ken" or Rolls. By F. V. Dickins, M.R.A.S. 
From the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Vol. xvii., Pt. I. 

Pamphlet, 8|in X 5^in., pp. 28, with 4 coloured folding plates. 

A Journal kept in Karafuto. A Paper by Mr. F. Victor 
Dickins, Read before the Japan Society of London, 
Dec. 11, 1895. 


A Short Memoir of Ito Keisuke, Rigaku Hakusi (Doctor 
of Philosophy), By Tokutaro Ito, D.Sc, with a portrait. 
[Translated by F. V. Dickins.] From "Annals of Botany," 
Vol. xiv., No. lv., 1900, pp. 401 to 411. 

Pamphlet, 9jin. X 6 Jin. 

The Mangwa of]Hokusai Katsushika Hokusai : a Biography 
from the jlmmei-jlsho, the prefaces to the mangwa, 
the contents jof the mangwa. a paper by f. vlctor 
Dickins, O.B., M.J.S., read before the Japan Society of 
London, Dec. 9th, 1903. 


The Statue of Amida the Niorai in the Musee Cernuschi. 

By F. Victor Dickins. From the " Journal of the Royal 

Asiatic Society," July, 1903. 
Pamphlet, 8|in. X 5£in., pp. 433 to 446. One plate. 


276 Wilts Obituary. 

A Japanese Thoreau of the Twelfth Century. By Minakata 
Kumagusu. F. Victor Dickins. From the " Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society,'' April, 1905. 

Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 237 to 264. 

Primitive & Medieval Japanese Texts Transliterated into 
Roman with Introductions, Notes, and Glossaries by 
Frederick Victor Dickins, C.B., sometime Registrar of 
the University of London. With a Companion Volume 
of Translations (Japanese Quotation, Mencius). Oxford i 
at the Clarendon Press, 1906. 

Linen, 9in. + 6in., pp. including titles and introduction xxxvi. 
■+- 338. 

Primitive & Mediaeval Japanese Texts Translated into 
English, with Introductions, Notes and Glossaries, by 
Frederick Victor Dickins, C.B., sometime Registrar of 
the University of London. Illustrated from Japanese 
sources, with a companion volume of romanized texts. 
(Japanese Quotation, Mencius). Oxford : at the Claren- 
don Press, 1906. 

Linen, 9in. X 6in., pp., Introduction, &c, cviii. + 419. Dedication 
to Rt. Hon. Sir Ernest Satow, G.C.M.G. Preface dated Seend, 
1906. Map and 11 Illustrations. This and the preceding 
volume forming 2 volumes, price 21s., were the author's most 
important works. 

Ho-jo-ki (notes from a ten feet square hut). From the 
Japanese of Kamo no Chomei, a Buddhist Recluse of the 
12th Century. (Translated) by F. Victor Dickins, C.B. 
Published by Gowans & Gray, Limited, 5, Robert St., 
Adelphi, London, W.C. ; 58, Cadogan St., Glasgow. 1907. 
Gowan's International Library. No. 15. Qd. net. 

Pamphlet, 5fin. X 4in., pp. 38. 

The Literature of Primitive Japan. A Paper by F. Victor 
Dickins, C.B., M.J.S. Read before the Japan Society of 
London, January 9, 1907. Printed by William Clowes 
& Sons, Limited, London and Beccles. 

Pamphlet, 9|in. X 6iin., pp. 32, 12 plates, 

Quelques Remarques sur les Megalithes du Japon, DApres 
le Pr. Gowland, Par F. Victor Dickins (Seend, Wilts, 
Angleterre) Troisieme Congres Prehistorique de France. 

■ Session d' Autun, 1907. Le Mans Imprimerie Monnoyer. 

Pamphlet, 9|in. X 6^in., pp. 7 (pp. 474 — 480), 9 illustrations. 

The Makura Kotoba of Primitive Japanese Verse by F. 
Victor Dickins, Esq. Transactions of the Asiatic Society 
of Japan. Vol. xxxv., Part 4. Yokohama, Shanghai,. 
Hongkong, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh, L'd. Tokyo: 

Wilts Obituary. 277 

Z. P. Maruya Co., L'd. London : Kegan Paul, Truebner, 
& Co., L'd. Leipzig : Otto Harassowitz. Price Yen 
2.00. 1908. 
Pamphlet, 9iin. x 6^in., pp. 113. 

A Translation of the Japanese Anthology known as 
Hyakunin Isshiu or Hundred Poems by a Hundred Poets. 
By F. Victor Dickins. From "Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society," April, 1909. 

Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 357 to 391. 

The Story of a Hida Craftsman (Hida no Takumi Monogatari) 
By Rokojuizen with Hokusai's Illustrations (in reduced 
facsimile). Translated from the original Japanese with 
some annotations, by Frederick Victor Dickins, C.B. 
Cowans & Gray, Ltd., 5, Robert St., Adelphi, London,W.C. ; 
56, Cadogan St., Glasgow. 1912. 

Pp. x. + 170. 

Sketch Portraitures of Far Eastern Languages. Japanese. 
From the "Modern Quarterly of Language and Liter- 
ature," No. 5. Pamphlet. 

He was the author of the Sections on Zoology and Botany in 
Kelly's " Handbook to Japan" and of the Japanese period in the 
" Life of Sir Harry Parkes" H.B. Minister in Japan and China, 
this latter in collaboration with Stanley Lane Poole. 

From 1877 to 1878 he was the proprietor and editor of the " Japan 
Weekly Mail" For several years he was a regular contributor 
to " The Spectator" and also to " The Athenaeum." 

[For the above " List " the Editor is indebted to the kindness of Mrs. 
Dickins and Mr. A. Schomberg.] 

Rev. Joseph Edward Gull, died Feb. 20th, 1916, aged 67. 
Buried at Rushall. St. Alban's Hall, Oxford, B.A., 1872 ; M.A. (Merton 
Coll.), 1882. Deacon, 1871; priest, 1873 (Manchester). Curate, St. 
George's, Charlestown in Pendleton, 1871 — 73; St. John Bapt., Little 
Hulton, Curate, 1873-76; Vicar, 1876-1885; Vicar of St. Thomas, 
Pendleton, 1885—97 ; Vicar of Rainhill, 1897-1911 ; Rector of Rushall, 
1911 until his death. 
Obit, notice, Wilts Gazette, Feb. 24th, 1916. 

Frederick Thomas Sylvester, died March 12th, 1916, aged 86, 

s. of George Sylvester, coroner from 1841 to 1871, when his son succeeded 
him. He was then proprietor of the Bear Hotel, Devizes. He after- 
wards removed to Warminster, and later to Trowbridge, where he died. 
He resigned his coronership in 1905 and was succeeded by his son, Percy 
Sylvester — the present coroner. The coronership has thus been held 
by father, son, and grandson for 75 years. 
Obit, notice, Wilts Gazette, March 16th, 1916. 

T 2 

278 Wilts Obituary. 

Francis Edward Thompson, died Feb. isth, 1916. Buried at 

Marlborough. Scholar of Lincoln Coll., Oxon. M.A. 1860. Assistant 
Master at Marlborough College from 1859 to 1895, when he retired after 
36 years of continuous service, and became a member of the College 
Council. " He served the school with great devotion, did valuable 
work in many capacities, and gave every encouragement to the school 

Rev. Alfred George Lawe, died March 17th, 1916, aged 70. 
Born in India April 17th, 1845, s. of Col. Lawe, R.E. (E. I. Company). 
Corpus Christi Coll., Camb., B.A. 1869, M.A. 1873. Deacon 1869, 
priest, 1871 (London). Curate H. Trinity, Marylebone, 1869—71 ; 
Christ's Chapel, Maida Vale, 1871—75 ; Vicar of Fosbury, 1875—1916. 
He resigned the living in January, 1916. He was a strong Evangelical 
of the old-fashioned school. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, March 23rd, 1916. 

Sir John G-orst, died April 4th, 1916. Buried at Castle Combe. 
Born at Preston, 1835, 2nd s. of E. C. Lowndes, who took the name of 
Gorst on succeeding to family property. Educated at Preston Gram- 
mar School, and St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 3rd Wrangler, Mathe- 
matical Tripos, 1857, and Fellow of his college. Emigrated to New 
Zealand 1859, and married the daughter of the Rev. Lorenzo Moore, of 
Christchurch, New Zealand. He became at once Inspector of Native 
and Mission Schools in Waikato, and issued a Maori newspaper. Re- 
turned to England, was called to the Bar (Inner Temple) 1865, Q.C. 
1875. Conservative M.P. for Cambridge Borough 1866 — 68. He was 
chiefly responsible for the electoral organisation of the Conservative 
party before the election of 1874. M.P. for Chatham 1875—92. In 
the Liberal Parliament of 1880 he was a conspicuous member of the 
" Fourth Party," which adopted to a great extent an independent 
position. In 1885, under the Conservative Government, he became 
Solicitor General and was knighted. He had expected a higher office, 
but his independent habit of mind was not acceptable to the leaders of 
the party. From 1886 to 1891 he was Under Secretary for India, 
Financial Secretary to the Treasury 1891 — 92, Vice-President of the 
Council on Education 1895, retiring in 1902. From this time his 
attitude grew more and more hostile to the official Unionist policy. 
He vehemently opposed Mr. Chamberlain's Tariff Reform proposals, 
and in 1906 resigned his trusteeship of the Primrose League, and after 
having been Member for Cambridge University from 1892 to 1906 was 
in that year defeated, and came out as a Radical, standing for Preston 
in 1909, but he was not elected. His real interest was in Social Reform. 
The Westminster Gazette says of him that " he was far too clever a 
man intellectually to be strictly controlled by party ties, and on more 
than one occasion his outspokenness brought grave embarrassment to 
his chiefs while giving delight to his opponents .... He was in 
fact a cynic in politics but a most amiable cynic .... His 
misfortune was that his early choice of parties carried him into an 

Wilts Obituary. 279 

atmosphere in which, his sympathies were suspect, out of which he 
emerged too late in life to have the opportunity for a new political 
career or to play the full part he might have taken in the controversies 
after 1903." His first wife died in 1914 and he subsequently married 
Miss Ethel Johnson, who survives him. His eldest son, Sir Eldon 
Gorst, died in 1911. His surviving son, Mr. Harold E. Gorst, is well 
known in Wiltshire and as an author. 

Sir John Gorst succeeded to the Castle Combe property on the death 
of his brother, Mr. E. C. Lowndes, became an Alderman of the Wilts 
County Council and, as was natural, a member of the County Education 
Committee. In this connection, however, as in other spheres, he often 
found himself unable to agree or to work with his colleagues, and had 
not been present at meetings of the committee for a long time. 

Long obit, notices in The Times, April 5th, reprinted in Wiltshire 
Gazette, April 6th ; Westminster Gazette, April 5th, 1916. 

Lieut. John E&geiie Impey, Lines, Regt., missing, believed 
killed in action, aged 19. S. of Capt. E. Impey, of Steeple Ashton. 
Born March, 1827, entered Lines. Regt. Nov., 1914. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, April 6th, 1916. 

2nd Lieut. Herman Theodore Wells, A.S.C. Killed in 

action, aged 21. Youngest son of Rev, E. Wells, Rector of West Dean. 



[N.B.— This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in 
any way connected with the county to send him copies of their works, 
and to editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send 
him copies of articles, views, or portraits, appearing in the newspapers.] 

Statuta et Consuetudines Ecclesiae Cathedralis 
Beatse Mariae Virginia Sarisberiensis. Statutes 
and Customs of the Cathedral Church of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary of Salisbury, Edited by 
Chr. Wordsworth, M.A., Subdean, and Douglas 
Macleane, M.A., Prebendary of Bishopston. 
London: William Clowes & Sons, Limited. 31, 
Haymarket, S.W. 1915 

Linen, 8|in. x 5iin., pp. xxiv. + 543. 

In 1883 Canons Ed. A. Dayman and W. H. Rich Jones published 
" The Statutes of the Cathedral Church of Sarum," privately printed 
at Bath. 4to, pp. 135, with 3 pp. of index. This, however, contained 
only the Latin text of the statutes with a few footnotes. In the present 
volume the whole of the Latin text is given, together with a full 
English translation, the latter being the work of the Rev. W. H. David, 
Assistant Master at Marlborough College, and of Canon Douglas 
Macleane, together with voluminous notes and comments on the per- 
sons, places, and things, mentioned in the text. The volume begins 
with "An obit Kalendar cir, 1420 — 50," transcribed from the late 
xivth cent. MS. copy of the Statutes known as the " Bishop's copy of 
the Statutes," or the "Old Statute Book." This fills 14pp. Then 
follow the Statutes from 1091 to 1697, at which point the former edition 
of the Statutes ended. The present editor, however adds a 
statute of 1813, a note on the Cathedral Commissions of 1835, 
1852, and 1879, a statute of 1851, and a full account of Bishop 
John Wordsworth's Visitation of the Cathedral, held 1888—1890, 
pp. 465 — 501. He also gives "A history of the Development of 
the ' Combination,' or Table of Preaching Turns assigned to the 
Prebendaries and others for their annual sermons, together with 
a list of those additional sermons or occasional ' Collations ' for 
which members of the Residentiary Chapter and other Dignitaries 
and the Priest Vicars are held responsible." As to the Customs, the 
editor says in the preface that they " are partly touched on in our 
annotations, but the bulk of them must be reserved for a supplementary 
volume for which I have already made considerable collections." It 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 281 

seems a pity that the index should be divided into three parts, " General," 
"Index to obit. List," and "Index of Prebends" — a single index is so 
much easier to consult. It is also specially noted that the names of 
the witnesses to the Statutes have not been included in the " General 
Index" because they have already been indexed in Canon Jones' Fasti, 
but unless you have both books at hand the consequence is that you 
cannot find the reference to any of the names, and that again seems a 
pity, in the case of so complete and learned a book as this, which — as 
might be expected of any work of its editors — is a valuable addition to 
the literature of the Diocese of Salisbury and the County of Wilts. 

Life in a Railway Factory. By Alfred Williams. 

London : Duckworth & Co., 3, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

Cloth. Tiin. x 5in., pp. xiii. + 3 15. Price 5s. net. 

" My object," says the author in the preface, "in penning ' Life in a 
Railway Factory ' was to take advantage of the opportunity I have had 
as a workman, during twenty-three years' continuous service in the 
sheds, of setting down what I have seen and known for the interest and 
education of others, who might like to be informed as to what is the 
actual life of the Factory." *' I am not anxious to quarrel with any 
man ; at the same time I am not disposed to be fettered, smothered, 
gagged, or silenced, to cower or tremble, or to shrink from uttering 
what I believe to be the truth, in deference to the most formidable 
despot living." 

The author is an acute observer, and he sets down in unvarnished 
language what he conceives is the actual condition of things in the 
G.W.R. Works at Swindon to-day— dwelling especially on that part of 
the works in which so much of his own life has been spent, the Smithy 
and the Forge. He notes a great change in the last ten years, in the 
introduction of American machinery and the general speeding up of 
the work of the men, and the elimination of the "human" element in 
the relations of employers and employed. He pictures the work in 
these sheds, the work in which he himself has so long shared, as neither 
more nor less than a system of inhuman slavery, and he lays the blame 
without the smallest hesitation on the management of the works. " It 
is painful to contemplate the ignorance, stupidity, and prejudice of the 
staff in charge of operations." For the average overseer he has no 
words that are bad enough. " The average overseer dislikes you if 
you are a tip-top workman, if you have a good carriage and are well 
dressed," &c. As to medical supervision, he says : " During the twenty 
odd years I have worked there I have never once heard of a factory 
inspector coming through the shed, unless it were one of the company's 
own confidential officials." He dwells especially on the smoke and 
stench of the new oil forges as an intolerable evil, and the slavery of 
the night shift comes in for many hard words. It is a heavy indictment 
of the company's system, and it comes, it must be remembered, from 
one who knows what he is writing about. At the same time he ac- 
knowledges, what everyone who lives in the Swindon neighbourhood 

282 Recent Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, Articles, Sec. 

knows is the fact, that young men from all the country round are only 
too anxious to enter the works, and that when they have once got in, 
they as a rule regard it as the greatest misfortune, if they are for any 
reason obliged to leave the Factory again. He attributes this to the 
attraction of the free Saturday afternoons and Sundays, and above all 
to the wages paid, wages that are high in comparison with the ordinary 
rate of wages in agricultural Wiltshire, where the G.W.R. Factory is 
the one great industrial concern in the county. The officials he argues 
trade upon the willingness of the men to endure the present conditions. 
He allows that they are willing, but they ought not to be. " Where 
the cultured person does exist in the shed he must generally suffer 
exquisite tortures. There can be no culture without a higher sensibility? 
and he will be thereby rendered less able to endure the hardships of 
the toil, and the otherwise brutal and callous environments of the place. 
As for the view, held in some quarters, that education will make a man 
happier at work and better satisfied with his lot and condition, that is 
pure myth and fallacy, and the sooner it is dispensed with the better. 
On the other hand, it will most certainly produce dissatisfaction, but 
such, perhaps, as will speedily wake him up to his real needs and re- 
quirements, a larger freedom, and the attainment of a fuller and better 
life." Do not these words explain to a great extent the attitude of the 
author ? It is not difficult to believe that for a man of Mr. Williams' 
attainments the life of the forge must have been neither more nor less 
than slavery. It is a gloomy picture, which represents forcibly the 
point of view of the writer, but that is certainly not the point of view 
from which a large body of the men employed there regard employ- 
ment in the G.W.R. works. 

Reviewed, Times Literary Supplement, Nov. 25th, 1915 ; Spectator 
Literary Supplement, Jan. 29th, 1916, pp. 140—141. 

Salisbury, South Wilts and Blackmore Museum. 
1864—1914. The Festival Book of Salisbury. 
Published to commemorate the Jubilee of the 
Museum. Humphrey F. Blackmore, Esq., M.D., 
Hon. Director, Major Fisher, Hon. Secretary. 
Money C. Fisher, Esq , Hon. Treasurer. Editor : 
Frank Stevens, Resident Curator of the Museum. 

lOfin. X 7^in. Wrappers. Printed by Bennett Brothers, Journal 
Office, Salisbury, pp. 4, including title unnumbered, + 134 (including 

This volume was prepared to accompany the special exhibition which 
it was intended to hold in Salisbury in the autumn of 1914, to mark 
the jubilee of the Salisbury and Blackmore Museum. The outbreak of 
the war, however, caused the abandonment of the exhibition, and the 
issue of this book alone marks the jubilee. It contains, in addition to 
the " Invitation to the Reader " and " Au Revoir " by the Editor, and 
3 pages of " Acknowledgments and Thanks " by the late Canon E. S. 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 283 

Bankes, twelve short articles written in popular style by eleven different 
writers. In addition to these there are eight portraits of Salisbury 
worthies, and nine illustrations of "Notable Objects in the Museum 
Collections," all reproduced from Mr. Charles Haskins' works, " The 
Ancient Trade Guilds, &c, of Salisbury " and " Salisbury Corporation 
Pictures and Plate." The portraits are of Will. Windover ; Charles 
Wotton ; John, Duke of Somerset ; Will. Chiffinch ; Seth Ward ; 
Will. Hussey ; John Wyche ; Henry Fawcett. The Museum objects, 
&c, are; Charter of Ed. IV. to Tailors; Scutcheon of Tailors Co.; 
Masters Tablets, from Tailors' Hall ; Drinking Cup of Cordwainers Co. ; 
Pewter of Joiners Co. ; Joiners' Hall ; Woodwork Front of do. ; 
Scutcheon of Bakers Co. ; Winchester Bushel, 1485. 

Dr. H. P. Blackmore, who 50 years ago was mainly instrumental in 
starting the Museum of which he is still Hon. Director, leads off with 
an article on " The Fossils and Prehistoric Remains of Salisbury," 
telling shortly of the seven zones of the upper chalk in the neighbour- 
hood of Salisbury, and of the pits or cuttings where exposures of each 
of them may be seen. Of the Fisherton Brickearth which overlies the 
chalk, he says that it corresponds with the " Wurmian," or latest Ice 
Age, and that in the clay skeletons of the pouched marmot have been 
found in the characteristic attitude of hibernation, showing that a 
sudden spring flood had drowned them before they had awaked from 
winter sleep, and that in the same bed of clay was found a flint imple- 
ment of Mousterian age. No bones have been found, however, in the 
gravels of Bemerton, Britford, and Milford Hill, which have yielded 
such numbers of Palaeolithic flint implements. He dates the gravel on 
Milford Hill, owing to the presence of implements of the Upper 
Acheulian period, as belonging to the " Hiss," or third, of the four, 
great Ice ages in England. The Alderbury gravel, on the other hand 
in which "Eoliths" occur, "is probably due to one of the earlier 
glaciations." Dr. C. Straton has a short paper on " The Great Bustard," 
mentioning the circumstances under which the two Bustards now in the 
Salisbury Museum were secured, and discoursing on the uses of the 
curious gular pouch of the male bird. One of the most important 
papers in the book is Mr. Heywood Sumner's " Excavation on a Roman 
Villa site near East Grimstead." This site in an arable field on Maypole 
Farm, near Churchway Copse, was partially excavated by Mr. Heywood 
Sumner during three weeks' digging. The building, of which he gives 
an excellent " Plan, Section, and Sketch View," seems to have been 
" a small and well-built detached house, consisting of three rooms." 
From the Praefurnium on the west a flue 6ft. long and 1ft. 6in. wide led 
into a small hypocaust, the pilse of which were of brick tiles Sin. square* 
From the S. side of the hypocaust two flues " warmed a semicircular 
basin-like receptacle or bath," sunk in a block of solid flint masonry 
foundation 6ft. 6in. in width, the bath itself being 5ft. X 2jft. and 
lined with pink mortar 3in. thick. On the east side the smaller hypo- 
caust opened into a larger one, the pilse of which had been destroyed 
before the systematic excavation was undertaken. Beyond this was 
another room paved with brick tiles 8in. square, bedded on the natural 

284 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, Sec. 

soil. Mr. Sumner believes that this is a detached bath house which 
belonged to a villa which he thinks may be found close by. "Large 
wall foundations have been discovered near the wood and a room 
apparently belonging to this block of foundations has been excavated 
It measures 27ft. by lift., has a mortar and pebble stone floor, and has 
yielded many relics of iron." A sketch of the site, a small plan, and a 
page of accurate drawings of the finds are given. The latter include 
iron hinge staples, knife, gouge, &c, fragments of four bronze bracelets, 
and a bone counter. Prof. Haverfield adds a note as to the probably 
frequent occurrence of bath houses, detached from the villas which 
they served. Mr. Frank Stevens has an article on Old Sarum in which 
he sums up shortly the results of the excavations and gives a chronology 
of the principal events in the history of the city. " Harnham Bridge, 
St. John's Chapel, and St. Nicholas' Hospital," are discoursed on by 
Canon Wordsworth. The hospital was enlarged, the bridge and the 
chapel on the island built by Bishop Robert Bingham. The bridge was 
known as Ayleswade, or Ayleswater, Bridge, and was widened in 1774. 
The chapel has been converted into a dwelling, and lost its high-pitched 
roof, which it retained when sketched by Miss Wickens in 1824. A 
sketch of it as it must have appeared when perfect is given here. It is 
a rectangular building, 39ft. X 23ft. on the outside, with triple lancets 
at the east end. The central one, measuring 13ft. X 2£ft., has been 
blocked up to form a chimney. There were four similar lancets, 
7ft. x 1ft. 3in., on each side, the sill of the easternmost on the S. side 
still retaining a double piscina of two basins each 8|in. across. The 
west end has been much destroyed, but recent removal of the earth on 
that side shows a plinth, door, and windows. During this work many 
fragments of tabernacle work of the 14th or 15th century still retaining 
its coloured decoration were found. 

The offerings at the Bridge Chapel, where mass was to be said twice 
daily for the soul of the founder, sufficed for the upkeep of the bridge 
until the time of Hen. V., when the bridge was so ruinous that the 
King granted a toll to be levied on all merchandise passing over the 
bridge for seven years (1413 — 1420). 

" The Civic History of Salisbury " is dealt with by Mr. C. Haskins, 
tracing very shortly the growth of the corporation and the guilds and 
their history from the foundation of the city to the present time with 
illustrations of Bishop Richard Beauchamp's confirmation of the Tailors' 
Charter, 1462, the Initial Letter of the Charter of James I., and portraits 
of Sir Robert Hyde, and Jacob 2nd Earl of Radnor. 

The Giant and Hob Nob are well dealt with by Mr. F Stevens, who 
writes of their origin, and use in medieval and later times, and the 
parading of analogous processional figures elsewhere in England and on 
the Continent, and gives photos of the figures and of their appearance 
in procession on the occasion of the Coronation in 1911. He mentions 
that the two figures were bought for the Museum on the break up of the 
Tailors' Guild in L873 for 30s. " Old Salisbury Industries and their 
Remains " is a useful article by Mr. Geo. Fulford, treating amongst 
others of the Woollen and Silk Weavers, the Cutlers, the Horse Hair 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 285 

Weavers, Dyers and Calenderers, and the Pipe Makers, who got their 
clay chiefly from Chitterne. Mr. W. Pritchard writes on Constable's 
picture of the Cathedral known as " The Rainbow," and the engraving 
of it by David Lucas, in its various states. 

"The Old 'Salisbury Journal' and Early Newspaper Enterprise in 
Salisbury," by Mrs. Herbert Richardson, gives a great deal of useful 
information. The earliest Salisbury newspaper was the "Salisbury 
Post Man ; or Packet of Intelligence, from France, Spain, Portugal, 
Ftc," printed by Sam Farley, and its first number is dated Sept. 27, 
1715, though it was not really issued until Nov. 25th of that year, the 
reason apparently being that the paper was kept back after the first 
sheet had been printed until news of the victories over the Pretender 
could be obtained. A photo of this number is given . The paper does 
not seem to have run for long. In May, 1729, William Collins, book- 
seller, started the Salisbury Journal, Containing the most Material 
Occurrences both Foreign and Domestick, printed by Charles Hooton. 
The paper was a weekly and came to an end with its 58th number (a 
photo of this number is given). There seem to have been at least two 
efforts to start it again in 1736 and 1738, and from Jan. 31st of the 
latter year the Salisbury Journal or Weekly Advertiser ran without a 
break. On William Collins' death in 1740 his brother, Benjamin Collins 
succeeded to the management, until in 1775 he retired in favour of his 
son, Benjamin Charles Collins, and J. Johnson. In 1772 the title of 
the paper was changed to The Salisbury and Winchester Journal. 
B. C. Collins died Jan. 29th, 1808. 

For a few months W. Collins managed the paper, but in June of the 
same year W. B. Brodie (a nephew of B. C. Collins), John Dowding, 
and John Luxford became the proprietors. 

In 1847 Messrs. Brodie & Co., bankers, became bankrupt, and the 
paper was bought by James Bennett, to whose family it still belongs. 

On Jan. 4th, 1816, Simpson's Salisbury Gazette was started by Mr. 
George Simpson as a rival to the Journal, but after June 24th, 1819, it 
was transferred to Devizes as the Devizes Gazette. The Salisbury 
Times first appeared on March 14th, 1868, as a Liberal paper, and the 
Salisbury Examiner and South Western Gazette, which had been 
running since 1860, was finally incorporated with it in 1868. 

Canon D. Macleane has a scholarly article on George Herbert, with 
a photograph of the pencil portrait by R. White in the Palace at 
Salisbury and a reproduction of an old print showing Bemerton Church. 
He corrects a statement in Daniell's Life of Herbert that he was buried 
under a Purbeck marble slab in Bemerton Church. He has no grave- 
stone and it is uncertain where he lies. 

Noticed, Salisbury Journal, June 19th, 1915. 

An Introduction to Field Archaeology as illustrated 
by Hampshire, By J. P. Williams Freeman, 
MB London, 1915. 

Trespassing across the Wiltshire border the author gives a good 

286 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

photograph of a curious sarsen stone lying a few yards beyond the 
signpost pointing to "Chute, Ludgershall, and Andover," about 1 J 
miles East of Scots Poor Inn, on the Roman Road running along the 
northern border of Chute parish. It is on the left of the Roman Road 
and on the other side of the wire fence. " It has been claimed to be the 
Kenwardstone, from which the hundred in which this part of Wiltshire 
is situated, takes its name. However this may be, and it must be 
mentioned that Kenwardestone is also the name of a farm near Grafton, 
some six or eight miles off, it is of very great archaeological interest. 
The stone lies in an artificially scooped out hollow at the top of the 
slope. The hollow, 8ft. deep, is some 30 yards long by 15 across, and 
the stone is in the centre. . . . It is a sarsen stone, squarish in 
shape, lying flat upon the ground, about 5ft. lOin. by 4ft. 6in. in size, 
and as far as shows above the grass, about 1ft. 3in. thick. The upper 
surface is bordered on two sides by a sort of rounded frame about a 
foot broad with an irregular waved outline, but with a sharp right- 
angled corner. On the other two sides the stone is broken off. What 
remains of the square tablet is about 4ft. by 3, and sunk some 2 inches 
below the frame. The whole of this flat surface is covered by irregular 
waved markings each about 1| inches broad . . . Can they possibly 
be ' ripple marks,' the natural impression of water upon soft sand, or 
weather markings upon a sandstone of varying hardness ? " Dr. 
Williams Freeman professes himself unable to express an opinion as 
to whether the markings are sculptures or of natural origin, but he calls 
attention to their resemblance to the undoubted sculptures on the 
upright of a dolmen near Carnac, of which he also gives a photograph. 
He mentions, however, that the " sculptured " ridges of the Chute stone 
are found on the side of the stone as well as on the surface, and that 
they also line the sides of two natural holes in the stone, and this would 
seem to point to their natural origin from weathering. 

The author again makes an incursion into Wiltshire from Quarley 
Hill to visit Stonehenge and Old Sarum. He describes the ditches 
which run from Cholderton towards Sidbury, mentions the gun on the 
top of Beacon (or Harradon) Hill, from which the distance to Old 
Sarum was taken as the base for the grand triangulation of the Survey 
of England, the distance being 6 miles, 1632 yards, 1 foot, 10"2972 inches. 
Two photographs of Stonehenge, " From a War Balloon," and " Restored. 
From the model in ,the Blackmore Museum," are given, with a short 
description of the monument, and a resume of the results of the ex- 
cavations and the arguments as to its age. Avebury is stated to be 
" clearly Neolithic," whilst Stonehenge is of the earliest Bronze Age. 
The double and triple ditched camps are regarded as later developments 
of the single ditched. Bokerly Dyke is carefully described ; Grims 
ditch, or the Devil's ditch, with its bank sometimes on the north and 
sometimes on the south and sometimes on both sides, and its V-shaped 
bottom, which shows no sign of having been used as a road, is regarded 
as a boundary ditch, whilst some of the Cranborne Chase ditches were 
perhaps to keep cattle and deer off the cultivated lands, or to hem in 
deer during drives. An interesting point noticed is the small number 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, Sec. 287 

of sites of " British Villages " which have been identified on the Hamp- 
shire Downs, as compared with the numbers scattered over the chalk 
lands of Wiltshire. The same scarcity has been noticed in Berkshire, 
and yet there seems no reason why the population at this period (Late 
Celtic or Romano-British) should have been denser on the Wiltshire 
Downs than in the two neighbouring counties. Another interesting 
point is his treatment of the dew or mist pond question, and his de- 
lightful contempt for the elaborate pseudo-scientific nonsense which 
has been written by " people who live in London " on this subject. He 
is bold enough to describe the actual procedure of AVest Lavington 
pondmakers as follows : — " First a layer of clay is carefully kneaded 
and beaten down with much force on the bare chalk. Over this is 
spread and carefully smoothed out a layer of freshly-slaked lime 3 or 4 
inches thick (to keep out the worms, he suggests), on this is laid a layer 
of straw to protect the lime, and over all 6 inches of chalk rubble to 
keep cattle from treading and breaking the clay puddling." 

It is much to be hoped that this charming book, with its singularly 
readable letterpress and its accurate and complete accounts and plans 
of all the earthworks in Hampshire, may inspire some Wiltshire 
archseologist to do as much for those of our own county. When that 
archaeologist appears he can take no better model that Dr. Williams 
Freeman's book. 

Wiltshire Parish Registers. Marriages. Vol XIV. 
Loudon : Issued to the subscribers by Fhillimore 
& Co., Ltd , 124, Chancery Lane. 1914. 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. vii. + 131. 10/6 net. 

This volume contains the marriages {concluded from Vol. XIII.) of 
St. Edmund's, Salisbury, from 1741 to 1837, and of Stratford-sub-Castle 
from 1654 to 1837. The Editors, Messrs. Thomas M. Blagg and John 
Saddler, in the preface, pay a deserved tribute to the memory of the 
late Mr. T. H. Baker, whose " assistance to this work has been of the 
greatest importance " throughout the whole thirteen previous volumes 
of the series. 

Life of Bishop John Wordsworth. By E. W. Watson, 
D.D., Canon of Christchurch, Regius Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History in the University of Ox- 
ford. With Portrait and other Illustrations. 
Longmans, Green, & Co, 39, Paternoster Row, 
London. Fourth Avenue, & 30th Street, New 
York, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. 1915. 

Cloth, 8vo., pp. including titles, vi. + 2 pp. contents, &c, unnumbered 
+ 409. Printed by William Clowes & Sons, Beccles. Photo portraits 
of the Bishop in 1905 and as Oriel Professor ; " Great Guns at Oxford " 
(J. W. as Proctor, 1874) ; Mrs. Wordsworth (1885) ; Tomb at Salisbury, 
by Sir George Frampton (photo). 

288 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

The " Bibliography " at the end fills pages 39V to 402, but as the 
author remarks in the preface it is by no means a complete list of the 
Bishop's publications, indeed no attempt has been made to include his 
published sermons and many other pamphlets. This seems a pity, as the 
list without any difficulty might have been made, at all events as regards 
his separate publications, a good deal fuller than it is. Another point 
which is more important is the curious absence of anything but the 
merest reference to the Bishop's home life throughout the later years 
of his life at Salisbury — and it is rumoured that a whole chapter which 
should have dealt with this period more especially, was by some strange 
mischance accidentally omitted from the book. Surely, too, the part 
that Clifford Holgate played for so many years at Salisbury and the 
place that he filled in the life of the Palace and of everything that went 
on there, is worthy of more than the three lines in which his death is 
recorded. What he was to the Bishop is shown by the singularly 
touching and beautiful inscription to his memory in the Cathedral. 
In this direction, therefore, the Life must strike many of those who 
knew the Bishop best as curiously incomplete. On the other hand his 
early life as a child at Stanford- in-the- Vale, as a boy at school at 
Brighton, and Ipswich Grammar School, at Winchester, where he was 
Senior Commoner Prefect, at New College, and his masterships at 
Harrow and Wellington, with the subsequent Fellowship and Tutorship 
at Brasenose, are dealt with sufficiently and with a due perception of 
the influence which each successive stage had in the final moulding of 
his life and character. The year 1874, when he published his "Fragments 
and Specimens of early Latin" is marked as the culminating point of 
his purely classical studies ; henceforth he turned his attention de- 
liberately more and more to Biblical and Ecclesiastical scholarship. 
The testimony to the charm of Mrs. Wordsworth, the unique place that 
their house in Keble Terrace filled in the lives of several generations of 
Brasenose men, and their joint influence upon them, comes from many 
sides. Indeed the account of the Oxford portion of his life is one of 
the most interesting sections of the book. Then there was his work 
on the Vulgate, and his travels in Italy and Spain to collate MSS., his 
short time as Canon at Rochester, and his acceptance of the Bishopric 
of Salisbury. His conception of the office of a Bishop was not that of 
a merely glorified parish priest, and he had no sympathy with those 
who would divide up the Diocese of Salisbury by Creating a new 
Bishopric of Dorset. On the contrary he never ceased to regret that the 
county of Wilts had been dismembered in an ecclesiastical sense when 
the Deaneries of Chippenham, Malmesbury, and Cricklade were in 
1837 taken from the Diocese of Salisbury and handed over to Gloucester 
and Bristol. In his view a Bishop should be in a position of sufficient 
importance and authority to be able to speak and act not merely in the 
interests of a small district, but in the interests of the Church at large. 
It was indeed characteristic of him that in all things he took a peculiarly 
wide and statesmanlike view of things. In Church matters he was 
essentially a non-party man, and he declined to say " Shibboleth " at 
anybody's bidding. " Partisan societies, partisan religious publications, 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 289 

have become the noxious solvents of clerical brotherhood and the 
enemies of united progress." Throughout his episcopate the object 
really nearest to his heart was the reunion of Christendom. His in- 
terest in the Old Catholics, in the Reform movement in Italy, in the 
ancient Churches of the East, in the Church of Sweden, and in the 
Established Church of Scotland, sprung from this. His journeys to 
the United States, to Jerusalem and the East, to Germany and Austria, 
and to Sweden, were far from being mere tours of pleasure. They were 
undertaken because he believed that by personal contact with the 
leaders of the many and various Churches he might at least do some- 
thing to clear away misunderstandings and to pave the way for a closer 
union in the future. The consequence was that in our time no English 
Bishop has been so widely known outside the shores of England, and 
no living Bishop holds the position that he held as the exponent of the 
learning and the scholarship of the Anglican Church. All this is well 
brought out in this very interesting " Life." The point that is perhaps 
hardly sufficiently insisted on, is, that with all these literally world-wide 
interests and activities, no Bishop of Salisbury ever before knew his 
diocese from end to end as he did, or was better acquainted with the 
circumstances and the character and the needs of each individual parish 
and the clergy and laity who worked in it. 

Report of the Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Soc. 
For the year ending Christmas, 1914. No. 63. 

The most important piece of news in this report is that Mr. E. 
Meyrick, F.K.S., who has been the life and soul of the Society as its 
President for the last 26 years, is resigning that position. It is no 
injustice to many other excellent workers in that long period, to say 
that the position that the Society holds to-day, amongst similar bodies, 
especially in the matter of entomology, is due to the unwearied work 
and unrivalled knowledge in this particular branch, of its Ex-President. 
The Report contains the usual statement of good work done in the 
various branches during the past year, though there is nothing very 
exciting in the way of new finds. A Lesser Redpole's nest was found 
at Aldbourne, a Snipe's nest was cut out by mowers in a water meadow 
at Preshute, a flock of Curlew were seen near the Devil's Den, a small 
flock of Waxwings were also seen, and the Marsh Warbler again nested 
at Marlborough. Mr. T. W. Kirkpatrick reports that the list of local 
Diptera has been increased by the addition of 135 species not hitherto 
recorded from the district. In all about 350 species were noticed. This 
work upon the Flies is a notable advance in Wiltshire Entomology. 

A good photograph of the Norman West Door of St. Mary's, 
Marlborough, and others of Bishop's Cannings Church, and of the 
Compton Bassett Screen, are given. 

Wiltshire Notes & Queries. No. 89. March, 1915. 

The Rev. R. E. H. Duke opens the number with "An account of the 
family of Duke of Lake." The earliest Duke mentioned in Wilts is 

290 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

John Due, bailiff itinerant 1404. The first who resided at Lake was 
Michael Duke, who was tenant for life. His grandson, George, pur- 
chased the manor from John Capelyn, and also a messuage in Lake 
from William Tren chard. His eldest son, John, of Lake, was sheriff 
1639 — 40. His eldest son was George Duke, of Salterton, in Great 
Durnford, who died in 1655. The pedigree of the Dukes is traced in 
considerable detail, with a Schedule of the Rents of the farm at Lake, 
1685 — 1689, and an Inventory of the goods of George Duke at Lake, 
1692. Two illustrations are given : " The South- West Prospect of Lake 
House," (by Charles Hinxman, after the alterations made by Edw. Duke) 
and "TheJNorth-West Prospect of Lake House " (by Edw. Duke, F.S.A., 
from Buckler's drawings). Records of Marden, Extracts from the 
" Gentleman's Magazine " relating to Wiltshire, and " Marriage Bonds 
of the Peculiar Court of the Dean and Chapter of Sarum " are con- 
tinued from^previous numbers. Mr. J. J. Hammond prints letters from 
H. P. Wyndham and R. Gough, the author of Sepulchral Monuments, 
as to the tomb on the N.E. side of the chancel of Britford Church 
which is traditionally said to have been brought there from the College 
ofiVaux, at Salisbury. Wyndham suggests that it may be the tomb of 
the Duke of Buckingham, beheaded at Salisbury by order of Richard 
III., and this idea Hoare unfortunately stereotyped by fixing a brass 
plate with an inscription to the monument. Gough, however, in the 
letter here printed, points out that it is of earlier date. A valuable series 
of " Notes on Avebury " by J.S., show that Sir William Sharington re- 
covered the Priory Manor after his attainder and subsequent pardon 
and Isold it to William Dunch, of London (5 Edw. VI.) for .£2200 . 
William settled it on his younger son, Walter, who died 1594. There 
was another manor in Avebury which, with the Rectory, belonged to 
the Abbey of Cirencester, and was held under a lease for 60 years, 
granted before the Dissolution to Thomas Truslowe, and John his son, 
into whose hands this manor apparently passed altogether. On John's 
death in 1593 it passed to Richard Truslowe of Teffont Evias, yeoman, 
the son of John Truslowe, of Hamptworth. The Rectory, however, 
when the Truslowes lease of it expired in 1593, came to Walter Dunch 
under a new lease granted by Q. Eliz. A complicated series of law 
proceedings between the Dunches and Truslowes as to the Manor and 
Rectory followed, in which a Pigeon house was especially in dispute. 
The writer contends that this is the circular pigeon house still standing 
in the Manor Farm yard, on the N. side of the churchyard, which is 
here proved to have been built in 1568 or 1569. It is also noted that 
about 1562 about two bushels of dead men's bones were dug out at the 
west end of the house. The Truslowe property passed later to William, 
son of John Dunch, who in his will mentions his " manor and farm of 
Abre sometimes Truslowes called Bromsdens " as well as " his manor 
and farm of Abre which descended to him from Walter Dunch, his i 
father." In 1639 William Dunch sold part of the Priory Manor to Sir j 
John Stawell, and in 1646 he further sold the rest of his property in 
Avebury, i.e., the Manors and Lordships of Avebury, the Rectory, 
Bromsen Farm, and the Free Chapel of Beckhampton, to Sir Edward 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 291 

Bayntun. His son, Robert Bayntun, in 1681 sold the Manors and 
Rectory to Peter Griffen and John Phelpes, of Avebury. An outline 
of the story of the " White Hand " at Draycot, as given by Burke in 
his Anecdotes of the Aristocracy, is given amongst the replies to queries. 

Wiltshire Notes & Queries No. 90. June, 1915. 

Records of Marden, Extracts from the "Gentleman's Magazine" re- 
lating to Wiltshire, and a Calendar of Feet of Fines for Wiltshire, are 
continued from previous numbers, as are also Notes on Avebury, in 
which the descent of the Manor, the Free Chapel of Beckhampton, the 
Pigeon House, Truslowes, &c, is traced from 1653 downwards. Sir 
Richard Holford settled this property, valued 'at .£12, 400, upon his 
third wife, Susanna, and their children. Stayner Holford, who succeeded 
in 1742, left it to his half-brother, Arthur Jones, who left it to his niece, 
Anne, and her husband, Adam Wilkinson ; he left it to his nephew, 
Richard Jones. The connection of Arthur Jones with Sir Richard 
Holford is explained clearly, but the identity and descent of the two 
manors existing in 1600 still seems something of a mystery. It is 
suggested that the initials on the front of the Manor House, generally- 
read as I.M.D., and referred to one of the Dunch family, should rather 
be read M.I.D.,=Mervin, James, Debora. Sir James Mervin married 
Debora Dunch, widow of Walter, before 1601, the date on the stone, 
and doubtless occupied the house during her life. The account of the 
Family of Duke, of Lake, is also continued, and forms the most im- 
portant part of this number, being illustrated with drawings of the 
Interior of Wilsford Church, 1833, of the Parlour of Lake House, and 
of the Entrance Hall, cir. 1860. The History of the family is carried 
on from Robert, son of George and Elizabeth Duke, who died 1725, and 
was succeeded by his son, Robert, b. 1696, who was succeeded by his 
son, Robert, b. 1724. He was succeeded by his cousin, Edward Duke, 
b. 1731. His son, Edward Duke, b. 1779, was the antiquary and author. 
The case between the Rector and the farmers of Steeple Langford, 
relating to the tithe on wool, in 1745, is printed. 

Wiltshire Notes & Queries. No. 91. Sept., 1915. 

The most important article in this number is the continuation of the 
" Account of the Family of Duke, of Lake," including the four gene- 
rations of Dukes, of Bulford, the last of whom, Richard, who died 1757, 
left half his Bulford property to his sister, Anne, wife of Anthony 
Southby, of South Marston, whose descendants are also traced. A 
folding pedigree is given of the Duke family in Wilts and of their 
connections with Hyde and Hungerford. There are three plates : Lake 
House, a distant view, from a miniatureisteel plate engraving, enlarged ; 
The Mill and Cottages at Lake, from a sketch about 1850; and Dr. 
Edward Duke's House, at Hungerford. Memoranda relating to the 
family of Flower are continued by Mr. A. S. Maskelyne, as are also the 
Calendar of the Feet of Fines for Wiltshire, and Wiltshire Wills proved 
in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Six 14th century deeds re- 
lating to Alderton, since given to the Society's Library, are translated 


292 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, dec 

and printed in full. The Rev. W. Symonds prints the English trans- 
lation of a MS. Feodary of Lands in Wilts, in the British Museum, 
in parallel columns with the 5th List of the Testa de Nevil, to show 
its close correspondence. 

Wiltshire Notes & Queries. No. 92. Dec, 1915. 

The number begins with a useful memoir by Mr. A. Schomberg of 
Thomas Willis, M.D., born 27th January, 1620/1, at Great Bedwyn, in 
a house still standing in Jubilee Lane, an illustration of the house from 
the Gentleman s Magazine and a portrait of Dr. Willis from an old 
print being given, and his will, dated 1675, printed at some length. 
A List of Wiltshire Recusants, from a Subsidy Roll of 4—5 Charles I. is 
given. A note on the organ in Malmesbury Abbey Church shows that 
it is the one built by Abraham Jordan in 1714 for the Church of St. 
Benet Fink, London, which was pulled down in 1844, and was not built 
by Father Schmidt, as local tradition asserts. Extracts from the 
Gentleman's Magazine relating to Wiltshire, and Wiltshire Noncon- 
formists, 1662, by A. Schomberg, and Marriage Bonds of the Prerogative 
Court of the Dean and Chapter of Sarum, are continued from the pre- 
vious number. The Rev. R. E. H. Duke contributes a Wilsford Rent 
Roll of 1499 from a charter in the British Museum. A Pedigree of 
Stumpe, of Malmesbury, and the Marriage Settlement of John Knight 
and Mary Nicholas are the other principal contents. 

Battle Of Ethandune. A " Note on the Site of the Battle " occurs 
on pp. 197 — 199 of " Alfred the Great, the Truth Teller, Maker of 
England, 848—899. By Beatrice Adelaide Lees. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
New York and London. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915." The 
authoress gives the arguments in favour of the Berkshire Eddington, 
the Somerset Edington, and Heddington, Wilts, but sums up decidedly 
in favour of the Wiltshire Edington as best meeting the military diffi- 
culties, and at the same time satisfying the philological requirements 
of Ethandune. " For this site, Yattenden and Yatton may be rejected 
without question, as impossible derivations from the West-Saxon 
Ethandun. Domesday Book shows that the Berkshire Eddington 
comes through Eddevetone from Eadgife-tun ' Eadgifu's town, and the 
Somerset Edington from Edwinetune, ' Edwin's town.' Heddington is 
written Edintone in Domesday Book, but in other early documents 
it has an aspirate, and seems to represent ' Heddingstown.' The 
Wiltshire Edington alone consistently appears as Edendone, a Norman 
form of Ethandune, in Domesday Book, and as Ethendun in the 
thirteenth century. It was granted to Romsey Abbey by King Edgar 
in the tenth century, and is probably the royal manor or ' ham ' 
which Alfred bequeathed to his wife. This philological evidence for 
the identity of Ethandune and Edington is the more valuable since 
the military arguments though pointing on the whole to a like con- 
clusion, are not altogether convincing." 

A photo of "The White Horse on Bratton Hill, near Westbury,. 
Wilts," is given. 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 293 

The Chairing Pearce Collection of Fossils, consisting 

of 22,000 specimens, and especially rich in fossils from the Great Oolite, 
the Bradford Clay, and Forest Marble from the Bradford-on-Avon 
neighbourhood, has been presented to the Bristol Museum. Mr. 
Chaning Pearce was the son of a surgeon at Bradford-on-Avon, where 
he was born July 18th, 1811, and after qualifying at Guy's Hospital 
joined his father in practice at Bradford. Here he began his collection 
which in time came to be recognised as one of the finest in private 
hands in England. He retired from the practice in 1845, and lived at 
Montague House, near Bath, where he built a museum for the collection, 
but died May 11th, 1847, aged 36. The collection was removed later 
to Brixton, under the care of his son. Dr. J. Chaning Pearce, and from 
there to Ramsgate, whence it has now come to the Bristol Museum. 
Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 25th, 1915. 

Dray COt House, near Chippenham. ... By Direction of the 
Right Hon. Earl Cowley. Catalogue of Valuable Antique Furniture, 
Pictures, Tapestries .... Messrs. Nicholas will sell by auction 
on the Premises on Monday, September 20th, 1915, and the four fol- 
lowing days. 

Wrappers, 9fin X 8in., pp. 87, with photo of the House on the cover, 
of the Drawing Room as frontispiece, and 16 good photo plates of 
furniture. The most remarkable lots were, 1067 to 1072, the set of six 
wall panels of old Aubusson Tapestry, decorated in Boucher subjects, 
acquired by the first Earl Cowley when Ambassador to France, (illus- 
tated), which sold for £3300, and the Pair of Bronze enamelled Fire 
Dogs bearing the arms of Charles II. (Lot 1031), which were said to 
have come from Nonsuch Palace, and to have passed with that palace 
into the possession of Sir Robert Long, from whom they descended 
through the Wellesleys to their present owner. These were understood 
to have been bought in at i?545. A Heppelwhite four-post bed (Lot 462), 
with Queen Anne silk embroidered hangings, sold for 160 guineas, an 
oak 17th century bed 90 guineas, a William and Mary Marqueterie 
cabinet 66 guineas, a Red Lac Cabinet 60 guineas, a Charles II. Day 
Bed 60 guineas, a Chippendale Bureau bookcase 75 guineas, a Walnut 
side table, with marble top, 85 guineas For much of the furniture 
only moderate prices were given, for much of it was of only moderate 
excellence and by no means innocent of "restoration," indeed the 
genuineness of some of the chief pieces and even of the Enamel Fire 
Dogs, was afterwards disputed. The total realised was about £10,000. 

[Salisbury Plain] " Canadians in Camp," pp. 31—43, 

one of the six chapters of " The New Army in Training," by Rudyard 
Kipling. Macmillan. 1915. 6d. 

Aldbourne Church and Bells. The reopening of the bells 

after the recasting of the 5th bell and the rehanging of the whole peal 
in a new steel frame, with the replacing of the brick windows in the 

u 2 

294 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, <Scc. 

tower by stone, and the underpinning of the piers of the chancel arch, 
is reported in Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 28th, 1915, with some account of 
the bells by the Archdeacon of Wilts. 

Pitman Centenary, 1913 Centenary Year 1913. 
Sir Isaac Pitman born 4th January, 1813. 
Program of Celebrations at London and Bath, 
Friday, May 23rd, and Saturday May 24th, 

Pamphlet, 8fin. X 5|in., pp., including title, 32. Plans of Bath, and 
London round Stationers' Hall, 2 photos of Stationers' Hall, and 9 
views of Bath, with Catalogue of Exhibition of Portraits, Views, MSS., 
Books, &c, connected with Sir Isaac Pitman and Shorthand, at 
Stationers' Hall. 

Chippenham. French Prisoners of War at, 1796—1900. Note in 
Wiltshire Times, May 1st, 1915. 

Bayliffes Of Chippenham. An accurate note on the descendants 
of William Bayliffe, of the Middle Temple, and Agnes, d. of Gabriel 
Pleydell, of Monkton (Chippenham), who settled at Monkton about 
1580, down to the present day is given in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 
8th, 1915. 

Great Hailstorm in North Wilts. Accounts of the ex 

traordinary hailstorm which fell upon the Malmesbury district of N. 
Wilts on Sunday, July 4th, 1915, appear in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 
8th, 1915. At Crudwell, Charlton, Oaksey, Minety, Garsdon, and 
especially at Eastcourt, gardens and crops were completely wrecked 
and thousands of panes of glass broken by a cannonade of hailstones 
"as big as hen eggs." Some actually measured 6| inches in circum- 
ference, and on some farms the damage done was estimated at from 
£500 to £1000. 

[Marlborough College.] The second of a series of articles on 
"Schools and the Boys" in Country Life, July 10th, 1915, pp. 68 — 9 
gives the characteristic features of Marlborough and of five other schools. 

Marlborough. No. VII. of a series of articles on "English Public 
Schools," in Country Life, March 25th, 1916, pp. 385—388, with 6 good 
photographs : — " On the Downs," " In the Adderley Library," " The 
Chapel," " In the Courtyard," " Entrance to the Old Building," " The 
College Kitchen." The letterpress by J. B. is essentially for Marlburians 
and none'others, a series of recollections of boys, of dogs, and of masters, 
delightful to those to whom the key of memory is given. 

Wiltshire Country Gentlemen in the War. Two 

articles in Country Life, July 10th and 17th, 1915, on " What the 
Country Gentleman has done for the War. Wiltshire and Dorsetshire " 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, Sec. 295 

pp. 44 — 46, 81 — 82. The first of these articles deals with Dorset, the 
second with Wilts. The 2nd Wilts was with the 7th Division. They 
held their trenches from Oct. 18th — 21st, when in the German general 
attack the " Regiment was completely wrapped up by the masses of their 
opponents and nearly the whole battalion killed, wounded, or captured. 
As a fighting unit the 2nd Wilts was knocked out, but it had gained 
undying glory." The 1st Battalion had 18 days' continuous fighting at 
La Bassee and lost nearly 500 men. The members of the principal 
leading families of Wilts serving in the forces are mentioned, with 
excellent photographs of the late Lieut. Percy Wyndham, of Clouds, and 
of his cousin, Lieut. Geo. Heremon Wyndham, of the Devon Regt. 

The Wiltshire portion of the article was reprinted in the Wiltshire 
Times, July 24th, 1915. 

Alfred Williams. Pitman's Journal had an article, reprinted in 
The Wiltshire Gazette, June 24th, 1915. giving a number of interesting 
particulars of the life of the Hammerman Poet. Born at 8. Marston 
in 1877 he began work as a half-timer on a farm, and on leaving school 
became a regular farm boy until at 14 he entered Swindon G.W.K. 
works as a rivet lad. After a while he became a steam hammer driver, 
finally becoming a hammerman engaged in forging and stamping, and 
he remained so until recently. He taught himself shorthand largely dur= 
ing meal times at the works. At 21 he first acquired a taste for literature 
through reading an anthology. He then joined the correspondence 
classes in English Literature conducted from Ruskin College, Oxford, 
of which he remained a member for four years. He then studied Latin, 
and afterwards Greek and French, all three of which he mastered, at 
the same time leaving home every morning at 5 o'clock on a four mile 
walk to Swindon and his work. He published his first volume of poems 
in 1909. His published works of poetry up to the present are as follows : 
Songs in Wiltshire, 1909 ; Poems in Wiltshire, 1911 ; Nature and other 
Poems, 1912 ; Cor Cordium, 1913. His prose works are : A Wiltshire 
Village, 1912 ; and Villages of the White Horse, 1913. The Wilts and 
Gloucestershire Standard is publishing serially (June, 1915) a new work, 
" Round about the Upper Thames." 

The Wansdyke (visited by the Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc, at 
Englishcombe, June 25th, 1914). Notes by Albany F. Major in Proc. 
Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc, LX. Pt. I., pp. 62—67, 1914. The 
author explained that he had spent three or four days prior to the 
meeting in following the line of the Dyke from the point a little west 
of Bathford, where it left the Roman Road, to Maesknoll, some 3 miles 
S. of Bristol, the furthest point west to which it could be traced with 
certainty. Collinson says (Hist, of Somerset) that it went to Portishead , 
but Hoare could not confirm this, though some traces of the Dyke were 
found at Yanley Street, 2 or 3 miles north-west of Maesknoll. From 
Bathford to Bathampton Camp its course is fairly clear, but from this 
point on in the near neighbourhood of Bath it has been largely obliter- 
ated. A section of a ditch in a quarry S. W. of Bathampton Camp may be 

296 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

that of the Dyke, but if so the course shown on Ordnance Maps is not 
correct. At the head of Horsecombe Vale, it reappears near the Cross 
Keys inn, on the Frorne Road, and runs in a straight line due W., f -mile 
to Odd Down touching the Fosseway close to Burnt House Inn. 
Boundary walls and hedges run along the top of the vallum all the 
way. Near Odd Down a quarry known as Wansdyke Quarry, on the 
N. side of the Dyke, shows two sections of the ditch, which is here 
7ft. 6in. deep from the top of the silting, and probably 8ft. 6in. from 
the original surface, with a width of 24ft. ; the vallum being about 4ft. 
high above the edge of the ditch. The ditch here is excavated out of 
solid rock. Two good photos of the sections in this quarry are given. 
Form Odd Down to Englishcombe and on to Maesknoll the course of 
the Dyke can be traced with approximate certainty, though it is no 
longer visible for considerable stretches. Cuttings made through the 
Dyke at Englishcombe and Claverton Down made by the Bath Branch 
of the Somerset Arch. Soc. (Proc. Bath Branch Som. Arch. Soc, vol. 
1904— 1 90S, pp. 54), produced no conclusive evidence of date. 

Devizes, St. Mary's. Bells rehung. The proposal to recast 

the six bells into a peal of eight on the ground of their unmusical tone 
was strongly opposed by the Wilts Archaeological Society at the enquiry 
held by the Chancellor before granting the faculty. The matter, 
however, ended in the faculty for the recasting being granted. On the 
breaking out of the war, however, in 1914, it was decided to postpone 
the question of recasting the peal until after the war, whilst the work of 
rehanging the existing bells in a new iron frame was proceeded with, and 
on its completion a re-opening service was held on Aug. 28th, 1915, at 
which the Archdeacon of Wilts (Ven. E. J. Bodington) gave an address 
on the history of the bells, all of which were probably founded in Wilts, 
at Salisbury and Aldbourne. This address is printed in full in Wiltshire 
Gazette, Sept. 2nd, 1915. The cost of the rehanging has been £280, of 
which i!l71 had been secured. The recasting of the peal — which it is 
much to be hoped may now never be proceeded with — would cost an 
additional £1 15. 

" The Thames from Lechlade to Cricklade," by Leonard 

J. Brown, an article in the December, 1915, number of the G. W. Railway 
Magazine, is reprinted in the Wiltshire Gazette for Dec. 30th, 1915, 
under the heading " By Canoe from Lechlade to Cricklade." The 
course of the river and the many obstacles which it presents to the 
progress of any kind of boat are described step by step. 

Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury. A Commemora- 
tion. A short sketch of Burnet's life and character on the 200th 
anniversary of his death, by A. H. T. C(larke, Rector of Devizes), is 
printed in the Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 16th, 1915. The writer regards 
him as one of the Church's " greatest Bishops and most saintly of 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &,c. 297 

Westbury. Notices of Deaths, Marriages, &c, of Westbury people in 
the early 19th Century, printed in Wiltshire Times, May 29th, 1915. 

St. Aldhelm's Life and Times, a long address by Bp. G. F. 

Browne (late of Bristol) to the Swindon Branch of the Workers Edu- 
cational Association, during their visit to Malmesbury Abbey, May 
29th, is printed in full in Wiltshire Gazette, June 3rd, 1915. He 
mentions that it is proposed in the Revised Book of Common Prayer 
to restore St. Aldhelm's name to the calendar on May 25th. 

Salisbury, South Wilts, and Blackmore Museum. 

Annual Report. Salisbury Journal, July 31st, 1915. 

Recollections of an Admiral's Wife, 1903—16. By 
Jdady Poore. With a Portrait. London : Smith, 
Elder, & Co., 15, Waterloo Place. 1916. 

Linen, 8iin. X 5£in. pp. xii. + 344. Printed by Bradbury, Agnew, 
& Co., London and Tonbridge. A portrait of Lady Poore as frontispiece. 

Sir Edward Poore sold Rushall in 1830; his grandson, Sir Richard 
Poore, sold Knighton, on Salisbury Plain, where he had lived as a boy, 
to the War Office, in 1898, still retaining Durrington Manor. He 
bought the house at Winsley Corner (formerly known as Winsley 
Chase), in 1904, and it is with the settling down here after the roving 
life of a sailor's wife that Lady Poore begins her very pleasant recol- 
lections. The book indeed is divided into three sections, the life in 
the country at Winsley, from 1904 to 1908, where she identified herself 
with the interests of the parish and the neighbourhood ; secondly, the 
period at Sydney, during which Sir Richard Poore was Commander-in- 
Chief on the Australian Station, 1908 — 1911; and thirdly, that at 
Chatham, from 1911 to the end of 1914, when he held the command at 
the Nore. Lady Poore tells many a good story, but she never writes 
an unkind word of anyone, and if she is quick to see the humorous 
side, she is generally quick to see the best side, alike of places and 
things and men. Of Winsley and its country interests she writes most 
sympathetically, Australia was for her a kind of earthly Paradise, even 
of Chatham she came to see that it had a good side. Wherever she was 
she set to work to take her share and more than her share in the life 
and interests of the people and the place ; at Winsley the establishment 
and maintenance of the parish nurse, in Australia the furtherance in 
every way of good feeling between the mother country and the people 
of the Commonwealth, at Chatham the more poignant interests of the 
war and all that it meant to the place whose ships have suffered more 
severely than those of any other British port. The loss of her only 
son, Lieut. Roger Poore, though she says little about it, only made her 
throw herself with more complete sympathy than ever into the work 
of comforting and caring for the wives and children of the sailors of 
the fleet, which had really always been, even in peace time, the chief 
interest of her life. 

298 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

Stanton Fitz warren Churchyard Cross. A drawing and 

a descriptive note of this cross, a copy (except for the figures in the 
head) of that at St. Mary's, Cricklade, erected at Stanton Fitz warren 
as a memorial to the men of the parish who have fallen in the war, 
appear in the Bristol Diocesan Magazine for April, 1916. " The Soldier 
and the Cross, an address by Canon Caldwell Masters, M.A. (Rector), 
on Sunday, January 23rd, 1916, at the Dedication of the Churchyard 
Cross, St. Leonard, Stanton Fitz warren, Price Sixpence, Printed and 
Published by Morris Bros., Advertiser Office, Swindon, 1916," is pub- 
lished in pamphlet form. 

Notes on the English Ancestry of the Whittier and 
Rolfe Families, of New England, 1912. By Charles 

Collyer Whittier, of Boston, Mass. Pamphlet, 9|in. X 6^in. 14 pp. 
Reprinted from the " New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register," July, 3 912. 

This is a valuable genealogical collection of wills and entries in 
parish registers concerning the two families with which it. deals. It 
contains abstracts of the wills of John Whiteheare, of Landford, 1571 ; 
Henry Why tear, of Landford, 1583 ; John Whitear, of Pensworth, in 
Downton, 1593; John Whittyer, of Whiteparish, 1601 ; Will Whyteer, 
of Whiteparish, 1603 ; Agnes Whiteyeare of Landford, 1607 ; Margaret 
Whitier, of Whiteparish, 1630 ; Whittier entries in the registers of 
Whiteparish, 1559—1655, and in those of Andover, Hants, 1586—1650. 
There are abstracts of Rolfe wills, John, of Downton, 1519 ; Henry, of 
Hamptworth, inDownton,1546; Henry, of Hamptworth, 1558 ; Richard, 
of Hamptworth, 1567 ; William, of Plaitford, 1573; Henry, of Hampt- 
worth, 1579 ; Richard, of Hamptworth, 1598 ; Alice, of Hamptworth, 
1604; John, of Whiteparish, 1624; Thomas, of Whiteparish, 1629; 
John, of Hamptworth, 1662 ; and Rolfe entries in the Whiteparish, 
Downton, and Andover registers, with Rolfe entries in the Salisbury 
marriage licenses, 1615 — 1634. 

The Centenary of the Wiltshire Gazette." On 

January 6th, 1916, the Wiltshire Gazette published a Centenary Number. 
George Simpson (born at Truro, 1792, died 1871, the son of George, 
born 1760, the son of Joseph and Ann Simpson, of Burslem, Staffs,) 
established, on January 4th, 1816, at "The Halle of John Halle," in 
Salisbury, Simpsons Salisbury Gazette and Wilts, Hants, Dorset, and 
Somerset Advertiser. In July, 1819, the Gazette was removed to Devizes 
and appeared on July 1st in that year as The Devizes and Wiltshire 
Gazette, and from that date it has been continuously published from 
different offices in the Market Place. The Centenary Number gives 
details of all these buildings. On the founder's death (1871) his son, 
George (1818 — 1900), succeeded him as proprietor and editor until 1886, 
when he retired, handing on the management to his son, George, the 
present proprietor, who was born at Devizes, 1854. An account of the 
various sizes of the Gazette from its foundation to the present time, 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors. 299 

with a reproduction of the opening page of the first issue in 1816, is 
given, together with portraits of the three George Simpsons, and views 
of the interior of the Halle of John Halle ; No 23, Market Place, 
Devizes ; and of "Devizes Market Place 100 years ago, from a contem- 
porary water colour drawing sketched in 1816." Mr. R. S. Gundry has 
an article, " A Hundred Years," comparing the condition of things then 
and now, and there are a series of excerpts from old files of the Gazette. 
A very interesting issue. 

A Collection of Verses. By James Dolman, for over 
50 years a Thatcher on Koundway Farm, Devizes. 
Devizes : Printed by George Simpson, 14, Market 

Pamphlet, l\in. X 4fin., pp., including title, 50. The Introduction 
by Edward Coward, dated Koundway, 1911, tells us that these poems 
have been printed from MS. found amongst his father's papers. The 
writer lived in Devizes and was entirely self-educated. The poems, 
dating from 1799 to 1830, have been in no way touched up, and are — 
considering their authorship and date— quite remarkable. They deal 
with the events of the Farm, Harvest Home, Sheep Shearing, &c, and 
often give a detailed account of the weather of the seasons with which 
they deal. 

11 The Earldom Of Pembroke." One of a series of articles on 
" The Patriotism of Historic British Families " in The Lady's Pictorial, 
autumn number, 1915, with portraits of Will. Herbert, 1st Lord 
Pembroke, and the present Earl and Countess. Reprinted Salisbury 
Journal, Oct. 23rd, 1915. 

The Character of Bishop Burnet." Sermon preached by 

Canon Douglas Macleane, at Salisbury Cathedral, at the Commein- 
moration Service, Nov. 2nd, 1915. Text, Eccles., viii., 12. Salisbury 
Journal, Nov. 6th, 1915. 


Amy J, Baker. "The Snake Garden: a Tale of South Africa. 
London : John Long, Limited. 1915." 
Noticed, Wiltshire Gazette, July 15th, 1915. 

Charles Bathurst, M.P. (for S. Wilts.) "To avoid National 
Starvation. With a Preface by Lord Charles Beresford, M.P. London. 
Hugh Rees, Ltd., 5, Regent Street, S.W. 1912." Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 28. 

300 Books and Articles by Wiltshire, Authors. 

Ven. E, J. Bodington, Archdeacon of Wilts. Sermon 

preached in Calne Church, on Sunday, Feb. 28th, 1915, on occasion of 
visit of Band and Recruiting Party of 7th Wilts Regt. Text, Ps. 
cxxxii., 5. Printed in full in Wiltshire Gazette, March 4th, 1915. 

Sermon at Induction of Rev. A. H. T. Clarke as Rector of 

Devizes, Sept. 24th, 1915. Printed in full in Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 
30th, 1915. 

Address at the Re- opening of the Bells of St. Mary's, 

Devizes, Aug. 28th. Printed in Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 2nd, 1915. 

Sermon at St. John's, Devizes, on Hospital Sunday, Aug. 

28th, 1915. Printed in Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 2nd, 1915. 

Anna E. BunstOn. "German Soldier Songs." Art. in British 
Revieiv, Feb., 1915. 

H. Brakspear, F.S.A. " Dudley Castle," an elaborate architectural 
paper in Archoeological Journal, vol. lxxi. (No. 281), pp. 1 — 24, with 
two large folding coloured plans and 1 1 photos. Sir William Sharington's 
work in the dwelling house part of the castle is fully described and its 
features compared with his better-preserved work at Lacock. 

E. M. Caillard (of Wingfield Ho., Trowbridge. "The Church and 
New Knowledge." Longmans. 1915. 2s. 6c?. net. 
Noticed, Commonwealth, Nov., 1915. 

The Rev. A. H. T. Clarke, Rector of Devizes. "The Dragon, 
the Beast, and the False Prophet." Sermon preached at St. John's 
Church, Devizes, Jan. 2nd, 1916. Printed in full in Wiltshire Gazette, 
Jan. 6th, 1916. 

" The Fulfilment of Prophecy." Article in The Churchman, 

April, 1916, the substance of an address delivered at the Victoria 
Institute, Feb. 21st, 1916. 

Rev, W. H. M. Clarke, Vicar of Westbury. Sermon preached in 
the parish Church at the Church parade of the Westbury Company of 
National Reserves. Printed in Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 24th, 1914. 

J. Currie, CM.Gr., of Upper Upham. " The Sacrifice of the Wiltshire 
Child." Article on Education and the releasing of children for farm 
work, in The New Statesman, April 8th, 1916. 

Canon C. T. DilllOllt, Principal of Salisbury Theological College. 
Sermon preached on Ascension Day, May L3th, 1915, at Salisbury 
Cathedral. Printed in Salisbury Journal, May 15th, 1915. 

Sermon at Cathedral Sept. 29th, 1915, on " The Angels at 

Mons." Printed in Salisbury Journal, Oct. 2nd, 1915. 

The Rev. C S. Earle, Rector of Little Langford. "The Village 
Postmistress." Art. in The Cornhill Mag., March, 1915. 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors, 301 

T. Geoffrey W. HenslOW, (S. of Rector of Zeals. Formerly curate 
of Chippenham and Rector of Stanton St. Quintin). " Ye Sundial 
Booke," Illustrated by D. Hartley. London. Edwin Arnold, 1914. 

Noticed, Spectator, Dec. 5th, 1814. Contains a great number of 
mottoes for sundials. 

A long series of original poems appeared week by week in 

the Wiltshire Gazette from February to August, 1915. 

"Scented Roses." Article in My Gar den, Illustrated, (of 

which he is the editor) Dec, 1914, pp. 352, 353. 

Rev. T. J. Lawrence, M.A., XiXi.D. [Rector of Upton Lovell]. 
" Documents illustrative of International Law, &c." Macmillan & Co. 
1914. 8vo. 7s. 6d. net. 

! J W. IiOVibond. "The Genesis of Colour." The Tintometer, Ltd., 
Salisbury. 1*. net. Pamphlet. Deals with new theory of development 
of colour. 
Noticed, Salisbury Journal, July 3rd, 1915. 

" Light and Colour Theories." E. &F. Spon. 1915. 6s. 

Records the series of experiments which led to his invention of the 
Tintometer, &c. 
Noticed, Salisbury Times, Sept. 24th, 1915. 

Canon C, D. H. MC Millan. "The Sleeping Cardinal and other 
Sermons preached in Malmesbury Abbey by the Rev. C. D. H. Mc 
Millan, M.A., Vicar of Malmesbury and Hon. Canon of Bristol. 
London : Robert Scott, Roxburghe House, Paternoster Row, E.C. 
Linen, 7|in. X 5in. pp. vi. + 103. Price Is. Qd. net. 

Captain H, E, Medlicott, of 3rd Skinner's Horse, LA., second son 
of H. E. Medlicott, of Potterne, a mighty Pig-sticker, is the author of 
a chapter in " Modern Pig-Sticking," by Major A. E. Wardrop, R.H.A. 
Illustrated. 8vo. Macmillan. London. 1914. 10s. net. 

Prof J.H. Morgan (of Wootton Bassett), Home Office Commissioner 
with General Head Quarters Staff of the British Expeditionary Force 
in b'rance. " Leaves from a Field Note Book." London. Macmillan. 
1916. 5s. net. 
Noticed, Times Lit. Sup., March 9th, 1916. 

' "German Atrocities ; an Official Investigation." T. Fisher 

ITnwin. 1916. 2s. net, cloth. 1 s. net, paper. 

— (and Dr. Baty). " War ; its Conduct and Legal Results." 

— " With the French Armies." Art. in Nineteenth Century 

Mag., April, 1916. 

— " When the Men come Home." Art. in Land and Water, 

April 13th, 1916, pp. 15, 16 (on the effect of war training on men). 

302 Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors. 

Sir Henry Newbolt (of Netherhampton). "Aladore." Blackwood. 
1914. 6s. 
Noticed, Times Lit. Sup., Dec. 10th, 1914. 

— — — - " The Book of the Blue Sea." Longmans. 1914. , 5s. net. 
Noticed, Times Lit. Sup., Dec. 10th, 1914. Sea stories for boys. 

"The Story of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire 

Light Infantry" (the old 43rd and 52nd Regts.). Country Life, Ltd., 
20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.U. 1915. 6s. net. 9|in. X 5f in. 
pp. 224. 

"Clifton College." No. IV. in series of articles on 

"English Public Schools" in Country Life, Dec. 4th, 1915. pp. 4. 
With three photographic views and 8 portraits — one of Sir Henry 
Newbolt himself. 

■ ■ "The Book of the Thin Red Line." London: Longmans, 

Green, & Co. 1915. Price 5s. net. Noticed Salisbury Journal, Nov. 
6th, 1915. A book of Military adventure, &c, for boys. 

Ella KToyes (of Sutton "Veny). "Saints of Italy." Legends re-told 
with illustrations by Dora Noyes after the Old Masters. J. M. Dent, 
small cr. 4to. 4s. 6c?. net. 

"The Casentino and its Story." Twenty-five coloured 

and other illustrations by Dora Noyes. Cloth. Fcap. 4to. 10s. 6d. net. 

"Ferrara." In " The Medieval Towns " series. 7in.X4|in. 

Cloth, 4s. 6c?. net. Leather, 5s. 6d. net. 

Very Rev. W, Page Roberts, Dean of Salisbury. 

Shakespeare Memorial Sermon preached at Stratf ord-on-Avon Church, 
April 25th, 1915. Printed in Salisbury Journal, May 1st, 1915. 

Sermon preached at Trowbridge Church, at the Crabbe 

Centenary Celebration. Text, Ecclus., xliv., 1—5. Printed in full, 
Salisbury Journal, June 27th, 1914. 

Sermon preached in St. Paul's Cathedral, Oct. 20th, 1915, 

at Annual National Service for Seafarers. Text, Ps., evil, 24. Printed 
in full, Salisbury Journal, Oct. 23rd, 1915. 

The Rev. G. H. Parsons, Curate of St. John's, Devizes. A sermon 
preached to the Wilts Yeomanry, at St. John's Church, on Aug. 9th. 
Printed in full in Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 13th, 1914. 

The Earl Of Pembroke. "Riding Lessons for Children," with 
4 illustrations, article in Country Life, Dec. 25th, 1915, pp. 3. 

Miss Helen A'C. Penruddocke, P.R.Cr.S. Short article on 

" Social Stiffness unknown in the Colonies," Daily Graphic, Ap. 15th, 
1914- short article in series "Woman's Discontent and why," on 
"Emigration the Cure," Ibid, July 6th, 1914. " A Woman's Work on 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors. 303 

a British East African Farm," with 3 photos by the author, art. in 
Queen, May 2nd, 1914. " Rice Planting in Japan," with photos, art. in 
Country Life, April 14th, 1914. 

C. E. Fonting, F.S.A. The Church of John the Evangelist, Milborne 
Port. Somersetshire Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 1914 
Part II., Vol. LX., pp. 46—54. These are the careful notes on the 
Church specially prepared for the Shaftesbury Meeting of the Wilts 
Arch. Soc. in 1914, when this Church was visited. The Paper is 
illustrated by four good photographs. 

E. T. JPye Smith, of Salisbury. " Agricultural Development through 
Social Order. London : the Stepney Press, 43, White House Lane, E." 
Pamphlet, 8in. X 5in. pp., including title, 15. Preface dated 
Salisbury, Nov., 1914. A paper advocating Agricultural Cooperation s 
&c, which was intended to be read at the meeting of the Incorporated 
Law Society at Hereford in 1914. 

E. A. ILawlence, of Salisbury. "Sundry Folk-Lore Reminiscences 
relating to Man and Beast in Dorset and the Neighbouring Counties," 
a paper read at the December, 1915, meeting of the Dorset Field Club, 
printed in Dorset County Chronicle, and in Salisbury Times Jan. 7th, 

Rt. Rev. F. E. Ridgeway, D.D., Bp. of Salisbury, 

"The Horror of War." Sermon preached in Cathedral Aug. 9th, 1914. 
Text, Rev.,xii., 7. Printed in Salisbury Journal, Aug. 15th, 1914. 

" New Year's Letter." Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, Jan., 

1915. Reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 7th, 1915. 

Address to Diocesan Synod at Salisbury. Printed in full, 

Wiltshire Gazette, Ap. 15th, 1915. 

Sermon preached at Trowbridge Parish Church, Sept. 29th, 

1915, at Diocesan Missionary Intercession Service. Printed in full in 

Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 30th, 1915. 

New Year's Letter. Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, reprinted 

in Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 6th, 1916. 

F. Robinson, North St., Wilton. "The Battle of Mons : The Grand 
Charge of the Ninth Lancers." 
Pamphlet, 6£in. X 4£in., pp, 8. Verses. [1915.] 

' Evelyn St. Ledger." (Mrs. Randolph, of Eastcourt House, near 
Malmesbury.) "The Tollhouse." Price 3s. 6d. London : Smith, Elder, 
& Co. 1915. 

Cloth, 7Jin. X 5^in., pp. 4 + 147. Story of a village in war time. 
No special local colour. 

Noticed, Wiltshire Gazette, Ap. 15th, 1915. 

304 Wiltshire Illustrations and Pictures. 

Ven. RaveilSCroft Stewart, Archdeacon of N. Wilts. Charge 
delivered at Chippenham, Ap. 13th. Printed in Wiltshire Gazette, Ap. 
15th, 1915. 

Brig. Gen. P. Gr. Stone. " The Rights of Ulster as a Belligerent ? " 
Art. in Nineteenth Century, Ap., 1914. 

" The ' Guiltless ' German People." Article in Nineteenth 

Century, Oct.. 1914. Art. VIII. (2). 

" Theta." "The Eagles and the Carcase, by ' Theta.' Morgan, Son, & 
Co., 88—90, Chancery Lane, W.C. 1915. 2s. 6d. net." An application 
of Biblical prophecies to the present war. By a Woodford lady. 
Noticed, Salisbury Journal, July 19th, 1915. 

Mrs. Mary Tucker. A long series of original poems, many of them 
with reference to the war, in the Wiltshire Gazette during 1915 and 1916. 

Alfred Williams (of South Marston). " War Sonnets and Songs." 
London : Erskine Macdonald. M'CMXVI. 

Cloth, Sin. X 5£in., pp., including title, 86. Dedicated to John 
Robert Biddiscombe. Printed by W. Mate and Sons, Bournemouth. 
Forty-four poems, most of which had appeared in the Swindon Advertiser 
or the Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard. 


1st South Western Brigade Field Ambulance, R.A.M.C, at Swindon, and 
The Transport Section, two photo groups. Wiltshire News, March 12th, 
1915. 3rd Wessex R.F.A., Sigalling Squad, Swindon Men, Wiltshire 
News, March 26th, 1915. Soldiers as gardeners in a Wiltshire Camp, 
Daily Mirror, Ap. 20th, 1915. 

Wiltshire Regiment — Signalling Company of the lst/4th Wilts at Delhi, 
Wiltshire News, March 12th, 1915. Sergeants of the 4th Batt. at Delhi, 
Wiltshire Gazette, April 1st, 1915. Band of 7th Wilts leaving Marborough 
on recruiting tour, Daily Telegraph, Feb. 24th ; Ditto Marching through 
Sherston, Ibid, Feb. 27th ; Ditto, Daily Mirror, Feb. 27th, 1915 ; Drum; 
and Fife Band, 4th Wilts, at Poona, Wiltshire News, Ap. 2nd ; Swindon] 
Men in India, group, Ibid, Ap. 16th ; Swindon N.C.O.s in India, Ibid,, 
Ap. 23rd ; 8th Wilts Long Service Members, Wiltshire Times, Ap. 24th ; 
Silver Centrepiece presented by the Officers of the Regt., 1st Wilts, 
Queen, May 8th, 1915 ; 4th Wilts, Winners of the Cross Country Racej 
group, Wiltshire Gazette, May 13th, 1915 ; Some Members of M. Co. J 
4th Wilts, at Delhi, Wiltshire News, May 14th, 1915 ; Group from 1st 
Wilts R.F.A. in India, Wiltshire News, June 4th, 1915 ; Group of 
Drivers of 1st Wilts Battery R.F.A., in India, Wiltshire News, Junej 
25th; Some of the Swindon Men of the 2nd Wilts R.F.A. in India.! 
Wiltshire News, June 18th, 1915. Officers and N.C.O's of 4tl 

Wiltshire Illustrations and Pictures. 305 

Wilts, at Poona, Salisbury Journal, June 26th, 1915. Swindon Men 
of the 7th Wilts at Sutton Veny, Wiltshire News, July 9th, 1915. 
Trowbridge Territorials for the Persian Gulf, group, Wiltshire Times, 
July 17th, 1915. Adjutant and Drums of the 8th Wilts, Wiltshire News, 
July 23rd, 1915. Group of 4th Wilts at Cheddar, Wiltshire News, 
Aug. 13th, 1915. lst/4th Wilts, Second Draft for Persian Gulf, photo 
group, Wiltshire Times, Sept. 18th, 1915. Wilts Prisoners of War in 
Germany (group at Gottingen), photo, Wiltshire Times, Sept. 25th, 1915. 
Melksham Territorials (2nd/4th Wilts Regt.), in Poona, photo group, 
Wiltshire Times, March 8th, 1916. 4th Foreign Service Battalion, 
Salisbury Journal, Oct. 10th, 1914. Chippenham Company of 4th 
Wilts at Delhi, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 18th; Wiltshire Times, Feb. 
20th, 1915. Devizes Company of 1st Reserve, Wilts, at Poona, Wiltshire 
Gazette, Feb. 25th, 1915. Group of Wiltshires in the trenches, and 
portrait of Sergt. F. Hancock, Wiltshire Times. March 6th, 1915. 
Swindon Men in H. Company, 4th Wilts, at Delhi, Wiltshire News, 
March 5th, 1915. The 7th Wilts Regimental Band, Wiltshire Gazette, 
March 4th, 1915. Trowbridge Company, 4th Wilts, at Delhi, Wiltshire 
Times, March 20th, 1915. Swindon Men in India, 2nd Batt. 4th Wilts, 
at Poona ; 3rd Wilts Depot Battery of 3rd Wessex Depot Brigade, 
R.F.A., Foreign and Home Service Sections, Wiltshire News, March 
19th, 1915. Lt. G. Locker Lampson's Troop. [Wiltshire Yeomanry.] 
Salisbury Journal, Feb. 26th, 1916. 
I Salisbury Plain. King and Queen inspecting buildings for troops, Queen, 
Oct. 10th, 1914. Military Review, four photos, Salisbury Journal 
June 27th, 1914. Canadians find the old Country " Stuck in the Mud," 
eight photos of scenes on the Plain, on one page, Daily Mirror, Nov. 
24th, 1914. The King and Lord Kitchener inspecting the Canadian 
Troops, Queen, Mar. 20th, 1915. Canadians' Camp, Queen, Nov. 28th, 
1914. Canadian Troops passing Stonehenge, Daily Mail, Nov. 9th, 
1914. The Canadians in the Floods, Scenes at Larkhill, two photos, 
Daily Mail, Jan. 4th, 1915. With the Canadians at Salisbury, seven 
photos on one page, Daily Graphic, Nov. 26th, 1914. Floods — Soldiers 
making temporary bridges ; Mounted Men in Water ; Soldier Wading 
along roadway, three photos, Daily Mirror, Jan. 6th, 1915. Floods 
in Wiltshire Lanes, Star, Jan. 5th, 1915. Marriage of Lieut. Edmiston, 
of the 19th Alberta Dragoons, at Netheravon, three photos, Daily Mirror 
Jan. 14th, 1915. Flooded Thoroughfare at Downton ; Where Canadian 
was drowned at Amesbury, two photos, Salisbury Journal Jan. 16th, 

Stonehenge,Parade of the 8th Batt. 90th Winnipeg Rifles, at. Photo, Queen, 
Jan.23rd,1915. Stonehenge from a War Balloon. Photo. An Introduction 
to Field Archaeology, 1915. 

Salisbury. Wilts Musical Festival, Massed Choirs. Two photos. Salisbury 
Journal, April 25th, 1914. Group of Special Constables at the Council 
Chamber. Photo. Ibid, Aug 29th, 1914. 

Winterslow. Village Industries, Spinning and Weaving, Three photos. 
Daily Mirror, June 5th, 1914. 

306 Wiltshire Illustrations and Pictures. 

Codford. " Tipperary Tea Hut " for troops, Photo. Daily Mail, Dec. 18th, 

Aldbourne Church. Photo on appeal for rehanging Bells, 1914. 
Devizes Castle, Gateway and House. Country Life Sup., July 25th, 19 L4. 
Salisbury. War Scenes near the Cathedral (2) ; City Special Constables (2) ; 

Bishop Wordsworth's Memorial. Photos. Salisbury Times, Dec. 25th, 

1914. Cathedral flooded (curious photo of interior of nave). Daily 
Mirror, Jan. 6th, 1915. The Great Flood. "Reflections in the Cathe- 
dral," " The Stream in Fisherton Mill Road," " Boating in Fisherton 
Street," " Cascades in Fisherton Street," " Flooding in Crane Bridge 
Road," " High Water in Water Lane," Six photos, with letterpress 
accounts of the floods. Salisbury Times, Jan. 8th, 1915. "The 
Floods at Salisbury Cathedral "— " N. View," and " From the N. E. 
Corner of the Close." Two photos. Sphere, Jan. 23rd, 1915. "West 
Front of Cathedral," " Back of the Wardrobe in the Close." Two 
photos. Country "Life, Jan. 16th, 1915. Fisherton Street; Food 
for the Marooned in Salisbury. Two photos. Daily Mirror, Jan. 6th, 

1915. Punting inthe Streets. Evening News, Jan. 6th, 1915. Cathedral 
from S.W. ; Another View ; Back View of the Wardrobe ; Fisherton 
Street ; four photos, with letterpress description of the floods. Salisbury 
Journal, Jan. 9th, 1915. " St. Mark's Church, showing the nave ex- 
tension," with account of the opening, Nov. 17th. Photo. Salisbury 
Journal, Nov. 20th, 1915. 

Salisbury Floods, Postman on his Rounds. Daily Telegraph, Jan. 7th, 1915, 
Salisbury Plain. Arrival of Battalion of Canadian Contingent ; Company 

of 7th Batt., 1st. Brit. Columbian Regt. on parade at W. Down South; 

Interior of Hut at Larkhill ; Men of 7th Batt., 1st Brit. Columbian 

Regt., at Larkhill. Four photos on appeal. 
" Wilton House, a Beautiful Walk at." " Chippenham, Part of the Rock 

Garden of George A. White, Esq. : the Iron Well-head originally 

covered the old Town Pump." Two photos. My Garden Illustrated, 

December, 1914. 
Melksham Hockey Club ; 3rd Wilts Regiment Football Team (2). Three 

photos on one sheet. Wiltshire News, Ap. 17th, 1914. 
Battlefield Grave of the Marquis of Lansdowne's son, Lord C. Mercer-Nairne. 

Daily Mail, March 3rd, 1915. 
Seend Manor. Small photo. Land and Water, March 27th, 1915. 
Clouds (House), designed by Philip Webb. Photo. Country Life, May 

8th, 1915. 
Roads damaged by Military traffic i( Wilts, Dorset, Hants, &c). Map. 

Queen, May 15th, 1915. 
Belcombe Court, fBradford-on-Avon. Small photo. Country Life, June 

12th, 1915. 
Amesbury : Abbey (2) ; Stonehenge (2) ; Amesbury House ; Red House 

Farm ; West Amesbury Farm ; Ratfyn ; Countess Farm ; Earlscourt 

Farm. Small photos. Country Life Sup., June 5th and 12th, and 

July 17th, &c, 1915. 
Amesbury Abbey (House). Photo. Estates Gazette and Wiltshire Gazette 

Aug. 5th, 1915. 

Wiltshire Portraits. 307 

Downton, The Moot House. Front View. Photo. Later Renaissance 
Architecture in England, by Belcher and Macartney. 

Stonehenge (a Prehistoric Relic). Photo. Country Life, June 19th, 1915. 

St. Edith's (Bromham). Small photo. Country Life, July 10th and 17th. 

Wroughton. " Unspoiled Manor House," exterior and bedroom. Country 
Life Sup., Aug. 7th, 1915. 

Highworth, Wedding of Miss Laura Arkell and Lieut. Botsford. Wiltshire 
Times, Sept. 10th, 1915. 

Wilton, Railway Smash at. Three photos. Salisbury Journal, Aug. 14th, 

Trowbridge National Guard, a mid- day meal in Camp, making a trench. 
Wiltshire Times, Aug. 14th, 1915. 

Swindon Shop Assistants' Whist Drive and Dance ; Dance at Bradford 
Hall, Swindon ; Fire at Wroughton Hill. Photos. Wiltshire News, 
March 5th, 1915. Swindon Secondary School, Scholarship and Prize 
Winners, and Group of Indian Club Swingers. Two photos. Wiltshire 
News, March 12th, 1915. Swindon Free Church Council Concert. 
Two groups. Wiltshire News, March 26th, 1915. Children's Pageant 
at Mechanics' Institute. Thirteen photos of groups. Wiltshire News, 
May 7th, 1915. 

Swindon. Military Funeral (three photos), Wiltshire Neivs, Ap. 2nd ; 
Wedding and Girl Guides group, Lbid, Ap. 9th ; Wedding and Ladies 
Choir, Ap. 16th ; Primrose Leaguers' Whist Drive and Dance, and 
Belgian Dance, three photos, Lbid, Ap. 23rd ; Swindon Men with 
R.A.M.C. (two groups), and Funeral of Capt. T. Hooper Deacon (two 
photos), Lbid, Ap. 30th, 1915; Wedding of Lieut. A. Lawrence and 
Miss Ruby M. Haynes, two photos, Lbid, May 28th, 1915 ; Volunteer 
Training Corps and Soldier's Wedding, seven photos, Lbid, June 11th, 
1915 ; Boys' Strike, Wedding of Trooper Arthur Ellison, Wounded 
Soldiers Entertained at Swindon, three photos, Lbid, June 18th, 1915 ; 
Technical School Sports, five photos, Lbid, July 9th, 1915 ; Interesting 
Swindon Weddings, and Belgians Entertained at Swindon, four photos, 
Lbid, July 16th, 1915 ; Swindon Men of R.F.A. in India, and Prisoners 
in Germany, two groups, Lbid, July 16th, 1915 ; Commissioned Officers 
of the Swindon and District Volunteer Training Corps, Lbid, July 30th, 
1915. Dog " Bruce," railway collector, Wiltshire Times, Aug. 7th, 1915. 

Lake House. Small Photo. Country Life Sup., Feb. 5th and 12th, 1916. 

Wilts House (not named). Small photo. Country Life Sup., Feb. 19th, 1916. 

[Warminster.] Midget Carthorse works for Charity. Photo. Wiltshire 
Times, Ap. 15th, 1916. 


[Lieut. Hopkins, Qr-Master-Sergt. Stride, E. Moody, J. Fuller, H. Collins, 
Sergt.-Major Biddlecombe, John Elkins, Harold W. Drake, F. Jerred, 
Harry Dyer, Alfred Stone, Edward Fuller,<Charles Hayter, Frank Young 


308 Wiltshire Portraits. 

Walter Stone, Frank Rogers, W. F. Dyer, E. Light, Charles Beauchamp, 

Edgar Sturmey, George Brinson, all of Whiteparish, Six plates in " The 

Call to Arms in Whiteparish, 1914.'" 
Gideon Giles, of Westbury. Photo. Wiltshire News, Ap. 17th, 1914. 
W. C. Martin, of Melksham ; E. H. J. Young, of Limpley Stoke ; Will. J. 

Smith, of Bratton ; Albert J. Davis, of Dilton Marsh. Four photos on 

one page. Wiltshire News, Feb. 27th, 1914. 
Miss Helen A'C Penruddocke, F.R.G.S. Photograph. Daily Graphic, 

July 6th, 1914. 
Thomas William, Ralph, Albert Victor, Joseph Henry, Jesse, and Ernest 

Whatley, six sons of Mrs. Whatley, of Trowbridge, all in the service. 

Six photos. Wiltshire Times, Sept. 19th, 1914. 
F. R. Willis, J. P., of the Cedars, Hilperton Road, Trowbridge, died Oct. 6th, 

1914, aged 83. Photo. Wiltshire Times, Oct. 10th, 1914. 
Capt. Basil E. Peto, M.P. Photo. Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 8th, 1914. 
Archdeacon Carpenter ; J. Macklin (Mayor of Salisbury) ; Rev. J. M. Ward, 

Minister of United Methodist Church ; Rev. J. N. Clarkson, Minister 

of Wilton Road, Wesley Church ; Rev. W. A. S. Merewether, 

Vicar of St. Thomas ; Rev. W. C. Procter, Rector of Fisherton ; J. T. 

Woolley ; S. J. Larcombe (Station-master); Private Ezard(first Salisbury 

man to fall in the War) ; G. Jocelyne ; J. T. Butler ; H. Neesham ; T. 

H. Baker ; all of Salisbury— W. E. J. Stroud (Mayor of Wilton); G. 

H. Buckeridge ; Rev. A. Girling (Congregational Minister); R. G. Coles 

(Borough Surveyor) ; Mrs. Yates ; all of Wilton— together with Dr. 

Samuel Rideal (Prospective liberal Candidate for Salisbury) and Dr. 

Charles Leach'( Prospective Liberal Candidate for S. Wilts). All photos 

on one page of Salisbury Times, Dec. 25th, 1914. 
Quartermaster-Sergt. Tadd (of Trowbridge), of 6th Royal Scots Fusiliers, 

Champion Shot of Aldershot; Pte. William Gillman, 1st Wilts (of 

Trowbridge) ; Mr and Mrs. Elijah Fido, of Corshamside. Three photos. 

Wiltshire Times, Feb. 27th, 1915. 
" Swindon Men Serving," and " West Wilts Men Serving." Under these 

headings the Wiltshire Times published week by week during 1915 

some hundreds of separate photographs of men from these districts 

then serving in the Navy or Army. 
Sergt. Walter Sidnell, of Trowbridge, killed in action at Ypres. Photo. 

Wiltshire Times, Dec. 12th, 1914. 
Rt. Hon. George Wyndham, Bust by Auguste Rodin, included in the Rodin 

gift to the nation. Photos. Country Life, Nov. 21st ; Queen, Dec. 

26th, 1914. 
Daniel and Mrs Sawyer, of Neston. Photo. Wiltshire Times, Dec. 19th, 

Hon. Geoffrey Howard, M.P. for West Wilts. Photo. Wiltshire Times, 

Dec. 26th, 1914. 
Sir C. P. Hobhouse, Bart., with letterpress account of addresses from his 

tenants on his 90th birthday. Photo. Wiltshire Times, Jan. 9th, 1915. 

Wiltshire Portraits. 309 

F. E. Ridgeway, D.D., Bp. of Salisbury. Photo. Home Words, Jan., 1915. 
Corporal Reginald, Sergt. Ralph, and Wilfred Treasure, all of 10th Hussars, 

sons of Inspector Treasure, of the G. W.R. at Westbury. Three photos. 

Wiltshire News, Jan. 8th, 1915. 
Countess of Kerry and her Children. Full-page photo. Country Life, 

Jan. 2nd, 1915. 
Field-Marshal Lord Methuen. Photo. Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 14th. 

Photo, with some account of the Methuen family, reprinted from the 

Globe, Wiltshire Times, Feb. 6th, 1915. 
Lance-Corporal George Thomas Winter, 2nd Wilts, of Westbury, died of 

wounds, Nov. 14th, 1914 ; Drummer G. Howell, 2nd Wilts, of Bradford - 

on- Avon, killed in action in France, Dec. 20th, 1914. Photos Wiltshire 

News, Jan. 22nd, 1915. 
Rev. H. R. Whytehead, Vicar of Warminster; Mr.iand Mrs. James Newman ; 

Privates W. C. Pike, and Leslie Griffin, of the 2nd Wilts, and Private 

Will. Bull, of the 2nd Border Regt. (Prisoners), all of Westbury; 

Private Norris, of 2nd Wilts (killed), of Hey wood. Six photos. 

Wiltshire News, Jan. 29th, 1915. 
Sergeants of the 4th Wilts Regt. :— H. J. Blake, F. Stowe, E. F. Thomas, 

E. J. Chard, W. Humphries, W. J. Liddiard, P. E. Garrett. Photo 

group. Wiltshire Times, Jan. 30th, 1815. 

G. Locker Lampson, M.P. for Salisbury, as officer of Wilts Yeomanry 

Photo. Salisbury Journal, J an. 2nd, 1915. 
Capt. John Luce, R.N. Small photo. Daily Mail, March 3rd, 1915. 
H. J. Adams, of Trowbridge, and Moses Moore, of Melksham. Photos and 

obituary notices, Wiltshire Times, March 13th, 1915. 
Sergt. Samuel A. Jackson, Northumb. Fusiliers, of Bradford-on-Avon, 

killed in action, Feb. 21st, 1915. Photo. Wiltshire Times, March 

20th, 1915. 
Beatrice Mundy, of Warminster. Daily Mail, March 24th, 1915. 
David Wiltshire, of Devizes, cripple, who painted with his feet. Obit. 

notices in Wiltshire Gazette, March 25th, and Wiltshire Times, with 

photo, March 27th, 1915. 
Private H. G. Bray, of Trowbridge, D.C.M. Wiltshire Times, April 10th, 

Lady Muriel Herbert, serving with the Red Cross in Serbia. Daily Mirror, 

Hon. Geoffrey Howard, M.P., and Hon. Christian Methuen, d. of Field- 
Marshal Lord Methuen. Two photos. Mr. Harold Gorst. Wiltshire 

Times, May 1st, 1915. 
Hon. Christian Methuen. Photo, full-page, Country Life, May 1st ; Queen, 

May 1st; Evening Neivs, May 15th; Daily Mail, May 15th. Her 

wedding, Wiltshire Times, May 22nd, 1915. 
Mr. and Mrs. Reed and family, of Colerne. Wiltshire Gazette, May 27th, 

Private William Ewart Earney, of Trowbridge, killed at LHchebourg l'Avoue, 

May 9th. Photo. Wiltshire Times, May 29th, 1915. 
Cedric Collisson, s. of Rev. S. G. Collisson, late Vicar of Bradford-on-Avon, 

Sergt. in 7th Batt. of 1st British Columbia Regiment, died of wounds 

received April 4th. Photo. Wiltshire Times, May 22nd, 1915. 

3] Wiltshire Portraits. 

Fred Gardiner, Bugler, 48th Canadian Highlanders, killed in action, May 
20th; and William Joseph Bennett, 1st Somerset Light Infantry, killed 
in action, May 4th. Both of Trowbridge. Photos. Wiltshire Times, 
June 5th, 1915. 

W. R. Marshall, Registrar of Warminster County Court. Wiltshire News, 
June 25th, 1915. 

Canon W. Jacob, Vicar of Warminster. Wiltshire Times, June 26th, 1915. 

Lance-Corporal F. J. Perrett, of Trowbridge, and Alex. Leslie, both of 4th 
Wilts, died at Delhi. Two photos. Wiltshire Times, July 3rd, 1915. 

Rev. Augustus Hyde Tredway Clarke, Rector of Devizes. Wiltshire Gazette, 
July 1st, 1915. 

Patriotic Bradford Family, Privates A., W., T., G., and F. Hill. Five photos. 
Wiltshire Times, July 17th, 1915. 

A Family of Soldiers, A., H., W. T., F., and E. Gillman and — Dadson, of 
Trowbridge. Six photos. Wiltshire News, July 23rd, 1915. 

W. Hampton and A. G. Pinnell, of Warminster. Wiltshire Neivs, July 
23rd, 1915. 

Private Edward Stafford, of Bradford-on-Avon. Wiltshire Times, July 
31st, 1915. 

Rt. Hon. W. H. Long. Wiltshire Times, Aug. 14th, 1915. 

Private R. C. Keates, of W. Ashton, died Aug. 14th, 1915. The tallest man 
in the British Army. Wiltshire Times, Aug. 21st, 1915. 

Seaman C. R. Hooper, of Trowbridge, D.S.M. Wiltshire Times, Aug. 28th, 

Hon. Clarissa Tennant (Hon. Mrs. Bethell). Queen, Aug. 21st and 28th, 1915 ; 
full-page photos, Country Life, Aug. 28th, 1915 ; April 1st, 1916. 

Lance-Corporal W. J. Pepler, of Southwick, died at Dardanelles. Wilt- 
shire Times, Sept. 4th, 1915. 

W. Dunford, Manor Farm, Monkton Deverill ; W. J. White, of Trowbridge ; 
Frank H. Smith, of Holt ; Sergt. W. W. Ash, of Holt ; W. G. Higgs, 
of Holt ; and F. P. Hall, all killed in action. Wiltshire Times, Sept. 
11th, 1915. 

Rev. W. Turner, Primitive Methodist Minister, Swindon. Photo. Wilt- 
shire News, Sept. 17th, 1915. 

J. Pinnock, of Cricklade (5th Wilts). Wiltshire News, Sept. 17th, 1915. 

Will. Avons, of Hilperton. Wiltshire Times, Oct. 2nd, 1915. 

Joseph Jones, of Staverton, Crimean veteran of 7th Royal Fusiliers. 
Photo. Wiltshire Times, Oct. 9th, 1915. 

Robert (R.M.L I.), T. H. (H.G.A.), Arthur Charles (6th Munster Fusiliers), 
John (7th Wilts), George (R.G.A.), five sons of Geo. Potter, of Trow- 
bridge. Five photos. Wiltshire Times, Oct. 9th, 1915. 

James Ford, of Maiden Bradley, killed in action in Dardanelles ; Walt. C. 
F. Gay, of Broughton Gifford, killed in France. Two photos. Wilt- 
shire Times, Oct. 16th, 1915. 

Frank Woodward, of Malmesbury (4th Wilts), died in India ; Herbert 
James (6th Wilts), killed in action in Flanders, formerly porter at 
Malmesbury Workhouse. Two photos. N. Wilts Herald, Oct. 22nd, 

James Gleed, of Crudwell (1st Gloucestershire Regiment), lost both his legs 
in action in Flanders. Photo. Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 14th, 1915. 

Wiltshire Portraits. 311 

T. H. Reeves, of Trowbridge, and W. Chi vers, of Whitley. Photos. Wilt- 
shire Times , Nov. 13th, 1915. 
Lance-Corporal Williams (1st Wilts), of Warminster, killed in Flanders ; 

Corporal Leonard A. Cox (5th Wilts), of Trowbridge, wounded and 

missing at Gallipoli ; Private L. V. Drew (Coldstream Guards), of 

Stert, killed in Flanders ; Lance-Corporal Ladd, of Holt, D.C.M. 

Four photos in Wiltshire Times, Nov. 20th, 1915. 
Sergt. A. E. Card (4th Wilts), of Salisbury, died of wounds in Persian Gulf. 

Photo and obit, notice, Salibury Journal, Oct. 16th, 1915. 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lodge, of Chippenham, and Private W. A. P. Young, of 

Warminster. Three photos. Wiltshire Times, Dee. 11th, 1915. 
Miss Gwendolyn Hague Cook, engaged to Capt. Eric Long, s. of Rt. Hon. 

W. H. Long. Photo. Daily Mail, Dec. 27th, 1915. 
Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart., aged 91 ; and Lieut. H. C. Jones, of Bradford. 

on-Avon, died of wounds. Three photos. Wiltshire Times, Jan. 8th, 

Private Hayter, of Trowbridge, 16th King's Royal Rifles, killed in action 

in France, January 2nd. Photo. Wiltshire Times, Jan. 22nd, 1916. 
Sir Richard Burbidge, Bart., Manager of Harrod's Stores, born at S. Wraxall, 

1847. Photo and biographical sketch. Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 6th ; 

Wiltshire Times, Jan. 8th ; with Lady Burbidge, two photos and 

biographical sketch, Sphere, Jan. 8th, 1916. 
The Duchess of Beaufort. Full-page photo. Country Life, Jan. 15th, 1916. 
The Hon. Joan Dickson Poynder (d. of Ld. Islington). Full-page photo. 

Country Life, Jan. 8th, 1916 ; small photo, Daily Mail, March 25th, 

The Earl of Shaftesbury and the officers of the Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry. 

Photo group. Sphere, Jan. 15th, 1916. 
Sergt. James Doddington, of the 5th Wilts, D.C.M., of Bradford-on-Avon- 

Wiltshire Times, Feb. 5th, 1916. 
Mrs. Goddard (of Swindon), with her Pekingese. Photo. Queen, Jan. 29th, 

Edward (error for Edmund, who succeeded his uncle as 2nd Baronet in 

1826) and (Gibbs) Crawford Antrobus, sons of John Antrobus, M.P. 

Painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence at Amesbury Abbey. Full-page 

photo plate in Connoisseur, Feb., 1916, which also contains plate of the 

portrait of the Duchess of Gordon, by George Romney, at Amesbury. 
James Richman and family, of Bradford-on-Avon. Photo group. Wiltshire 

Times, Feb. 12th, 1916. 
Corp. A. J. Wilkins, 3rd R. West Kent Regt., of Westbury Leigh, killed 

in Belgium, Feb. 24th, 1916. Sergt. Herbert Elliott, R.A.M.C, in 

group. Photos. Wiltshire Times, March 25th, 1916. 
Frank Bodman, Wilts Regt., of Keevil, killed in action. Photo. Wiltshire 

Times, April 8th, 1916. 



Presented by Miss A. L. Gale, on behalf of the family of the late Rev. J. 
H. Gale, Vicar of Milton Lilborne : A Flint-lock Musket 
given to him by an old soldier, and an Iron Cello made 
by a blacksmith at Milton Lilborne and played by him 
in the church orchestra about the end of the 18th century- 

„ „ Mrs. Chandler, from the collection of the late Mr. W. 

Chandler, of Aldbourne : Two fine Bronze Roman Brace- 
lets from Upper Upham ; a perfect Bronze Roman X- 
headed Spring Brooch from Wanborough Plain Farm, and 
another also perfect from Bishopstone (N. Wilts) ; fine 
specimen of fossil Ptycodus tooth from Baydon ; and the 
following objects all found at North Farm, Aldbourne : — 
15 Ground Flint Celts, all broken ; Bone Implement, 
7^in. long ; small Iron Arrowhead (1 Medieval or Roman) ; 
Cylindrical Earthenware Bead ; 120 Roman Coins ; 9 
Wiltshire 17th and 18th cent. Tokens ; a number of 
Nuremberg Tokens ; and miscellaneous English Coins. 
„ Rev. H. G. O. Kendall : Spindle Whorl, Bead, Flint 
Scrapers, &c, from Hackpen Hill ; Pre-crag " Eagle 
Beak " Flint from E. Runton, Cromer, for comparison ; 
Loom Weight, &c, from Monkton Down. 

„ „ Rev. C. V. Goddard : Two Iron Cloth " Burlers " used at 


„ „ Mr. W. H. Butcher : Small Flint-lock Pistol. 

„ ,, Capt. B. H. Cunnington : 2 Roman Spring Fibulae from 

Shepherd's Shore and the Central Flying School at 
Upavon ; one Leaf-shaped and one Tanged and Barbed 
Flint Arrowhead from Windmill Hill, Avebury. 

„ „ Mrs. Buxton : Tree Wasps' Nest from Tockenham, mounted 

in case. 

„ „ The Authorities of the Central Flying School, 

Upavon : Bronze Age Skeleton and fragments of Drink- 
ing Cup found on site of Officers' Mess, November, 1915. 

„ „ Lt. Shackle ; Large sculptured head of a figure supposed to 

be Roman, from Marlborough, with specially designed 


Presented by Mr. J. S. Bush : 11 early numbers of Wilts Arch. Magazine. 
„ „ The Author (Mr. G. B. Hony) : " Bird Notes from the 

Mediterranean " 1915. 

Additions to Museum and Library. 313 

Presented by Mrs. Magkay : 2 £l Notes of the Trowbridge Bank, 1802 
and 1803. 

„ „ Rev. C. V.. Goddard : Drawing ; Salisbury Journal and 

S. Wilts Church Magazine for 1915. 

„ „ The Author (Mr. Albany F. Major) : " The Wansdyke." 

Reprint from Proc. Som. Arch. Soc, 1914. 

„ „ Mr. W. A. Webb : Transcripts of the Patent of James I. and 

of Sir Henry Bayntun's Statutes for the College or 
Hospital of the Poor at Bromham. 

„ „ The Author (Mr. W.G.Collins) : Copy of Antiquary with 

article on Grating at Bradford-onAvun. 

„ „ Rev. A- W. Stote : Trowbridge Pamphlet. 

„ „ Mr. A. Schomberg : The Life of Sir Tobie Mathew ; Way- 

side Thoughts by Albinia Locke ; Imago Regia by Canon 
Macleane ; Salisbury Amateur Operatic Society," 1915." ; 
Early Map of Wilts ; Old Engraving of Bristol Cross now 
at Stourhead. 

„ „ Mr. H. E. Medligott : Sale Particulars of Amesbury Estate ; 

Wiltshire Gazette, Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, and North 
Wilts Church Magazine for 1915 ; Two sheets of the 25in. 
Ordnance Survey of Avebury ; Smith's Map of 100 square 
miles round Avebury ; Map showing proposed railway, 
Bristol to Amesbury ; Print of Woodchester Roman 
pavement ; Wilts Pamphlets. 

„ „ Canon Wordsworth : " Statutes and Customs of the Cath- 

edral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Salisbury," 
edited by Chr. Wordsworth, Sub-Dean, and Douglas 
Macleane, Prebendary. 1915. 

„ „ Mr. E. Cook : Wilts Autograph. 

„ „ Rev. E. H. Goddard : Sale Catalogue, Draycot House ; 

Portraits, Cuttings, and Scraps. 

„ „ Mr. T. Sheppard (of Hull Museum) : Wiltshire from " The 

English Counties Delineated " by Thos. Moule, 1837 ; 
Illustrations (2 pages) of Wiltshire 18th century Tokens 
from Part 10 of "Dalton and Harrier's 18th century 
„ Mrs. Dickins : A number of works (12) by the late F. V. 

Dickins, C.B., of Seend. 
„ Mr. T. B. Fox : The Life of Henry Hunt, by R. Huish. 

2 vols. 1836. 
„ Mr. C. Tite : Wiltshire Pamphlets. 

„ The Author (Mr. Alfred Williams) : " Life in a Railway 
Factory" (Swindon). 1915. " War Sonnets and Songs." 

„ „ Mr. W. He ward Bell : Geological Journal and Journal of 

Geologists' Association (several numbers). 

314 Additions to Museum and Library. 

Presented by Rev. B. W. Bradford : Akerman's Numismatic Manual, 
1840 ; Akerman's Descriptive Catalogue of Rare and Un- 
edited Roman Coins, 1834, 2 vols. ; Bishop Burnet's 
History of the Reign of King James II., 1852. Paper by 
J. Y. Akerman. 

„ „ The Author (Mr. C. P. Hurst) : Reprint of paper on- " East 

Wiltshire Mosses" in Journal of Botany, 1916. 

„ „ Mr. H. Bizley : 3 old Wiltshire Deeds and 2 Reward 

Notices for Sheep Stealing. 

„ „ The Author (Lady Poore) : " The Recollections of an 

Admiral's Wife," 1916. 

„ „ The Author (Mr. E. H. Stone) : " Devizes Castle. Notes 

on the Fortifications and General Features of the design." 
A bound volume of typed notes, with a volume of 12 
plates, drawings, and plans. 

„ „ Mr. J. E. Pritchard : " Leisure Hours " by Salmon, of 

High worth. 

, „ Mr. W. F. Lawrence: " Notes on the English Ancestry of 

of the Whittier and Rolfe Families of New Zealand, 1912." 

„ „ Mr. J. J. Slade : Magazine with Wilts articles. 

„ „ Mr. Edward Coward : " A Collection of Verses. By James 

Dolman, for over 50 years a Thatcher on Roundway Farm, 














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STONEHENGE AND ITS BARROWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
Magazine in separate wrapper, 7s. 6d. This still remains the best and most 
reliable account of Stonehenge and its Earthworks, 

AUBREY, F.R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Rev. 
Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates. 
Price £2 10s. 

pp. vii. -f 501. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. Price 18s. 

pp. xv., 505. In parts as issued. Price 13s. 

DITTO. FROM THE REIGN OF ED. III. 8vo., pp. 402. In six 
parts as issued. Price 13s. 

WILTSHIRE, STONEHENGE and AYEBURY, with other references, 
by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, Dec, 
1901, of the Maqazlne. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books, 
papers, &c, by 732 authors, 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
pp. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property in many 
Wiltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15th centuries. Only 150 copies were 
printed, of which a few are left. Price to members, £1 10s., and to non- 
members, i;2. 

WILTSHIRE BIRDS. Mr. G B. Hony, 4, Beaufort Road, 
Clifton, Bristol, will be greatly obliged if members would 
kindly send him notice of the occurrence of any rare birds 
or of their nesting within the borders of the County, of the 
occurrence of unusual mammals or reptiles. 


Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

This department now greatly enlarged. 

Wilts Archaeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes. 

^Ve have several back numbers to make up sets. 

C. H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 


North Wilts Museum and 

In answer to the appeal made in 1905, annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s., to the amount of about £32 a year for this 
purpose have been given by about seventy Members of the Society 
and the fund thus set on foot has enabled the Committee already 
to add much to the efficiency of the Library and Museum. 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
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be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum, and 
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Subscriptions of 5s. a year, or upwards, are asked for, and 
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The Committee appeal to Members of the Society and others 
to secure any 

Objects of Antiquity, 


Specimens of unusual Birds, 
Butterflies, or Moths, 

found in the County of Wilts and to forward them to the 
Hon Curator, Mr. B, H. Cunnington, Devizes; 

Whilst Old Deeds/ Modern Pamphlets, Articles, 

Portraits, Illustrations from recent Magazines 

or Papers bearing in any way on the County, 

and Sale Particulars of Wiltshire Properties, 

will be most gratefully received for the Library by the Rev. 
E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon, Hon. Librarian. 


vBNPS/ Wvn?M 

No. CXXV. DECEMBER, 1916, Vol. XXXIX. 



ltrl)iMliigiritl nnit Jlutiirnl listottj 


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To "be obtained of Mr. D. OWEN, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev. A, C. Smith, M.A, One Volume, Atlas 
4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price £2 2s. 
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IrrjiaHilogirnl nn& Hateral li^tortj 


No. CXXV. DECEMBER, 1916. Vol. XXXIX. 

Contents. page 

The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 
(New Sarum) between 1225 and 1612 : By Fanny Street, M.A., 

F.R.Hist. Soc. (Continued) -. 319 

The Sixty-Third General Meeting at Devizes 368 

The Original Bederoll of the Salisbury Tailors' Gild : By 

O. Haskins 375 

A Forgotten Hospital at [Great] Bedwyn 380 

u Two Surveys of the Manour of Broad Hinton, 1708/9 and 

1751" : Communicated by Mrs. Story Maskelyne , 382 

Notes 392 

Natural History Notes 402 

Wilts Obituary ., 406 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &e. 419 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors... 427 

Wiltshire Portraits ............... .. 428 

Additions to Museum and Library 430 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 




No. CXXV. December, 1916. 



By Fanny Street, M.A., F.R.Hist. Soc. 

(Continued from p. 257.) 

(C) Incidents of Period 1474—1537, 

Six by years of comparative peace followed the conclusion of the 
conflict with Bishop Beauchamp, in the course of which few inci- 
dents throw any light on the relations between the Bishops and 
their citizens. Only the first of these indicates a lack of harmony 
between the two parties, while the remaining three show peaceful 
and friendly co-operation. In 1491 a demand by Sir John Cheyne 1 
for a contingent of twelve horsemen for the royal service was re- 
fused, apparently because it was made through the Bishop's under - 
bailiff instead of directly ; no difficulty seems to have been made 
in 1493 and 1495 about contingents required by Sir John Cheyne 

1 Ledger B., fol. 174 b. The version given in B. & H., p. 208, is a para- 
phrase rather than a quotation, though the sense is correctly given ; the 
original runs : — " At this present assembly it is concluded and agreed that, 
i whereas William Hall, underbayly of the Cite of Sar' had desired in behalf 
j of Mr. John Cheyney, twelve men complete harneysed and horsed, to be 
\ redy atte suche season, as he shall give resonable warnyng, to the whiche 
i the hole hous, that is to sey the mayre and his brethern, and all other of 
' the cominaltie, in the order of assembly, holy be determyned and concluded,. 
! that they alonly upon such shewing by the seyd William Hall shewed, wolde 
I not to noo suche desyre agree onlesse they hadde any commandement from 
the King or any other by the King's comaundement." 

320 The relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

himself. 1 The objection was therefore mainly to the manner of 
the request. 

In other respects, relations between successive Bishops and their 
citizens seem to have been harmonious or at any rate peaceable. 
Thus in 1491, the Bishop's Clerk of the Market granted the whole 
profits of the standings in fairs and markets to the Mayor and 
Community, and from this time forward the profits from this source 
appear in the Chamberlain's accounts. 2 In 1495-6 occurred a 
petition of the Mayor and citizens for the appointment of coroners, 
which involved the recognition of the Bishop's rights in this im- 
portant matter, as has already been noted. 3 On March loth, 1530, 
it was agreed to protect any person, distrained against the liberties, 
at the expense of the Community : 4 " And yf yt happen the said 
accions or sute[s] to be removyd to a higher courte or to London, 
then John Bigges, clerk, surveyor to my lord the Bysshop of Sarum, 
beyng present at this assemble, dyd graunte to bere the charges of 
the sayde persons, or any other persons in tyme to come, intendyng 
to sue any person for the liberties aforesayd, in tyme at the costes 
and charges of the sayd Bishop." 

One unusual incident was cited to serve the purpose of the 
community in a later struggle, though it was not connected with 
any dispute between the Bishop and his citizens when it happened. 
In 1483 it is recorded in the Ledger that William Boket was sworn 
in as Mayor before the King ; 5 this was probably because King 
Eichard III, was then in Salisbury in pursuit of Buckingham and 
the Bishop was implicated in the rising. 6 In these circumstances 

1 Ledger B., fols. 181, 193. H.M.G.E., IV., p. 211. 

2 G.A., Nos, 20 and 21 ; May 10th and 24th, 1884. 

3 See above, Section III. C, and references there given. 
4 Ledger B., fol. 266 b. E.M.C.R., IV., p. 215. 
5 Ledger B., fol. 150 b. "Electio Majoris civitatis predicte facta in com- 
memoracione animarum anno regni Ricardi tercii post conquestum Angliae 

" Willelmus Bokette, Major. 

" Juratus coram Domino Rege." 
Hatcher missed this entry, as Swayne pointed out ; G.A. No. 19, April 19th, 
1884. B. & #., p. 20V. 

6 Ramsay. Lancaster and York, Vol. II., p. 506. 

between 1225 and 1612. 321 

no doubt the Bishop's name was omitted from the oath and no 
obedience sworn to him, but the occasion was obviously exceptional- 
Nevertheless, the citizens quoted this incident later in support of 
their contention that the true version of the Mayor's oath only 
bound him to be faithful to the King and contained no mention of 
duty to the Bishop. 1 But with all the weight of legal evidence 
on the Bishop's side, great ingenuity was needed by the citizens to 
make out a case for their own claim, and their use of this incident 
is a good example of snch special pleading. 

This period of peace and frendly relations, however, did not in 
the least mean that the causes of controversy had permanently 
disappeared. They only lay dormant, ready to wake into active 
life as soon as some fit opportunity should present itself. Moreover, 
the general effect of a period of peace and prosperity was to 
strengthen the city in wealth and in the consciousness of its capacity 
for self-government. In times of peace, Bailiff and Mayor officiated 
side by side, and the superiority of the former cannot have been 
as marked as in the days of the city's origin. His chief sphere of 
power, jurisdiction, must have been seriously curtailed with the 
decline in value of seignorial franchises, due to the expansion of 
royal jurisdiction and the growth of central courts, while of the 
one developing local magistracy, the Commission of the Peace, the 
Mayor was equally a member. In practice the authority of the 
Mayor and Community was much more nearly brought home to all 
the citizens in the incidents of their daily life. The prices and 
measures of necessary articles of regular consumption, precautions 
against fires, the regulation of festivals and pageants, all came up 
for discussion by the Mayor and his Brethren, 2 as well as the 
ordinary financial and administrative business. Some reflection 
of this change in the power of the Bishop's Bailiff may be seen in 
an alteration of the status of the person holding that office which 

1 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 48. " 1 R. III. William Bokett was sworn in before 
the King — yf the said Charter (i.e., g 1472) did bind, yet in respecte the 
Mayor offered to take the usuall othe i.e., the one which bound the Mayor 
only to serve the King) which officers refuse to accepte, this is a forfeiture 
of that office beinge a matter of necessitie, etc." 

2 See Ledgers passi??i and many extracts in H.M.C.R., IV. 

Y 2 

322 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

took place towards the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th 
century. The office of Bailiff seems to have become a sinecure, 
held by some gentleman of the neighbourhood who performed no 
duties in person, 1 while the effective agent within the city, as seen 
in 1491, was the underbailiff. 2 This subordinate official seems to 
have been a person of much lower status than the earlier Bailiffs, 
as is shown by the attitude of the Community towards him. In 
fact, in 1537, there were actual complaints that the person holding 
this office was not of sufficient "gravity and substance." 3 

This unrecorded development probably explains the fact that 
the next controversy opens with assertions of long-established 
power and independence on the part of the Mayor which the 
records of the past hardly seem to warrant; yet these confident 
references to common knowledge themselves indicate the actual 
possession and exercise of considerable power. 

(D) Controversy with Bishop Shaxton, 1537 — 9. 

The first serious outbreak of controversy between the Bishop 
and the City in the 16th century was closely connected with the 
Reformation. The great change in the political status of Bishops 
involved in this crisis was not without its effect upon their relations 
with their immediate neighbours and dependents, while the change 
in the attitude of the civil government towards them made their 
chances of complete victory in any local dispute much more remote 
than in the 14th and 15th centuries. 

In Salisbury, in 1537, a controversy over religious questions 
coincided with a revival of the ancient conflict between the Bishop 
and the City, and in the latter, for the first time, the Citizens 
achieved some slight measure of success. Bishop Nicholas Shaxton 

1 Hatcher mentions Sir John Cheyne about 1479 and Sir Thomas Arundel 
in the first half of the 16th century as Bailiffs. By the beginning of the 
17th century the Earl of Pembroke was both Steward and Bailiff, according 
to Cotton's letter of 1610. (M.C.S., Box 4, No. 29.) 

2 See above. 

3 See below, Section IV., D. It is noteworthy that throughout this 
struggle even the Bishop's supporters generally put the Mayor's name before 
the Bailiff's. 

between 1225 and 1612. 323 

(1535 — 9), one of the more advanced of the reforming Bishops, 
appears to have pressed forward the changes in Salisbury in such 
a way as to rouse the indignation of the citizens, who strongly 
disapproved of them. 1 In Lent, 1537, he apparently instructed 
one John Macdowell to preach in the Cathedral in support of the 
recent changes, particularly in favour of the King's supremacy and 
its consequences, Macdowell's attack upon " the Bishop of Kome " 
provoked much outspoken indignation which was quickened into 
active hostility by his reference to the government of the city. 2 
Some persons unknown had torn down the King's dispensation 
from fasting in Lent, and neither the Mayor nor the Bailiff had 
taken steps to discover the offender. According to his own report 
of his sermon to Cromwell, 3 Macdowell had said: "There is a 
variance betwixt the Mayor and the bailey, which is immediate 
officer under the King, but none of them serveth his Grace ; but 
on my faith I shall advertise the King's Council hereof." For 
these words he was promptly imprisoned by order of the Mayor 
but afterwards released on giving sureties for his personal attend- 
ance and good behaviour ; 4 he is of no further importance in the 

The variance to which he refers must have been that described 
in a petition to Cromwell, dated June 7th in the same year. 5 No 
date is given for the incidents there related, but a parchment roll 
among the muniments of the Corporation assigns the beginning of 
the dispute to February, 1537. 6 The original cause, as given in 
this document, was the admission to office of a certain Serjeant 7 by 
the under-bailiff, Thomas Chamber, without the concurrence of the 

1 D.N.B. 

2 Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., Vol. XII., Part 1, 1537. Nos. 746, 
755, 756, 824, 838. 

3 Ibid, Vol. XII., Part 1, 1537, No. 755. 
4 Ibid, Vol. XII., Part 1, No. 838. 
5 Ibid, Vol. XII., Part 2, 1537, No. 52. Printed in full by B. & H., p- 
237, from Harl. MSS. 

6 M.C.S., Box 4, Bundle 2. 
7 That is, one of the " Servientes ad clavam," or serjeants-at-mace, already 
frequently referred to. 

324 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

Mayor, The under-bailiff was accused of casting doubt on the 
Mayor's authority by saying : " . . , , that the Mayor of Sar' 
is not the Kyng's Mayor but the Bushoppe's Mayor," which im- 
mediately revived the old dispute. The Community thereupon 
addressed to Cromwell the petition abovementioned, asserting the 
jurisdiction of the Mayor and others of his brethren in the com- 
mission of the peace, complaining of Thomas Chamber, urging that 
future under-bailiffs should be " of some gravity and substance," and 
begging that the King would " qualify " the Bishop's charter which 
he had said would " discharge him for all misuses and for none use." 
At the same time was prepared the complaint which is still extant 
among the corporation muniments; 1 this was addressed to the 
Lord Chancellor and was apparently intended to accompany a 
" boke of articles " which is not now extant. In this document the 
same complaints appear as in the above petition, special stress 
being laid upon two matters. 

One of these was the Mayor's position as Justice of the Peace 
which had been customary from 1462, and until July, 1535, de- 
pendent upon the Bishop's commission. The Act of that year, 2 
referred to by the citizens, had resumed for the King the sole right 
of making such appointments, notwithstanding any previous charters 
or grants; at the same time, it had safeguarded "cities, boroughs 
and towns corporate " in the enjoyment of their former privileges, 
especially that of having Justices of the Peace of their own mem- 
bers and of appearing only within their own courts. This Act, as 
the citizens pointed out, "makythe voyde the Bushoppe's graunte 
by charters or other wyse before that fcyme made concerning the 
premises ; " but it could hardly be interpreted to apply to the 
Bishop's franchises generally. 

The second matter of importance in the complaint was the 
question of the Mayor's oath, upon which they desired the King's 
decision. They complained that on the last Law Day, Nov. 15 th, 
1536, ". . . . the Bushoppe's officers .... wolde have 
given unto the Mayor that tiowe is of the sayd Citie another 

1 M.G.S., Box 4, Bundle 2. 
Statutes at Large, 28 H. VIIL, Cap. 24. 

between 1225 and 1612. 325 

erronious ofche that the said mayor sholde have byn sworne to the 
Bushoppe of Sar' as far forthe as to the Kynge our moste Sovraign 
Lorde, the whych erronious othe the Mayor and his brethren wolde 
not consente unto for the trewe obedience that they hathe as their 
most bounden dutie is to bere unto our Sovraign Lorde the Kynge, 
and also it was contrary to the olde auncient customes of the citie, 
the whyche mater is nott a little greife unto the Mayor and his 
brethren. " 

A reference to the earliest known form of the Mayor's oath, as 
taken in the time of Bishop Beauchamp, 1 shows that the demand 
of the Bishop's officers that the Mayor should swear to serve him 
as well as the King could hardly be considered an innovation. Yet 
the citizens speak as if their Mayor had been accustomed to take 
an oath without this clause, and as if the demand for its insertion 
involved offering "an erronious othe." Possibly in the past few 
years, with the connivance through fear or favour of the officers, 
they had dropped out the obnoxious clause. In the later part of 
this same complaint they refer to the charter of Edward IV., 1472, 
in support of their contention, whereas that document was one of 
the strongest evidences for the Bishop's case. 2 It seems probable, 
therefore, that lapse of time had tended to the discontinuance of 
the regular assertion of the Bishop's power and to the growth of a 
conviction on the citizens' part that tradition was on their side. 
The adroit way in which they put their case before the King shows 
that they realised that the circumstances of their time offered them 
a favourable opportunity : " , . . he that will take that power 
(i.e., of confirming the Mayor's election) from our most Sovraign 

1 See above, Section IV., B. 
2 An interesting distinction made in the same document seems to indicate 
that the citizens themselves wished to rely on process of law rather than on 
prerogative : the " boke of articles " was to be "optayned of his grace by 
his lawfull power according unto Justice and equitie of his lawes and not 
after his most highest imperial I power in this behalf." They challenged 
the Bishop's rights by Quo Warranto directed to him on Jan. 26th, 1538 
(M.G.S., Box 4, No. 44), but the result of the trial is not extant. The Bishop 
appears to have made a similar attack on them on May 23rd, 1544, but no 
other particulars of this matter can be found (Document in bundle at 
i Diocesan Registry.) H.M.C.R., IV., p. 12. 

326 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

Lorde the Kynge can be noo lesse then in the derogacion of his 
emperiall crowne royall if any man will holde plee in that behalfe 
to the contrary." 

The dispute must have been referred, at this stage, to the decision 
of Justices of Assize sitting in Salisbury, for on August 8th the 
Community appointed a deputation of six persons to represent it 
on the coming S. Lawrence's Day (August 10th). 1 A deputation 
of three persons was also appointed to appear before the King's 
Council, and a promise of repayment made to all those who had 
lent money for the prosecution of the suit. 

From the correspondence which went on between the two parties 
and Cromwell, it would appear that the offending under-bailiff, 
Thomas Chamber, was removed, for from October, 1537, onwards 
the name of John Goodale or Goodall appears in that office. 2 
Perhaps he was of more " gravity and substance " than his pre- 
decessor ; certainly he was no less tenacious of the Bishop's rights. 
A lively altercation between him and certain members of the 
Community was reported to Cromwell on November 2nd, 3 in which 
he had asserted the inferior position of the Mayor and compared 
him disrespectfully with the catchpoll and the bellman. The two 
citizens who gave evidence of this had for their part maintained 
the Mayor's power to put even the bailiff by the heels, asserting 
that the King in his letters had named him " his Mayor " and that 
the mace carried before him bore the King's arms. 4 The mingling 
of religious with civic controversy seen at the outset of this struggle 
appears here also in one of the bailiff's retorts : " Wilt thou carry 
a faggot upon thy back ? " ; but the main issue was evidently still 
the question of the official oath, since the bailiff's final threat was : 
" Within these 10 days one shall come that shall put aside all these 
matters and swear the Mayor and all the citizens to the Bishop 
and not to the King, and if they refuse the same they shall not 
dwell within the city." 

1 Ledger B., fol. 284 a. H.M.C.R., IV., p. 218 ; here the folio reference 
is given as 286, the second pagination having been suddenly adopted. 

2 L. & P., Vol. XII., Part 2, 1537, No. 875. 3 Ibid, No. a033. 

4 But this was a grant to the Bishop, according to the Letters Patent of 1472. 

between 1225 and 1612. 327 

Meanwhile, the attempt to arrive at a legal decision seems to 
have achieved little success. The citizens reported to Cromwell 
on Nov, 7th that they had given their evidences to the Lord Chief 
Justice, who would report to him. 1 Bishop Shaxton, however, in 
his letter of November 20th, complained that certain of the citizens 
had prevented the justices from coming to a conclusion at their 
session in the city, hinting that they intended to make the case 
drag on vexatiously without arriving at any definite decision. 2 
He quoted his charters and remonstrated with Cromwell for his 
advice 3 to attempt nothing, all the attempting being on the other 

It is evident from the tone of his letter that he expected little 
sympathy, and this appears still more clearly in another letter of 
March 21st, 1538. 4 In this, after writing chiefly of other matters, 
he refers at the end to Cromwell's favourable attitude to Mayor 
and Community and their contention, and regrets that he should 
have taken offence at the Bishop's claim. He asserts again that 
his rights in the matter depended on royal charters, yet that both 
the grants and himself also were " at the King's beck." 

Meanwhile both parties endeavoured to prove their zealous 
loyalty and obedience to the King. Shaxton and Goodall were 
active in carrying forward the surrender of religious communities, 
e.g., the Grey and Black Friars in Salisbury, 5 while the Mayor and 
Community summoned before themselves persons who had spoken 
against the King and forwarded the depositions taken to Cromwell. 6 
Goodall appears to have suffered imprisonment at their hands for 
some unknown cause towards the end of 1538, 7 but to have been 
at liberty early in 1539. 8 In April of that year the Mayor im- 
prisoned Goodall's servant for taking down an image which the 

1 L. & P., Vol. XII., Part 2, 1537, No. 1036. 
2 Ibid, Vol. XII., Part 2, 1537, No. 1114. 
3 Evidently given in a letter, not now extant, of Nov. 11th, to which 
Shaxton refers. 

4 L. & P., Vol. XIII., Part 1, 1538, No. 571. 

5 Ibid, Vol. XIIL, Part 2, 1538, Nos. 518—19. 6 Ibid, No. 90. 

7 Ibid, No 64, 1178. 8 Ibid, Vol. XIV., Part 1, 1539, No. 777. 

328 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

people were pressing to kiss; this is the last reference to the 
conflict, which thus appears to have ceased abruptly without 
coming to any definite conclusion. The reason for this must have 
been the fall of Shaxton, consequent upon the passing of the Six 
Articles in June, 1539, 1 and the change of ecclesiastical policy on 
the part of the King which this enactment expressed. After 
opposing the passing of this Act in vain in his place in the House 
of Lords, Shaxton resigned his bishopric, and with his departure 
the controversy seems to have ceased. 2 

At the conclusion of this dispute, though no formal recognition 
was made of the position claimed by the Mayor, the balance of 
victory was distinctly on the side of the Community. Even in 
Shaxton's days of power, Cromwell's favour seems to have been 
bestowed on his opponents, and the Bishop's fall must have left 
them rejoicing. In 1540 the Commission of the Peace for the 
City 3 included with other names those of the Mayor, Richard 
Lobbe, and four others of his brethren, one of whom was the 
Thomas Chaffyn who had been accused by Shaxton of leadership 
in the recent dispute. 4 It may be presumed, therefore, that sub- 
sequent Mayors were firmly established in their contention and 
ready to maintain it vigorously against any challenging Bishop. 
This becomes clearer as the history of the 16th century proceeds, 
until the emancipation of the city was at last achieved at the 
beginning of the 17th century. 

(E) Incidents of Period 1539—1593. 

During the half century and more which elapsed between the 
controversies of Bishop Shaxton and Bishop Coldwell respectively 
with their citizens, there are many indications that the latter kept 
a careful guard over the position that they had won. The inter- 
vening Bishops seem to have done little to maintain their rights, 

1 Statutes at Large, 31 H. VIII., Cap. XIV. 

2 D.N.B. 

3 L. & P., Vol. XIV., 1540, No. 282, sect. 8. 

4 Ibid, Vol. XII., Part 2, 1537, No. 1114. 

between 1225 and 1612. 329 

except Bishop Jewel, who in 1561 x secured a confirmation of the 
Charter of 1472. He also confirmed the incorporation of the 
Gilds of Weavers and Tailors. 2 

The citizens for their part were much more active, as became the 
aggressive party. The Ledgers show them gradually engrossing 
business which, according to the Composition of 1306, must 
originally have been done in the Bishop's court, such as regulating 

I the Assize of Ale and providing victual for the city. 3 They were 
careful, not only to maintain their actual power by the effective 

: exercise of it, but also to assert their dignity and secure the formal 
recognition of their title to govern. Thus in 1 565 it was punctiliously 

I recorded in the Ledger that four persons named had "herd the Bishop 
of Sarum say that the Mayor of Sarum was his Mayor and the people 
of Sarum his subjectes." 4 No action in the matter is recorded in the 
Ledger and no reference to a dispute on this occasion has been found. 
The breviat already quoted, after referring to language of this kind 

I on the part of individual Bishops in 1537 and again in 1565, says 
that: "on beinge broughte to be hearde before the then Lorde 

i Keeper, 5 the matter was by his meanes shutt up and the B. revoked 

j or woulde not justifie the wordes and the B. willed by him to 
contente himselfe with the profitts and lett the Mayor alone with 

! the government." 6 It is possible, however, that this may refer, 
not to 1565, but to the disputes of 1537, which were referred to 
Cromwell, then Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal; certainly his 
advice to Shaxtou on that occasion seems to have been very much 
on the lines described by the citizens in the above quotation. 

1 B. k H., p. 296. P.H.O., Confirmation Roll 88., Sept. 1st, 4 Eliz., Part I. 
Mem. 11—17. 

2 Jeivel Register, fol. 45 a and b. " Confirmatio incorporacionis arte 
textorum Civitatis Nove Sar' ;" dated 1564. Also fol. 47 a and b. " Con- 
firmatio incorporacionis hominibus Mistere Cissorum Civitatis Novae 
Sar' ; " with the date not filled in. 

3 See Ledgers B. and C. passim, especially extracts printed in H.M.C.R., 
IV., pp. 220, 222, 224, 225, 227—8, and contrast pp. 204—5 and Articles 
19—25 of the Composition of 1306, given in T.C., pp. 195 — 7. 

4 Ledger B., fol. 338 a ; H.31.C.B., IV., p. 225. 
5 In 1565 Sir Nicholas Bacon was Lord Keeper of both the Great and 
jPrivy Seals. (Hadyris Book of Dignities, pp. 240, 356.) 
6 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 48. 


330 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

The efforts of the Community to assert the dignity of its mem- 
bers were not always made in opposition to the Bishop ; on occasion 
additional power and consequence were sought for through him. 
Thus, his influence in the nomination of Justices of the Peace 1 was 
recognised by them in 1578, in spite of the fact that forty years 
before their predecessors had emphasised the withdrawal of his 
right to issue the Commission himself. On January 15th, 1578, 
it was agreed 2 " . . . that there be a sute made and effectually 
prosecuted by Mr. Mayor and his hole companie unto the nowe 
Lorde Bishope, that all those who have bin alredie maiors of this 
Cittie, and those whiche from tyme to tyme shalbe maiors of this 
Cittie may be in commission of the peax and gaol deliverie within 
this Cittie." No copy of any petition in this sense to the Bishop 
is extant, nor is there any indication of the appointment of more 
members of the Community than usual. 

For the most part, however, the Community kept before itself 
the possibility of obtaining a charter directly from the Queen 
without theintervention of the Bishop, so as to secure independence 
for the City. Probably with this intention the Mayor and his 
Brethren endeavoured to gain Court favour, especially with persons 
whe were reputed to have influence with the Queen. The sinecure 
office of " chief stewardshypp of the Corporacion of the Maior and 
Cominalty of this Cytty " was created, and granted in turn, with 
a stipend of £6 13s. 4d., to various great personages. Sir Francis 
Walsyngham is the first person mentioned in the Ledger as having 
held it; 3 when he died in 1590 it was granted to Sir Christopher 
Hatton, the Lord Chancellor, one of the Queen's close intimates. 4 
In 1591, on Hatton's death, it was granted to Sir Thomas Heneage, 5 
vice-chamberlain of the Queen's household and so much in her favour 

1 Cold well, in a letter of 1593 says, ; "But sithence the statute of King 

Henry VIII they have found favour of your predecessors' 

hands to give the names of such as should be in commission." 
2 Ledger C, fol. 50 b ; H.M.C.R., IV., p. 227. 
3 Ledger C, fol. 122 b ; H.M.C.R., IV. p. 229. There are two errors in 
transcription here: the sum should be £6 13s. 4d, as in other similar 
grants, and the name at the end " the said Sir Francis," not Thomas. 
4 D.N.B. 5 Ledger C, fol. 129 a. 

between 1225 and 1612, 331 

that even Leicester was said to be jealous of him. 1 To him, in 
1593, the Community showed further complaisance by allowing 
him to nominate one of the two burgesses whom they were about 
to elect as Members of Parliament. 2 Of this privilege the citizens 
were usually jealous, as was shown by their resolution in 1572 3 
that henceforth they would keep this nomination and election in 
their own hands. Heneage held the office of Chief Steward till his 
death in 1595, when it was couferrred upon Sir John Puckeringe, 4 
Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, another of the Queen's favourites. 5 
The account of this policy on the part of the Mayor and Com- 
munity has carried us beyond the intervening period into the time 
of the dispute with Bishop Coldwell ; but it is difficult to separate 
these periods since the agitation for a new charter had gone on for 
some years before open conflict with that Bishop broke out. As 
far back as 1582 there is a reference in the Ledger 6 to the ap- 
pointment of a deputation for this purpose ; but it is noteworthy 
that it was instructed "to ride to London and- to the .Reverend 
ffather the nowe Byshopp of Sar' to travell in the furtheraunce and 
obteininge of a corporacion," so that the effort was to be made in 
co-operation with the Bishop if possible. It does not appear to 
have been successful, and further deputations and resolutions are 
recorded in the following years; thus a deputation was appointed 
on April 24th, 1587, 7 and it was agreed on Jan. 20th, 1588, " that 
this Citty shall be made a County." 8 Much the same resolution 
appears also on Dec. 14th, 1590, 9 on Oct. 11th, 1591, 10 and on 
November 2nd, 1591, 11 but in none of these cases is there any 

1 D.N.B. 2 Ledger 0., fol. 133 b ; H.M.G.R., IV., p. 230. 

3 Ibid, fol. 22 b ; H.M.G.R., IV., p. 226. 
4 Ibid, fol. 147 a ; H.M.G.R., IV., pp. 232—3. 5 D.N.B. 

6 Ledger C, fol. 172 a. The entry is followed by a list of more than a 
'dozen charters delivered to the deputation for this purpose and duly re- 
turned on May 22nd. 

7 Ibid, fol. 98 a. s Ledger C, fol. 100 a. 

9 Ibid, fol. 125 a. H.M.G.R., IV., p. 229. 
lc Ibid, fol. 127 a. This is the last paragraph on p. 229 H.M.G.R., IV. ; 
it is printed there under the date of the preceding entry. 

11 Ibid, fol 128 b. 

332 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

reference to negotiation with the Bishop, as in the first noted above. 
The last two occur side by side with the appointments of Hatton 
and Heneage, already mentioned, which evidently represent an 
indirect approach to the same goal. The close connection of the 
desire for a new charter with these attempts to gain favour at 
headquarters is also shown in the authority given to the deputation 
of 1591 x " . . . to make offer unto the worshipful Mr. John 
Popham, Her Majestie's attorney generall, of one annuy tie or 
yearly fee of £3 6s. Sd. to be geven unto him out of the Chamber 
of this Cittie." 

No result of any of these deputations is recorded, but they 
indicate sufficiently the temper of the Community when Coldwell 
became Bishop at the end of 1591. 2 During his episcopate a 
serious dispute developed, almost the last in the long struggle, but 
in character closely resembling those which had gone before. 

(F) Dispute with Bishop Coldwell and its sequel. 

The first year of Coldwell's episcopate seems to have passed 
peacefully, but early in 1593 some animosity towards him was 
expressed by a minority of the Community. On Jan. 29th of that 
year John Hinckley, one of the Forty -Eight, was expelled for 
" . . . his outragious speeches uttered and published by him 
against the Keverend father in G-od the nowe Busshop of Sar'," and 
his refusal to submit and reconcile himself with the Bishop. 3 The 
majority of the Community on that occasion was evidently friendly 
to the Bishop ; this is shown also by the resolution of the same 
meeting that the " Peticion of my Lo. Busshop touchinge the 
reformacion of the poore shalbe forthwith put in execucion by the i 
assistance and helpe of the whole companie," 

Six months later the Ledger exhibits a very different temper in 

a long resolution of protest against the Bishop's action. 4 The 

particular grievance mentioned was the description of the Mayor J 

of the City as " absolutelie his Mayor," not only verbally by the 

Bishop's officers but officially in writing in a commission for the 

1 See note 10 , p. 331 above. 2 D.N.B. 3 Ledger C, fol. 134a. j 

4 Ledger C, fols. 135 b and 136 a. H.M.C.R., IV., pp. 230-1. 

between 1225 and 1612. 333 

collection of the subsidies, of which the opening phrases are quoted. 
It was directed first to the Bishop and next " . . . Maiori pre- 
dicti Episcopi Civitatis sue Nove Sarum," and thus incorporated 
the obnoxious designation in a document issued in the name of the 
Queen herself. The indignation roused by this evidently altered 
the attitude of the Community towards John Hinckley, for at the 
same meeting: "Upon special consideracions them thereunto 
movinge, John Hinckley is againe restored and admitted to his 
rome and place." 1 It was decided also that the Mayor should 
immediately " travell unto the Lorde Keeper for that tyme beinge 
for the reversinge of the said commission : who did presentlie 
travell unto the Court, and . . . the Lorde Keper did forth- 
with graunt a newe commission for the said subsidies accordinge 
to the former president, title and style in that behalf used." 2 
Evidently the Bishop's letter of August, 1593, 3 which Hatcher 
prints as an answer to the Community's petition of 1595, 4 must 
belong to this time. In it Coldwell speaks of the Lord Keeper's 
demand for the return of the first Commission and apologises for 
having retained it, explaining that his motive was not ambition 
but " the foresight of sedition." Apparently he had desired to 
keep the document as an evidence that his view of the Mayor's 
position had the sanction of the central government. As will be 
seen the citizens accused him of having, by some means, procured 
; the insertion of the obnoxious designation in the heading of the 
Commission, but this he denied. 5 

Other grievances between the Bishop and the Community re- 
mained, and the same meeting decided to appeal to the Privy 
Council for their rectification, if no satisfaction should be obtained 

1 Ibid, fol. 136 a ; not printed in H.M.G.R. IV. 

2 Ledger C, fols. 135 b, 136 a. H.M.G.R., IV., pp. 230-1. The last 
paragraph is obviously a memorandum added afterwards but the date of 
Coldwell's letter above shows that the whole affair was summarily dealt 

3 Harl. MS., 286, 121. Printed B. & H., p. 301 with date but no reference. 
It could not be an answer to the petition even if Hatcher's date of June, 

1 1594, were correct (B. & II, p. 298). Sir John Puckering was Lord Keeper 
of the Great Seal from 1592—6 {Iladyrfs Booh of Dignities, p. 356). 
4 See below. 5 See below, and references there given. 

334 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

from the Bishop. There is no record of his answer to the deputation 
appointed, but the development of the dispute makes it clear that 
he stood upon his rights, as recent Bishops had, apparently, not 
done. Among the muniments of the Corporation is a writ of Quo 
Warranto, 1 dated July 26th, 35 Elizabeth, challenging the various 
liberties which the Community enjoyed, but there is no available 
evidence of the progress of this method of attack. In other ways 
the dispute was tenaciously maintained by both parties. On Nov. 
14th, when the Mayor-Elect, Richard Godfrey, appeared before the 
deputy-steward to be sworn in, he was offered " an erronyous othe," 
whiche he refused " in regard of his dutie to her Majestie." 2 This 
must have been the oath involving a recognition of duty to the 
Bishop as well as to the Queen, which had been a grievance of the 
Community in Shaxton's time. A deputation of the principal 
members of the Community was appointed to deal with the 
matter, and, a month later, 3 a loan of money was taken from all 
the members for the prosecution of the suit. In the Easter Term 
of the same year the Bishop's franchises were challenged by a 
Quo Warranto, as appears from the detailed instructions to counsel 
in answer to it which are preserved among the Episcopal muni- 
ments. 4 No further particulars relating to this action have been 
found, but in a formal legal enquiry the Bishop's charters and 
letters patent must have been difficult to impugn ; no assertion 
not amply supported by such evidence appears in the above docu- 

As in earlier controversies, both parties recognised that the 
question of the oath was the vital point, and appear to have con- 
centrated their efforts upon deciding this first. The Bishop must 
have approached the Community with reference to a joint ap- 
plication to the Queen or her Council, for on September 17th, 
1594, the matter was mentioned in Convocation. 5 The decision of 
the Community is not recorded, but there is no evidence of joint 

1 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 49. 
2 Ledger C, fol. 138 a. H.M.C.B., IV., pp. 231-2. 3 Ibid, fols. 138-9. 

* Diocesan Registry ; in bundle described on p. 12, H.M.C.B., IV. 
5 Ledger C, fol. 141 ; H.M.Q.B., IV., p. 232. 

between 1225 and 1612. 335 

action during the following months. Evidently the next Mayor, 
Thomas Grafton, who was elected in November, 1594, also refused 
to take the oath that the Bishop desired, 1 and at some time after 
this, 2 both parties appear to have sent up to the Council the 
versions which they asserted to be those in regular use. Coldwell 
sent up a copy of the oath that he desired, with a petition s 
asserting that it had been taken in this form since the Composition 
of 1306, except during the controversy with Bishop Beauchamp, 
when the King's command was necessary to compel the Mayor to 
take it. Eecently controversy had again developed: "Within 
these two years or. thereabouts two several maiors have taken two 
severall oaths tending to the disheritance of the same Churche and 
to the overthrow of the Charters and privileges thereunto granted 
and belonginge only." He says also that the old oath for which 
he petitioned had the approval of her Majesty's Attorney General 
and of " others of great experience in the la we," and that it was 
the only security for the proper discharge of duty by the officials 
of the City, to the Queen no less than to the Bishop. 
The oath that he enclosed appears to be a copy of the second 

1 His refusal is referred to by the Community in their petition of January, 
1595 (see below), and also in ColdwelPs answer to it, Item (2) : " If the 
sayd Thomas Grafton would have taken the sayd accustomed oathe, yt 
should have been receaved." (M.G.S., Box 4, No. 47.) The Ledgers afford 
little evidence. In the years just before the struggle it had been usual to 
record the election of the Mayor on Nov. 2nd, but to call him mayor-elect 
in the record of any meeting which took place between that date and his 
swearing-in at the Bishop's Court on Nov. 14th. (Ledger C, fols. 122-3.) 
Grafton's election was as usual, but the next meeting was on Nov. 22nd ; 
there is thus nothing to show whether he had been sworn in or not. On 
the other hand, there is no reference to his being sworn in before the 
Community, such as was frequent during the dispute with Beauchamp. 
(See above, Section IV. B). 

2 The copies which are among the Corporation muniments are not dated, 
but Coldwell's petition now to be dealt with refers to two contumacious 
Mayors, i.e., Godfrey and Grafton, and the Community's copy of the oath 
is said to be that taken in 1594. Probably the two versions were sent up 
some time between November, 1594, and the consideration of the oath by 
the Lord Chief Justices ; this must have taken place before the petitions 
of the two parties early in 1595, for they both referjto the Justices' decision. 

3 Petition and copy of oath are both in Bundle 2, Box 4, M.C.S. 

336 The relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

version in the Liber Niger x ; it agrees substantially with the first 
version of Bishop Beauchamp's time, 2 though there are many slight 
differences in spelling and phrasing. Only two alterations are of 
importance. In the clause relating to the Assize of bread and ale, 
etc.: for the phrase: ". . . be observed and kept after the 
law requyreth trewly," there is substituted : " , . . be observed 
and kept after that the proclamation shalbe made in the lawday 
of this Cittie," i.e., in the Bishop's Court. In the next clause, 
relating to forestallers and regrators, for " . . . be arrested and 
brought befor my lord's officers that they may be openly punysshed 
lawfully after their deservyng," there is substituted : " . . . bee 
openly punyshed after their deservyng by the guyding of my Lord's 
Court and his officers." The first of these alterations is more 
considerable than the second, but it is clear that they both have 
the same purpose, viz., to assert clearly the jurisdiction of the 
Bishop's Court in respect of two matters wherein the Mayor and 
Community had lately been encroaching. It has been noted 
already that during the middle of the 16th century Convocation 
had taken to itself much of this business; in 1550 the Ledger 
refers specifically 3 to November 18th, " whiche day Mr, Meyor 
shall make his proclamacion " in reference to the Assize of Ale. 
The version of the oath now quoted by Cold well appears definitely 
to attack this encroachment, and was probably a later version than 
Beauchamp's, modified for this purpose ; on all other points the 
two versions are agreed, but it is curious that the Bishop did not 
offer the oldest version among his records as the best evidence of 
his long-established rights. 

The Community for its part must also have sent up a copy of 
the version which was claimed to be usual and traditional. In 
the same box of documents appears a copy of the oath headed : "The 
oath which was taken the xxvi th of November, A Eegni Elizabeth, 
etc.: xxxvi t0 ." 4 It was probably taken by Thomas Grafton 

1 L.N., fol. 1 b. 2 See above, Section IV., B. 

3 Ledger B., fol. 305 b ; H.M.C.R., IV., p. 220. 
4 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 56 ; either a draft of the copy sent up or the original 

between 1225 and 1612. 337 

before Convocation although no record of the fact appears in the 
Ledgers; certainly it would never have been accepted in the 
Bishop's Court. It omits all reference to the Bishop and all the 
phrases acknowledging the jurisdiction of his court; .it omits 
entirely the clause binding the Mayor to inform the Bishop's 
officers of escheats and casualties, and also that which bound him 
to keep the conditions of the Composition of 1306. It is thus 
very much cut down, and contains nothing which might not have 
appeared if the City had never had any connection with the Bishop 
at all. The entire omission of all reference to the Bishop's Court 
may be compared with the assertions of two undated documents 
among the Corporation muniments : these flatly deny the juris- 
diction of the Court in many matters expressly mentioned in the 
Composition of 1306. One of them 1 criticises the Bishop's version 
of the oatli in respect of all the points omitted in the Community's 
version and says that Articles 2, 3, 6, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 24, and 
27 of the Composition 2 are contrary to the actual custom. The 
other 3 declares that the taking of the oath before the Bishop or 
his official had been a matter of " curtezie and reverence to the 
Bishop and not of anye necessitie." 

So much hard swearing and flat contradiction were employed on 
both sides at this stage in the long duel that it is difficult to put 
much faith in mere assertion on either side. There is, however, 
one scrap of presumably unbiassed evidence. The one fragment 
of the Court Roll still extant 4 certainly supports the Community's 
assertion that few of the matters mentioned came before the 
Bishop's Court. The fragment mentioned covers a period of 
comparative peace between 1565 — 1581, and may be presumed 
■to represent the normal state of things. Little business appears 
at all except petty matters such as the appraisement of distraints ; 
over and over again nothing is recorded but the presence or 
absence of the Aldermen, and even on the often-quoted lawday, 

1 M.C.S., Box 4, Bundle 2. Matters in question between the Bishop and 
the Mayor. 

2 T.C., pp. 191—7. See above, Section III., B. 
3 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 56. 4 M.C.S., small bound volume in bookshelf. 

z 2 

338 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

Nov. 14th, there is no mention of swearing in the mayor. As 
we shall see later the opinion of the justices who considered the 
oath seems to have been on the side of the Community's version. 

In addition to the copy of the oath just discussed there exist 
two versions inserted at the beginning of Ledger C, but undated. 
The first of these 1 makes much the same omissions relating to the 
Bishop's Court, his escheats, and the Composition of 1306, but in- 
cludes his name after that of the King, with the description " Lord 
of this Cittie " ; the second 2 belongs to a later date and may be 
passed over for the present. 

Towards the end of 1594 or the beginning of 1595 the matter 
came before the Lords of the Privy Council, and the drafting of 
an oath which should serve as the basis of a compromise was re- 
ferred by them to the Lords Chief Justices. 3 The formula thus 
drafted 4 seems to have commended itself to the Community but 
to have been utterly refused by the Bishop, without whose consent 
it could not be adopted. 5 

The Community's petition of Jan, 26th, 1595, 3 put forward this 

1 Pasted into the front of Ledger C. 

a Written on the first leaf of Ledger C ; it is the version taken after the 
Charter of 1612. See Section V., B. 

3 Both these points are given in the Community's petition to the Council, 
dated Jan. 26th, 1595, which is printed in B. & R., pp. 298—301, from the 
Burleigh papers in the Lansdowne MSS., 78, 1. It is one of Benson's 
transcriptions and, as usual, very inaccurate. The date is not June but 
January 1594, i.e% according to the modern reckoning of the year, 1595 ; the 
reference to the MSS. is wrong also. Throughout, the singular " Lordship " 
is given, instead of the plural, and the petition described as addressed to 
' The Lord Keeper." It appears to be a copy, perhaps made for Burleigh's 
convenience, of a petition addressed to the Council. Other errors are 
" newe" for ,( nowe" throughout, and "desiering " instead of " declining," 
which makes nonsense of Item 3 : " that the nowe Mayor declining to take 
the same othe," etc. There are many other minor omissions and alterations. 

4 Unfortunately no copy is extant ; it may have, been the first one in 
Ledger C, referred to above, but this seems too bald for Bishop Cotton's 
assertion that the draft charter of 1609—10 was inconsistent with it. (See 
below, Section V., A.) 

5 Ibid. See also the Bishop's answer to the petition, M.C.S., Box 4, No. 47. 

between 1225 and 1612. 339 

refusal among its many grievances ; l these mainly relate to the 
claim of the Bishop to the swearing in of the Mayor as he wished, 
and to the jurisdiction of his Court according to the Composition 
of 1306. Now, as in former quarrels, the matter of the oath was 
regarded as the first essential, and the Bishop's refusal to accept 
the Justices' version was a serious obstacle in the way of any 
compromise. Several further hearings by the Council seem to have 
been necessary, 2 and a deputation to represent the Community 
before it was appointed on Jan. 17th. 3 The case came before the 
Council on February 5th, 1595, 4 but nothing seems to have been 
done except to appoint another hearing for the Monday after 
Easter week, 5 and to require another deputation. Possibly the 
Bishop was not present, or not adequately represented. For the 
next meeting both parties appointed attorneys, 6 but there is no 
record of any action taken by the Council at it. 

More resulted from a hearing before the Council on May 23rd. 
According to an undated document 7 representing the Bishop's 
point of view, on this occasion the Community was required to 
produce proof by May 28th of several articles in its petition of 
January 26th ; among these were two which asserted that the 
Bishop was responsible for the direction of the Subsidy Commission 

1 Ledger 0. In a criticism of this petition (M.C.S , Box 4, Bundle 58), 
which from internal evidence must belong to the end of May, 1595, (see 
below), the Bishop appears to have demanded proof of this refusal and sug- 
gested that it was a malicious accusation by the Community, but in his 
formal answer {M.C.S., Box 4, No. 47) he gives reason for the refusal. 

2 Unfortunately no reference to these hearings can be found in any of the 
official records of the Privy Council. 

3 Power of Attorney, M.C.S., Drawer P., No. 16. 
4 Ledger 0. t fol. 146 b. H.M.G.R., IV., p. 232. 
5 April 3rd ; Easter in 1595 was on March 26th. 

6 Power of Attorney by the Community, April 11th ; M.C.S., Box 4, No. 1. 
Letter by the Bishop, April 22nd ; Bundle in the Diocesan Registry. Mr. 
Davies, in his Introduction to the Tropenell Cartulary (pp. xix.— xx.) refers 
this letter to Bishop John Piers : but both the date and the mention of the 
Privy Council Order assign it to this year. 

7 M.C.S., Box 4, Bundle 58. " A Remembrance of certain slanderous 
articles." This sums up the dispute up to this point, with the dates men- 
tioned above, and enumerates the articles to be proved, referring to them 
by their numbering in the Community's petition. 

340 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

of 1593 and that he had refused the Justices' version of the oath. 1 
The heading of the Subsidy Commission had immediately been 
altered in the way the citizens desired, as has been seen, but they 
were apparently still anxious to accuse the Bishop of having pro- 
cured the insertion of the offending phrase and so to bring him 
into disfavour. The second matter is one of those dealt with in 
a formal answer to the Community's attack, which must have been 
drawn up for the Council by Coldwell and his advisers during the 
first half of 1595, though the copy among the Corporation muni- 
ments is undated. 2 It claimed the usual franchises and privileges 
which the Community had challenged, insisting above all upon 
the acceptance of the usual oath by the Mayor and expressing 
williugness to allow him to co-operate with the Bailiff in the 
government of the city, provided this security had first been given. 
The reason put forward to explain the refusal of the oath in the 
form drafted by the Justices was that, unlike the version that he 
desired to be accepted, it was not consistent with the Bishop's 

About this stage of the proceedings the Council appear to have 
referred the matter to four Commissioners who were to investigate 
in detail the mutual grievances between the two parties and ar- 
bitrate between them. On August 20th 3 these Commissioners 
reported to the Council that the citizens were very willing to end 
the matter and to apologise to the Bishop for any offence that 
they had given, while he for his part was willing to arrange a 
reconciliation upon this acknowledgment. Still the ending of the 
controversy depended upon the oath, and both parties therefore 
"joyntly beseeche your good Lo pp " to vouchsafe them this favor 
that by your Lo ps meanes her Ma tie maye be moved to geve her 
gracious allowance of suche oathe from henceforthe to be ministred 
to the Maior as best shalbe agreable with her highnes goodlykiuge, 
either one of those which heretofore they have used or suche other 

1 The Bishop's statement for the Lord Chief Justice in Feb., 1596 (see 
p. 145) says that the Community failed in this proof and made submission 
and apology. 

2 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 47. 3 M.C.S. Box 4, No. 4. 

between 1225 and 1612. 341 

as her Ma lie in her princely wiseclome and consideracion shall 
thinke fitt." The Commissioners also joined in this plea, as they 
realised that other details could not be settled till this fundamental 
point was agreed on. 

The outcome of this recommendation was that the point was 
referred to the Archbishop of Canterbury and Sir John Puckering, 
Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 1 who deliberated upon the two 
versions submitted by the contending parties and their conflicting 
assertions with regard to them. 2 Further evidence was required, 
and a Commission was directed to six of the local gentry to examine 
witnesses on oath and require answers to a number of questions 
appended. 3 No official report of this Commission can be found, but 
a letter of Coldwell to the Council, dated November 11th, 1595, 4 
implies that the result of the examination had been favourable to 
the Bishop's contention, at any rate as regards the promise to fulfil 
the Composition of 1306. He insists at length upon the importance 
of this matter as the foundation of the rights both of the Bishop 
and the Community and as essential for the good government of 
the city. In other respects he expresses his willingness to accept 
any modification of the oath which the Queen or her Council may 
suggest. It is evident from the tone of the letter that peace had 
not been reached. The Bishop speaks of the Citizens' deliberate 
delays, of their " insolent and malicious " behaviour, " beinge, 
since my late forgivinge them the injuryes which they did unto 
me, more despightfull than ever they were before." 

The matter appears now to have passed from the cognisance of 
the Council to that of the Courts of Law. There is little detailed 
evidence of its progress, but the long list of the Bishop's grievances 

1 The appointment of Puckering as Chief Steward was made in October, 
1595 ; he had already shown favour to the Community in redirecting the 
Subsidy Commission. 

2 All these details are given in the Commission next to be mentioned, 
which is dated Oct. 31st, 1595. (M.C.S., Box 4, No. 60.) 

3 This must be the list of questions given in M.C.S., Box 4, No. 51, but 
not attached to No. 60. Possibly the versions of the oath already referred 
to, found in the same box, were the enclosures. 

4 M.C.S., Box 4, Bundle 58. 

342 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

dated February 8th, 1596, 1 was drawn up for the consideration of 
the Lord Chief Justice and comprises a more extensive list of 
complaints than any of the documents previously quoted. In this 
document the Bishop asserts that the Community had denied him 
his rights in lands and rents, in amercements and profits, in services 
and official duties, in submission to his court, and in obedience to 
his ordinances, and further that it had falsely accused him to the 
Council, and slandered him publicly. There is no evidence to show 
for what purpose this document was drawn up, nor are any par- 
ticulars extant as to the progress of the matter during 1596. In 
October of that year Bishop Coldwell died, 2 and an interregnum of 
more than two years took place before his successor was appointed. 3 

The controversy might have been expected to lapse as it had on 
the resignation of Shaxton, but there are one or two indications 
that this did not occur. According to a later document, drawn up 
by Bishop Cotton about 1607 as a record of his objections to the 
granting of a Charter by James I., there was many years after- 
wards: "a recorde of Quo Warranto nowe dependinge againste them 
from 36 t0 of Queen Elizabethe." 4 This would seem to show that 
the case begun in 1593 had not then been closed. Probably the 
breviat, which has already been so often quoted, was drawn up as 
an instruction to counsel at this time, for it reads as if intended 
for use during this controversy, though it speaks of Coldwell as 
" the last bishop." 5 Early in 1597 there is an entry in the Ledger 6 
respecting the appointment of two members of the Community to 
appear on its behalf in answer to a Quo Warranto, but it is not 
clear whether this was connected with the recent controversy or not. 

The dispute over the oath seems to have continued into the early 
years of Cotton's episcopate. Upon his election as Bishop, Nov. 
12th, 1598, 7 he wrote a friendly letter to the Community, beseeching 

1 Bundle at Diocesan Registry. Printed in B. & ZT., pp. 302-3. 
2 D.N.B. 
3 T. Fuller's Worthies of England, Vol. I., p. 406. Nichols' Edition. 181 1 . 
4 M.C.S., Box 4, Bundle 58. 5 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 48. 

6 Ledger C, fol. 153 b. 
7 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 5. No year is given, but the next letter is clearly 
dated by the Mayor. 

between 1225 and 1612. 343 

them that the controversies during his predecessor's time " togither 
with the person may be buryed and intombed," and urging that 
the oldest known form of the oath must be the best. This overture 
evidently met with no response, for on Dec. 3rd 1 the Bishop wrote 
again offering that the obnoxious protestation should not be said 
by the Mayor but recited by the Bishop's official. 2 There is no 
evidence of the result of this suggested compromise, and Hatcher 
has printed a letter of Cotton's appealing to the Queen in the 
matter. 3 Probably the compromise suggested in the Bishop's 
second letter was adopted; it would represent a considerable con- 
cession on his part, since the Community would thus be able to 
maintain its contention that the oatli actually taken by the Mayor 
omitted all reference to the disputed points. At any rate, by the 
Bishop's own admission in the next dispute, the oath henceforward 
taken was that drafted by the Justices and formerly refused by 
Coldwell; in the list of his objections to the new charter drawn 
up about 1607 occurs the following statement : " It is againste the 
Petitioners owne oathe, made for the Maiors of this Cittie Signed 
by the honorable the twoo Lordes Chief Justices handes yet livinge 
And taken by the nowe maior and other his predecessors in that 
office for divers yeares paste." 4 

There is one clear evidence of Cotton's effective exercise of his 
"governing powers as defined in the charter of Edward IV. Among 
the Episcopal archives exists a petition 5 by a number of citizens 
calling themselves "the middle estate of the said Citty," who beg 
the Bishop to make ordinances to restrain the influx of strangers 
and prevent the decay of the city. They assure the Bishop that 

1 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 6. Addressed to Zachary Lyminge, Mayor 1598—9. 

2 His words were : " the oathe to be taken playnelye and symplye as it 
was before, but the protestacion and exception to be made onelie by my 
officer, yt ministrethe the oathe on my parte and not on yours to be made." 
This appears to refer to some clause safeguarding the Bishop's rights which 
it would seem that the Justices had included. 

3 B. & ff., Appendix, p. 772. No reference given and not found among 
either the Episcopal or municipal archives. 

4 M.C.S., Box 4, Bundle 58. See below. 
5 Bundle in Diocesan Registry. 

344 The Relations, of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

they do not mean in any way to usurp his rights ; " as happilye (sic) 
hath bin heretofore unadvisedly attempted by others." Hatcher 
speaks of this as signed by the Mayor of 1602-3, James Haviland, 1 
and takes it to represent the action of the Community. But the 
first of the fifteen signatures is that of John Haviland, and of the 
other names only one, that of Henry Hammond, occurs in the 
Ledger in the years following 1598, 2 where the names of the 
Community are regularly recorded. This fact, taken with the two 
quotations already given, suggests that the petition was not drafted 
by the ruling oligarchy at all, but by lesser tradesmen. Cotton 
himself spoke of it in 1610 as " the townsmen's petition," 3 a phrase 
which he would scarcely have used to describe the Mayor and 
Community. Nevertheless, the Bishop drew up ordinances in 
response to this request, 4 and there is no indication that they were 
not obeyed. This is the last piece of evidence found which can in 
any way be connected with this dispute. 

On the whole the issue of this struggle is more obscure than 
that of any preceding it. The two parties seem to have contended 
on more equal terms than ever before, and each at some stage of 
the dispute took up a position which had later to be surrendered. 
The evidence throughout is conflicting and the contradictory 
assertions are very difficult to interpret. Further, the quality of 
the evidence is not good ; few of the original documents can be 
found, and the mass of material preserved among the Corporation 
muniments consists mainly of rough drafts or copies neither dated 
nor signed. It is unfortunate that the Letters and State Papers 
do not furnish evidence of the progress of this dispute as they 
do of the quarrel with Shaxton. This lack of evidence, however, 
matters the less at this stage in the long controversy as the precise 
issue of the contest is less important. The citizens were on the 
eve of victory, but they were finally to achieve it by a different 
method. The realisation that it was necessary to approach their 

1 B. & #., p. 304. 2 Ledger C, fols. 157—172. 

3 In his criticism of the draft charter, M.C.S., Box 4, No. 21, see below. 

4 Bundle in Diocesan Registry. Several are printed in B. & H., pp. 304-5, 
and one in H.M.C.R. IV., p. 12. 

between 1225 and 1612. 345 

goal in a different way was the most material issue of the contest 
with Bishop Coldwell, and although hardly any pause is to be, 
noted between this and the next controversy, the difference in 
their procedure is quite distinct. Partly for this reason, and still 
more because the next contest ended in the emancipation of the 
city* the account of it must be relegated to a separate chapter. 

V. — The Final Emancipation of the City. 
(A) The Granting of the New Charter. 

The early years of the 17th century saw the victory of the 
Community in its long struggle to free itself from the control of the 
Bishop. During the 16th century the circumstances in which the 
two parties had fought had been very different from those of earlier 
years. The Bishops had found it more and more difficult to 
maintain the effective control that they had originally exercised, 
and could with much less confidence appeal to the central govern- 
ment for support. The Community had secured for itself much 
influence and assistance from those in power, yet had gained only 
a modified success when it attacked the Bishop directly by process 
of law. 

This last controversy is distinguished from those of earlier cen- 
turies not only by its different result but also (as has been already 
suggested) by a change in the attitude of the combatants. Bishop 
Cotton was not of a fighting temper, as his somewhat plaintive 
letters to the Community have shown. 1 That he was not tenacious 
of the rights of his see is shown by his completion of the alienation 
of the Manor of Sherborne from it, thus yielding to the Queen's 
desire to dispose of that valuable possession, which his predecesors 
had only gran ted on a lease. 2 The Community also was less aggressive 
and tried to bargain with the Bishop for the effective government 
of the city, while leaving to him intact all such rights and privileges 
as were not actually offensive or inconvenient to itself. 

Favourable opportunities for the procuring of a new charter were 

1 See above (Section IV., F.), and references there given. 
2 B&H., p. 304. 

346 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

offered by the frequent visits of James I. to Salisbury, and of these 
occasions the Community promptly took advantage. Several entries 
in the Ledger for 1603 x bear witness to the preparations for the 
first visit. The most important of these was the preparation of a 
petition to be presented to the King on his arrival in October; the 
draft appears in the Ledger under the date of September 16th. 2 Like 
other earlier petitions it appealed for formal incorporation but not 
for the reasons previously given ; stress was laid in this and many 
following appeals upon the decay of the city through the influx of 
strangers and the insufficient regulation of the various trades, and 
it was desired: "That the Cittie may be made a Countye and soe 
incorporated with the trades therein for the prevencion of the 
decaye thereof." The other main reason given was the ineffective- 
ness of the divided government: " Lastly, many offenders escape, 
by reason the power of reformacion resteth more in others than in 
the mayor and his brethren." As regards the Bishop's rights, the 
petition suggested that the King should compensate him for his 
interest in the city and then lease it himself to the citizens for an 
equivalent sum, thus making the city directly dependent upon 
himself, but possessed of the same liberties as it had hitherto en- 
joyed under the Bishop. Finally the petition asserted that the 
Community had also petitioned the Bishop and his Steward, the 
Earl of Pembroke, and had found them " inclynable to do us any 

The matter was taken into favourable consideration by the King, 
and on November 12th Cecil wrote to acquaint the Bishop with 
this and to request him either to send reasons against it or to 
signify his consent." 3 Meanwhile, elaborate negotiations were 
conducted within the city itself between the Community and the 
Bishop, since the Attorney-General, to whom the petition had 
been referred, had said that all depended upon the consent of the 
Bishop and his officers : " the question beinge onlie for convenience, 
for without question it may be don in lawe." 4 On May 7th, 1604, 5 

1 Ledger C, fols. 173—5. H.M.C.R., IV., p. 234. 
2 Ledger C, fol. 174 b. H.M.C.R., IV. p. 234. 
3 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 7. 4 M.C.S., Box 4, Bundle 58. 

5 Ledger C, fol. 176 b. 

between 1225 and 1612. 347 

a deputation was sent to compound with the Bishop for his 
amercements, but there is no record of its result. On Jan. 
20th, 1606, 1 Giles Tooker was instructed, as : " the said 
Lo. Buyshop is well inclined thereto," to draw up the proposed 
formula of incorporation and present it to the Bishop ; deputations 
were appointed to prosecute the matter in London and also to confer 
with the Dean and Chapter and obtain their consent. Sums of 
money were lent by the members of the Community for the expense 
of these proceedings. 

At this stage difficulties seem to have arisen. On March 13th, 
1607, 2 it is recorded that the draft articles of incorporation were 
" rejected and dislyked " by the Dean and Chapter, and thereupon 
the assembly agreed to " procure by counsell at the la we a draught." 
Probably the elaborate statement of objections by Bishop, Dean, 
and Chapter, which is preserved among the Corporation muniments, 
belongs to this time. 3 It refers specifically to the exchange pro- 
posed in the petition of 1603, and declares that it would be 
prejudicial to the Church and therefore a breach of the King's 
Coronation oath as well as of the oaths taken by the Bishop, the 
Dean, the Chapter, and the Mayor respectively. Lastly, it enu- 
merates the various unsuccessful attempts to obtain freedom made 
by the Community in the past. 

The citizens, however, were not discouraged, and returned to 
the attack iu the early part of 1609. By that time they had 
apparently procured the new draft made by legal experts, for they 
sent to the King another petition for incorporation with an ap- 
pended list of the precise liberties which they desired. From the 
copy among the Corporation muniments 4 this appears to have 
been considered at Whitehall on April 20th, 1609, and to have 
been passed on to the Attorney-General with instructions to "drawe 

1 Ledger C., fols. 190-1. H.M.C.R., IV., p. 234, gives part of this entry, 
but with, wrong paging. 

2 Ibid, fol. 198 a. The date given by H.M.C.R. IV., p. 235, is wrong. 

3 M.C.S., Box 4, Bundle .58. Undated — annotated in the margin in a 
contrary sense — probably a copy made for the convenience of the Community. 

4 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 10. Copy of the petition with a note as above to 
i the Attorney-General. 

348 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

a book conteyninge his Mat 8 graunte and charter or confirmation 

of charter with addition of theis liberties desired." In this petition 

the same reasons of poverty and the influx of outsiders are given, 

and also the plea of defects in the existing incorporation and of 

the uncertainty of its precise name. The special liberties desired 

would have given the citizens complete control of trade within the 

city and effective government by a Mayor, Eecorder, Aldermen, and 

other officers, with power to make ordinances ; of these officers the 

Mayor, Eecorder, and five Aldermen were to be Justices of the 

Peace, with a Bailiff and a gaol of their own, distinct from those 

of the Bishop. The lands and liberties formerly enjoyed by the 

Community were to be confirmed, and it was to be allowed to 

acquire more lands in mortmain up to the annual value of £50. 

Finally there was " a proviso to be eonteyned in this newe chartere 

that nothing therein graunted shall extende to prejudice the rights 

and liberties of the Bishop of Sarum or his successors." 

The suit for this charter must have been carried on in London 

without reference to the Bishop, for he complained on June 30th 

that he was not allowed to see " the drawen booke," and urged that 

the King should " make a stay of signing there said bill untill his 

mat ie coming to Salisburie, which as I heare wilbe aboute the 

beginninge of August next." 1 A letter in this same sense was 

addressed to the Earl of Salisbury by the Bishop, Dean, and 

Chapter, on July 12th, 1609. 2 Meanwhile the citizens were 

husbanding their resources, probably because of this delay ; loans 

were taken and deputations appointed as usual, but the numbers 

of the latter were reduced, and on Sept. 22nd, 1609, it was arranged 

that only two members at a time should go up to assist Tooker, 

and "onelye one man to be allowed to attend them all." 3 The 

matter appears to have been referred to the Lord Chancellor, Lord 

Ellesmere, as a collection of notes made for him dealing with the 

same points as the above petition is extant. 4 According to a letter 

1 M.O.S., Box 4, No. 9. The superscription of the letter is gone, and no 
name is mentioned ; the letter addresses " the Earl," probably Robert Cecil, 
by this date Earl of Salisbury. 

2 Domestic State Papers, James I., 1603 — 10. No. 27. 
3 Ledger C., fol. 208 a. 4 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 22. 

between 1225 and 1612. 349 

from the Community early in 16 ll, 1 thanking him for his inter- 
vention, he had written to the Bishop and induced him to confer 
with the Community 2 so as to eliminate points of agreement and 
arrive at the main points on which there was still dispute. Two 
elaborate statements, each dated 1610 and representing the opposed 
points of view, are among the Corporation Muniments, and probably 
summarise the results of this conference. That of the Community 3 
carefully enumerated the Bishop's various territorial, financial, and 
judicial privileges, and stated that it had no desire to meddle with 
them. Its own demands were reduced to four principal heads, as 
follows : — 

" 1. To be incorporated by charter. 

" 2. To make laws and orders for the good ordering of that 

" 3. To exclude fforeyners. 

" 4. To have a standing Commission of the peace as other 

Citties have." 

That of the Bishop 4 objected to some of the details under 

these four headings as an impeachment of his privileges, but 

could not say much in this strain since the citizens had so 

carefully refrained from attacking them. The main argument 

put forward on his side was that the four demands were 

unnecessary, since they were already effectively secured through 

the Bishop. But it is evident that he feared the complete success 

of the Community's appeal and foresaw the worst: "Alsoe noe 

\ Cathedralle Churche and Close hath ever ben subject to the townes 

1 government, and to be soe heare where the Church made the Cittie 

; were very harde." The same objections were put forward in a 

\ letter from Cotton, dated Jan. 18th, 1611, 5 and addressed apparently 

1 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 36. Dated Feb. 3rd,1610, i.e.,161 1 by modern dating. 

2 The Bishop's letter of Jan. 18th, 1611, says this also. A copy dated 

Jan. 22nd is in M.C.S., Box 4, No. 29. Hatcher's|date, Jan. 28th, is wrongly 

transcribed from the Bishop's copy in the bundle at the Diocesan Registry. 

See B. & //., p. 317. 

3 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 20. 4 M.C.S., Box 4. No. 21. 

5 M.C.S.) Box 4. No. 29. There is another elaborate statement on similar 
lines in the bundle at the Diocesan Registry. 

350 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

to the Lord Chancellor, since it refers to his recommendation of a 

Meanwhile the Community was growing anxious over the many 
delays, and on May 28th, 1910, it endeavoured to expedite matters 
by a letter to the Earl of Salisbury, 1 From this it appears that 
the method of Quo Warranto had been suggested for dealing with 
the chief points, that the Bishop's counsel were unwilling to adopt 
this plan, and therefore that the method of agreement was still 
the most hopeful. In November the Lord Chancellor wrote to the 
Bishop urging him to consider some way of ending the matter; 2 
probably the letter referred to above was sent in answer to this. 
From one or two undated documents in the Municipal and 
Episcopal muniments, 3 the Community seems to have suggested 
that the Bishop's many delays were designed to exhaust its re- 
sources, since there was no real objection to be brought against its 

The Lord Chancellor, having considered the matter with the 
statements of both parties, thought " that poynt of power to make 
justices of peace in that corporacion to be the most considerable " 4 of 
the four points at issue. With this statement of opinion he referred 
the matter to the consideration of Sir Henry Hobart, the Attorney- 
General, and Sir James Ley, Attorney of the Court of Wards, on 
Feb. 10th, 1611. Apparently the former had already heard the 
case in its earlier stages, and on receiving their summons Cotton 
wrote to the Lord Chancellor to deprecate further hearing. 5 He 
also wrote to the two attorneys explaining that he had begged the 
Lord Chancellor: "that you maybe spared." 6 Both letters are 
dated April 4th, 1611. There is no record extant of the hearing 
thus arranged, and from a petition which the citizens drew up to 
present to the King 7 on his third visit to Salisbury in the summer 

1 Domestic State Papers. Vol. 54, No. 79. 

2 M. G.S., Box 4, No. 11. 

3 M.C.S., Nos. 18 and 33. Also bundle mentioned above. 

4 M.G.S., Box 4, No. 13. 5 Ibid, not numbered. 6 Ibid, No. 39. 

7 M.C.S., Box 4, No. 23. Undated, but describes the progress of the 

matter up to this point. 

between 1225 and 1612. 351 

of 1611, it appears that the Bishop's objections to the re-hearing 
of the case had been effective. But in October, 1611, the parties were 
summoned before the Council by the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, and the Lord Privy Seal. 1 
On Nov. 8th the case was referred again by these lords to Hobart 
and Ley, assisted by Sir Francis Bacon, then Solicitor General, 
that they might put an end to the matter. A final list of ob- 
jections by the Bishop 2 shows that he had given up hope of delaying 
any longer the grant of a charter such as the Community desired, 
and in the last resort he contented himself with urging that when 
the new charter was drafted for the Community a separate charter 
should be given to himself, which should exclude the new municipal 
authority from any control over the Close, and leave to the Bishop, 
Dean, and Chapter at least the right to govern themselves. This 
was accordingly done, and the two new charters were drafted early 
in 1612 in accordance with this division of power. The analysis 
of them which follows will show that the government of the City, 
once mainly in the hands of the Bishop's officials, and so long 
coveted by the Community, had finally been divided between them ; 
in this division of power by far the largest portion fell to the 
Municipality, and only the Liberty of the Close remained to the 
Bishop as a remnant of his former power. The careful maintenance 
of the outward forms of the Bishop's rule did not really obscure 
the fact that the final victory went to the rebellious citizens. 

(B) The Government under the new Charter. 

It remains to describe the nature of the settlement which followed 
the final victory of the citizens. The new charter, dated March 2nd, 
1612, follows closely on the lines indicated by the previous peti- 
tions. 3 It is said to have been granted in response to the requests of 
the citizens and of Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, who had been one 
of their chief counsellors and supporters throughout the recent 

1 Ibid, No. 37. 
1 Ibid, No. 38. Undated, but the appeal for a separate charter is conclusive. 
3 The charter, beautifully illuminated, is framed among the muniments 
of the Corporation. It is printed in full in B. & H., pp. 773—783. 


352 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

negotiations. The main points of importance in it are those dealing 
with the city's incorporation and property, its constitution and 
government, its judicial administration, and its power to regulate 
trade. When these have been dealt with the nature of the relation 
between the new Corporation and the Bishop will be apparent. 

1. Incorporation. The City was declared formally incorporate, 
so that any ambiguity as to the precise name and nature of the 
body which owned corporate property (henceforth, the Mayor and 
Corporation of the City of New Sarum) might be avoided. Its 
existing possessions were confirmed to it and it was given leave to 
add to these by the purchase of property worth £50 per annum. 

2. Government. The governing body of the City was to consist of 
a Mayor annually elected, a Eecorder, twenty-four Aldermen, and 
forty-eight Assistants holding office for life; vacancies among the 
Aldermen were to be filled by co-option from among the Assistants, 
and vacancies in the latter body by co-option from among the free 
citizens. The officials subordinate to the governing body and ap- 
pointed and displaced by them were to consist of two Chamberlains, 
four Chief Constables, thirteen petty Constables, and three Serjeants- 
at-Mace. The names of all those who were to be the first members of 
the new governing body or holders of office under it were specified in 
the charter, and vacancies were to be filled up as they should occur. 
The Mayor and Corporation thus constituted were to have the sole 
power of making free citizens in future and so of controlling the 
number of those eligible for membership of the governing body. 

The swearing-in of the Mayor, formerly a fruitful cause of strife, 
was very exactly prescribed in the charter. His election was to 
take place on the Wednesday after S. Martin's Day (Nov. nth), 
between 8 and 11 a.m., and he was to be sworn in on the same 
day between 2 and 4 p.m. before the Bishop, if he should happen 
to be present at that time, or by the Dean and Chapter in a vacancy 
of the see. Should these dignitaries not be in the city at the time 
specified, the oath was to be taken before the last Mayor, the 
Recorder, and four or more Aldermen. No doubt the last method 
suggested became the usual one in practice, but the oath quoted 
at length in the charter was such that no Mayor was likely in 

between 1225 and 1612. 353 

future to object to taking it, even in the presence of the Bishop. 
It was as follows : — 1 

" You shall as farre furthe as you cann or mai, keepe and governe 
the Kinge's people of this Cittie to live in peace from all manner 
of Kyott, Conventicles and insurrections against the King's Peace. 

'•'Also you shall at all times for the ease and welfare of this 
Cittie in keeping of the Peace be readie. 

"Alsoe you shall in all that you mai, see that the Cittie bee 
victualled plenteouslie ; alsoe that the assize of bread, ale and 
wyne, fish, flesh, cole and candell, and other victual, be observed 
and kept in as much as in you lieth, and as the lawe requiretb, 

"Also that you do your trewe parte that the sellers of corrupt 
victuall, regrators, forestallers, and misdoers againste the common 
promt and worshipp of this Cittie be arrested and openlie punished 
after their deserving lawfullye. 

"Also that the Eentes and Goodes of the commonalty of this 
Cittie be expended and kept to the worship of the cittie duelie. 

"Also that the taxes, collections, or tallages, the which byn 
hereafter to be levied, that they be not levied but as the law will 
and equally. 

"Also that all the ministers and officers which be accomptable 
before you and your brethren of your common goods, that they be 
called to give a lawful account, at such time as they byn required 

"Also that in all other matters of substaunce touching the 
Cittie, you shall take the advice of your brethren, and conclude 
not but by their consent. 

" Also you shall not at any time during your mayoraltie of this 
Cittie, knowing the liberties of the Lord Bishopp of Sarum, willingly 
or directly do, or cause to be done, anything prejudicial or hurtfull 
to the Lord Bishopp's lawfull rights, liberties or privileges in the 

1 This is practically, except for differences of spelling, the same as the 
second version in Ledger C, which was probably copied in after this time ; 
see above. 

2 A 2 

354 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

same Cittie heretofore lawfully graunted by the Kinges Ma tie that 
now is or aide of his progenitors. 

"All theis points that I have rehearsed and all other thing that 
belong to our Office, you shall well and truly observe and keepe. 
Soe help you God." 

This version of the oath is very much like that claimed by the 
Community in Coldwell's time except for the final clause relating 
to the Bishop's Liberty. Thus the long controversy over the oath 
had at last ended in victory for the Community. The swearing-in 
of other officials was less important and less controversial, and was 
to be done before the Mayor and Corporation. Eefusal to serve 
in any office was to be punishable by a fine. 

3, Justice. In this matter the emancipation of the City from 
the control of the Bishop was most important and effective. The 
Bishop's Courts and Franchises were to remain as before and the 
profits arising from fines and amercements were carefully secured 
to him. But the City was to have its own Commission of the 
Peace, which would necessarily diminish the amount of business to 
come before the Bishop's Courts. The Mayor, Becorder, and ten 
Aldermen 1 chosen by the Corporation were to be regularly in the 
Commission of the Peace and were no longer to depend for this 
upon the nomination and recommendation of the Bishop. The 
Bench thus constituted was to have full power of issuing warrants, 
committing to prison, and hearing and determining causes, though 
they were still to use the gaol belonging to the Bishop ; all pleas 
were to be heard within the city, and none of its citizens were to be 
cited outside. The Corporation was to elect the Bishop's Bailiff 
as Bailiff also of the City, but he was to take an oath before it for 
this as a separate office and to be removable by it for neglect or 
misbehaviour ; the Corporation was also to elect the Clerk of the 

The Close and those resident within it were exempted from the 
control of the City authorities ; this was secured also by the detailed 
arrangements for safeguarding the Bishop's jurisdiction made by 
the charter granted to him at the same time. 2 All his courts were 

1 Only five had been asked for ; see above. 

2 B. & H.y pp. 784 — 6 give text of charter. 

between 1225 and 1612. 355 

left intact and a separate Commission of the Peace constituted for 
the Close; thus the form of his ancient jurisdiction and his claim 
to its profits remained, though in practice both were much reduced 
in extent and value. 

4. The Regulation of Trade. The Corporation was to have full 
power to frame bye-laws and ordinances for the government of the 
City and the regulation of trade within it. This had been re- 
peatedly desired in recent petitions with a view to limiting the 
influx of strangers and Bishop Cotton's ordinances of 1603, 1 drawn 
up for this purpose, seem to have been ineffective. The Corpo- 
ration's exclusive power to make free citizens, already noted, pro- 
vided one valuable means of control, and the detailed regulation 
of the various trades was one of the first tasks undertaken by the 
new Corporation. 2 

Thus the City was at last freed from the control of the Bishop 
in every respect, except for the payment of his quitrents and 
amercements, now much depreciated in value. It formed a distinct 
Corporation by itself, separate from that formed by the Bishop, 
Dean, and Chapter. The beginning of a new period is carefully 
marked in the Ledger. 3 A blank unnumbered folio is left between 
folios 217 and 218 and a new heading written for the first meeting of 
the new Corporation on March 13th. From this time onward the 
meetings are carefully headed " Commune Consilium," instead of 
the former " Convocatio." 

A good summary of the new state of things is given in Bishop 
Seth Ward's Liber Notitice? which describes the situation as it was 
in the time of his Episcopate (1667 — 1689). He enumerates the 
various Courts held by the Bishop, for instance, the half-yearly 
Court Leet: "to which every Inhabitant within the City ought to 
i come and appeare But very many of those things 

1 See above, Section IV., F., and references there given. 
2 Orders and Constitutions for various Companies still exist among the 
Muniments, mostly belonging to 1612-13 ; see list in H.M.C.R., IV., p. 191. 

3 See Ledger C, fols. 217—218. 
4 Original in Diocesan Registry, pp. 58—61. An exact copy is in the 
Cathedral Library ; the corresponding passage there is on pp. 185 — 189. 

356 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

which are inquirable and punishable at this Leete, are likewise, by 
vertue of the City's Charter so too, by the Mayor and Justices of 
Peace there, at their Quarter Sessions. He mentions also the 
Court Baron " to be held (if occasion be) every fortnight within 
and for the City," and the Court of Pleas where " all the pro- 
ceedings are at Common Law." He notes the Bishop's ownership 
of the Gaol, which is also used by the Citizens. 

Finally, he states clearly the distinction between the two Cor- 
porations existing in the City : " The Close of Sarum is a Corpora- 
tion consisting of the Bishop, Recorder, and Justices, which are 
the Canons resident there and hold sessions of the Peace for the 
Liberty of the Close in the said Guildhall of the City or in the 
Close pro bencplacito Upiscopi , . . The Mayor and Cominalty 
of the Citty of New Sarum are a distinct Corporation of the said 
City, and have a Recorder and Councell house for themselves, 
where they keepe Sessions for the said Citty and try all Criminall 
Facts under Treason . . . By which it may be rationally 
conjectured, That the Citty was formerly the Bishop's, but in 
processe of tyme, or through the indulgence of the Bishops, or 
neglect of their Officers, the Citizens have gained upon the Bishop 
antient rights, and procured Charters of confirming and inlarging 
their pretended priviledges and do now hold and enjoy them dejure." 

VI. — Summary and Conclusion. 
In the brief account of the City of Salisbury just concluded only 
one thread has been followed through the tangled skein of its 
history, but that thread is the clue to the development of the city 
during its most important and interesting period. As an example 
of a municipal constitution in England the city is not remarkable; 
it was founded comparatively late, when already cities and boroughs 
were fairly common and models from which conditions of tenure 
and grants of liberties might be copied were by no means rare. 
Thus from the first the grant of burgage tenure and of liberties of 
trade and jurisdiction follow the normal pattern, this city being 
but one among many which were fashioned after the model of 

between 1225 and 1612. 357 

It is as an example of the relations existing between an 
ecclesiastical lord and a city developing on his land that Salisbury 
is most worthy of study. From a legal point of view it offers an 
interesting example of a manorial court which added municipal 
and mercantile jurisdictions to its original activities as court baron 
and leet. Such an extension of powers was not, however, peculiar 
to the court of an ecclesiastical lord ; it would necessarily occur 
wherever the lord of an extensive immunity found or created a 
flourishing borough upon his own demesne. Secular lords in such 
a case were themselves faced with many difficulties and vicissitudes 
and so were usually ready to simplify the relations between them- 
selves and their citizens by the sale of privileges or by the com- 
mutation of services and dues for a fee farm rent. The history of 
Salisbury is a good instance of the reluctance of ecclesiastical lords 
to make such arrangements, and the detailed study of it suggests 
an explanation of the apparently conflicting generalisations often 
put forward, that ecclesiastical lords were the best of landlords 
and yet that they were the best-hated in England. Undoubtedly 
the Bishops of Salisbury were good landlords, as far as the im- 
provement of their property and the welfare of their tenants were 
concerned. Much of the early development of the city was due to 
them ; its careful laying out, still evident in the regular arrangement 
of the streets in the old part of the city, was due to the founder's 
charter; its advantageous situation, in the midst of the downs 
with their flocks of sheep, by the side of the river, which facilitated 
the fulling and dyeing of wool, was improved enormously by Bishop 
Bingham's bridge, which brought the city in touch with the main 
roads and their streams of traffic. The charters of liberties and 
the continual addition of new markets and fairs which the Bishops 
procured were also advantageous to the City, aiid were more cheaply 
secured by their influence than by the heavy sums which the 
citizens would otherwise have had to pay for such privileges. 

Again, the Bishops do not seem to have taken excessive toll of 
the wealth which the citizens gained from these opportunities. 
The outbreak of the Tallage controversy itself shows that no such 
demand was made by any Bishop during the first eighty years of 

358 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

the City's existence, in spite of the specific grant of the right to 
do so in the original charter. Even when the right to take tallage 
had been vindicated by the trial of 1305, it does not seem to have 
been frequently exercised; at any rate, among the various complaints 
and grievances put forward by the citizens from time to time, 
excessive or unfair taxation by the Bishops does not once occur. 

Yet, in spite of this good husbandry on the part of the Bishops, 
the chief feature of the City's history for more than three hundred 
years was this perpetually recurring conflict, evidence in itself of 
some fundamental flaw in the relationship between the citizens 
and their lord, No sooner was the constitution of the City agreed 
on in the Composition of 1306 than attempts to change or evade 
its terms began, The disputes occasionally turned on some question 
of property but more usually arose over the matter of government 
and jurisdiction and sometimes over the less tangible subject of 
dignity. 1 

The nature of the two conflicting parties seems to be the clue to 
this. On the one side was an ecclesiastical corporation, well 
fortified with charters and legal evidences in support of its claim 
and never weakening or decaying as was usually the case with the 
family of a secular lord within comparatively few generations. 
Individual bishops might be peaceful or even weak, but the rights 
of the Church were perpetual aud sacred and no less effective for 
an interregnum when again a strong bishop was on the episcopal 
throne, On the other side was also a corporation, younger in its 
years of prescription, lower in social status than its adversary, 
destitute of legal warrant for its existence apart from, its subjection, 
secular in its nature and origin, and therefore without the awe- 
inspiring majesty with which the Church could surround itself. 

1 In addition to the numerous examples already given, one may be noted 
from a document in the bundle at the Diocesan Registry, probably belonging 
to Coldwell's time : " Also, it hath ben reported, by Mr. Hooper, that 
thoffice of the Mayor thear is no more but to sett the price upon a penyworthe 
of eggs and a bushell of coales, which words wer spoken to Mr. Mayor 
himself, in the heringe of the Lorde Bishop. All which things doe bringe 
thoffice of the maioraltie into suche basenesse of estimacion emongst the 
comon sOrte of the people theare that not onelie all is owte of good order, 
but therby makith them voide of feare of the Maior and thauthoritie he 

behveen 1225 and 1612. 359 

Nevertheless, it also had a continuous history of growth and de- 
velopment in wealth and strength, whereas the Church was at the 
zenith of its power and influence when the controversy began. 
Successive generations of citizens therefore fought ever more and 
more tenaciously to secure freedom and self-government for them- 
selves, while successive Bishops seemed unable to realise that this 
development was taking place, and that desire to secure inde- 
pendence is the natural and inevitable result of the attainment of 
maturity, as real and marked in the development of a community 
as in the life of a normal individual, 

This fragment of local history often appears to be quite remote 
from the wider stream of national development but cannot be 
detached from it, It is typical of many similar episodes in English 
municipal history, and thus of one important aspect of the develop- 
ment of local self-government. Its own progress was also materially 
affected by incidents in the national history itself, particularly by 
the vicissitudes of the Wars of the Roses and by the change in the 
national attitude to the Church which produced the crisis of the 
Reformation, In the 14th and 15th centuries all the legal evidence, 
all the support of the government, had been on the Bishop's side, 
though there is a marked difference in tone between the two main 
controversies of these centuries respectively ; the continual reference 
in the former to Holy Church as the person really attacked by the 
rebellious citizens is lacking in the latter, when the question had 
frankly become one of lordship. 

When the 16th century was reached, the method and results of 
the conflicts between Bishop and citizens were strikingly different; 
"everyone now," as Shaxton said, 1 "oppresses the clergy," and the 
citizens took care to stimulate the royal jealousy of ecclesiastical 
influence wherever possible. Divine right and its corollary of 
reverent and dutiful obedience had become attached to the civil 
rather than to the ecclesiastical government and the municipal 
authorities in Salisbury were quick to feel the change and to utilise 
it for their own ends, professing to be moved in their struggle by 
zeal for the King's " imperial " power. 

1 L. & P., Vol. XII., Part 2, 1537, No. 1114. 

360 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

The doctrinal aspect of the Reformation is also reflected in this 
struggle, though to a less degree than the political. In Shaxton's 
time the Community was distinctly Catholic, and its opposition to 
the Bishop was heightened by his reforming tendencies ; it profited 
therefore by the King's re-actionary policy, whieh led to the 
promulgation of the Six Articles and thus brought about Shax ton's 
fall. By Queen Elizabeth's reign the point of view taken by the 
Community was much more advanced, and Coldwell complained 
that " the Mayor and citizens, during their connection with the 
said Bishop brought his name in great obloquy and slander, in all 
parts of the realm, saying that he seeketh to tyrannise over them 
by his popish charters." l 

The main issue was, however, political rather than doctrinal, 
and was so treated. Unfortunately, the precise method by which 
the citizens increased their controlling power in the City is not 
clear, but that they had more evidence to produce by the end of 
the 16th century than they had in the 15th is plain from the 
attitude of the central government towards them. In Beauchamp's 
time they had nothing to put forward strong enough to over-ride 
the Bishop's charters and his well-attested tradition ; but in Cold- 
well's time the evidence on both sides must have been fairly even, 
since the judges to whom it was submitted were very much puzzled 
and eventually induced to draft an oath decidedly in the citizen's 
favour. It must, therefore, be conjectured that the Community 
had gradually established a claim to much of the power that it 
desired by the actual exercise of it. Bishop Seth Ward's later 
summary 2 seems a fairly true account in brief of the process through 
which the development had gone. 

Nevertheless, the fact that the success of the citizens was finally 
gained by carefully asserting their intention to leave the Bishop's 
liberties intact shows how strong was his legal position, and how 
tenacious were the royal courts of preserving rights once granted 
in due form. What the Charters of 1612 did was to legalise the 
existing situation and to recognise as the lawful possession of the 

1 Bundle in Diocesan Registry. Printed, B. & ff. t p. 303. 
2 See above, Section V., B. 

between 1225 and 1612. 361 

Community the powers which it had gradually come to exercise, 
They cannot have made any substantial change in the Bishop's 
position; that had already been effected by the events of the 16th 
century, and even James I., that champion of Bishops, could not 
but recognise the facts. The wisest thing for the Bishop to do 
was to take the advice offered to his predecessor by a 16th century 
statement 1 to "take the profitts and let the Mayor alone with the 
government," and the termination of useless and vexations con- 
troversy must have been a gain to both sides. 

By this time the City, as well as the Church, had seen the days 
of its greatest power ; already the free villages of the North and 
West of England had begun to develop those commercial advantages 
which were later to make them such formidable rivals to the in- 
corporated towns and cities of the South and East. The most 
flourishing period in the history of the City of Salisbury occurred 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when ft ranked among 
the wealthiest boroughs in the kingdom ; by the time of its eman- 
cipation from the control of the Bishop its wealth had evidently 
begun to decline, as the frequent complaints of its decay and 

I poverty show. 2 

Its former greatness has left its memorial in the buildings of 

I the City, Of these, by far the most famous is the Cathedral, one 
of the most perfect expressions of the spirit of the mediaeval 
Church at its best; but the public spirit and civic pride of the 
merchants who contended with the Church for the government of 
the City also expressed itself in stone in the chantry built by 
William Swayne and the stately banqueting chamber which formed 
part of the mansion of John Hall. 

1 See above, Section IV., E. 

2 See above, and note the reference to the decline of the subsidies in 
Cotton's letter of Jan. 18th, 1511 (M.C.S., Box 4, No. 129) ; he says that 
no citizen was then rated above £12, whereas at the beginning of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign some had paid as much as £100. cf. Cunningham — 
Groivth of English Industry and Commerce, vol. i., p. 507. 

362 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 


I. — Manuscript Souiices. 
British Museum. 

Harleian MSS. 
Lansdowne MSS. 
Public Record Office. 
Assize Eolls. 
Charter Eolls. 
Confirmation Eolls. 
Patent Eolls. 
Memoranda Eolls of the King's Eemembrancer, 

„ „ „ „ Lord Treasurer's Eemembrancer, 

Salisbury Diocesan Registry. 

The Muniments of the Bishop of Salisbury are fully de- 
scribed by Mr. E. L. Poole on pp. 1 — 12 of the Report 
of the Historical MSS. Commission, Vol. IV., 1907. 

The following books and manuscripts have been used 
and referred to in this thesis : — 

1. The Liber Niger of Bishop Beauchamp. 

2. The Liber Notitice of Bishop Seth Ward, 

3. The Eegisters of Bishops Wyville and Jewel, 

4. A bundle of documents mentioned on p. 12 of the 

Report above. 
This bundle merits further description as it has been 
extensively used in Sections IV. (F) and V. (A). It 
contains a number of documents, most of which refer 
to the disputes between the Bishop and Community 
at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th 
century, with one or two of a later date. (In HM.C.R., 
IV., p. 12, they are described as early 16th century.) 
The following are of most importance : — 
(A) A parchment book containing a copy of 14th century 
documents relating to Salisbury similar to that in- 
cluded in the Tropeiiell Cartulary and printed by 
Mr. Davies. (See Introduction to T.C.) 

between 1225 and 1612. 363 

(B) A paper booklet, apparently a brief to be used by 

counsel on Cotton's behalf, with ample references 
to the Bishop's charters. 

(C) A collection of papers pinned together and apparently 

destined for the same purpose. One or two of them, 
however, appear from internal evidence to relate to 
Coldwell's time. 

(D) Some loose documents, of which the petition of the 

" Middle Estate " to Bishop Henry Cotton is the 
most important. 

Salisbury Municipal Offices. 

The Muniments of the Corporation of Salisbury are de- 
scribed in pp. 191 — 254 of the same Report, Vol. IV., 
1907, but the account there given only describes a 
portion of the records that are now available. Many 
other documents have since been discovered at or re- 
stored to the Municipal Offices, and a Catalogue is 
now being prepared by Alderman C. Haskins, Chairman 
of the Committee entrusted with the care of the Muni- 

The following books and documents have been used 
and referred to : — 

1. Ledgers of the Corporation — A, B, and C. 

2. Minutes of the Court Baron of the Bishop of Sarum. 

3. Box 3. Chamberlain's Accounts. 

4. Box 4. Documents relating to Coldwell's and Cot- 

ton's controversies with the City, 

5. A number of loose documents in the drawers. 

6. Framed originals of the Composition of 1306 and 

the Charter of 1612. 
Of these, the Box of Documents relating to Cold well and 
Cotton needs description, as it contains most of the 
evidence relating to these episodes and has been largely 
used in Sections IV. (F) and V. (A) ; it is not mentioned 
at all in the Report of the Historical MSS. Commission. 

364 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

It contains a miscellaneous collection of documents, 
numbered for purposes of reference to the MS. 
Catalogue begun by the late Curator, Mr. T. H. 
Baker. Unfortunately the grouping and arrange- 
ment of the documents and the order in which they 
are numbered provides little clue to their subject 
matter ; the numbers generally indicate single docu- 
ments, but are occasionally affixed to bundles containing 
several papers. Thus, No. 2 is a bundle enclosed within 
a parchment roll relating to the events of 1537 ; within 
this are several papers belonging to the time of Bishop 
Coldwell and two rough copies belonging to the time of 
Bishop Cotton. Better copies of the two last-named are 
found in No. 58, which consists of four documents, the 
remaining two being of the time of Bishop Coldwell. 

The single documents numbered 4 to 42 are tied to- 
gether and docketted : "Documents relating to Bishop 
Cotton's controversy *' ; this, again, is misleading, for 
the bundle does not contain all those which belong to 
Cotton's time. No. 4 clearly belongs to Coldwell's, 
and Nos. 19, 19a, and 42 belong to a period later than 

There are also a few 16th century documents among 
the loose papers in the drawers, but as the cataloguing 
proceeds these are being relegated to the box to which 
they belong. 

The nature of the materials in this box has been 
already indicatedin Section IV.,F. ; few of the documents 
appear to be originals, except some of the letters ad- 
dressed to the Mayor and Community. Many of them 
are copies, presumably made for the convenience of 
the Community's counsel or attorneys, and in some 
cases two or three copies of the same document appear. 
Thus, two of those in No, 58 duplicate two of those in 
No. 2 ; Nos. 26 and 28 appear to be drafts of the 
petition of which No, 10 is the original; Nos. 48, 52, 

between 1225 and 1612. 


and 57 are all copies of the breviafc so frequently quoted. 
Most of the other documents used have been described 
either in H.M.G.R. IV. or in Mr. Swayne's Gleanings 
from the Archives of Salisbury. Under this title 55 
articles were published by Mr. Swayne in the Salisbury 
and Winchester Journal between Nov. 25th, 1882, and 
May 7th, 1887. They have not been published in 
book form, but Mr. Swayne's proofs, pasted into an 
album of newspaper cuttings, are kept at the Muniment 
Boom, and form a useful guide to the loose documents 
and rolls in the drawers. Gross mentions this set of 
articles in his Bibliography of British Municipal History, 
but only refers to thirty of them. 

II. — Printed Sources. 

British Borough Charters, 1042 — 1216 Ballard, A. 
Borough Customs — Selden Society Series, Bateson, M 
Calendar of Charter Rolls. 
Calendar of Patent Bolls. 
Cartulary of St. Nicholas' Hospital, 

Charters and Documents Illustrating 
the History of Salisbury (Bolls 
Domesday Book. 
Gleanings from the Archives of 

Letters and Papers of the Reign of 

Henry VIII. 
The Paston Letters 
Placita de Quo Warranto (Becord 

Records of the Parliament holden at 
Westminster, i#6>5(Bolls Series) 


Wordsworth, C. 1902. 

Jones & Macray 1891. 

Swayne, H. J.F. 1882—5. 

Gairdner, J. 
Gairdner, J. 

Maitland, F. W. 




366 The Relations of the Bishops and Citizens of Salisbury 

Report of the Historical Manuscripts 

Commission, Vol. I.... ... ... ... 1901. 

Ditto ditto Vol. IV. ... ... 1907. 

Rotuli Hundredorum (Kecord Com- 
mission) ... ... ... ... 1812—8. 

Select Cases concerning the Laiv Mer- 
chant, mO— 1638 (Selden Soc. 
Series) ... .. ... Gross, C. ... 1908. 

Select Pleas in Manorial and other 
Seignorial Courts. Vol. I. 
(Selden Society Series) ... Maitland F. W. 1889. 

State Papers, Domestic Scries, Reign 

of James L, 1603—1618 . . . Green . . . 1857—8. 

Statutes at Large, 

Stubbs Select Charters, 9th edition... Davis, H. W. C. 1913. 

The Tropenell Cartulary, Wilts Arch. 

Society ... ... ... Davies, J. ... 1911. 

Year Books of Edward II. , Selden 
Society Series, Vol. Vol. VI., 
4E. II. ... ... ... Turner, G. ... 1914. 

• III. — Secondary Authorities. 

An Essay on the Early History of the 

Law Merchant ... ... Mitchell, W. ... 1904 

Bibliography of British Municipal 

History ... ... .. Gross, C. ... 1897 

Burgage Tenure in Mediaeval England Hemmeon, M. de W, 1914. 

Dictionary of National Biography. 

Fir ma Bur gi ... ... ... Madox, T. ... 1726. 

Growth of English Industry and Com- 

merce, 5th edition .. ... Cunningham, W. ... 1910. 

Handy Book of Rules and Tables for 

Verifying Dates ... ... Bond, J. J. ... 1869 

hehveen 1225 and 1612. 


History of the Boroughs and Munici- 
pal Corporations of the United 
Kingdom ... 

History of the Worthies oj England, 
Nichols' Edition 

Lancaster and York 

Lc Soidevement des Travail leurs 
d'Angleterre en 1881 

Old & New Sarum,Vol. VI. in Hoare's 
History of Modern Wiltshire 

Prolusiones Historicw. 

The Booh of Dignities, 3rd edition. .. 

The Domesday Boroughs ... 

The Gild Merchant 

The Great Revolt of 1881 .. 

The History of English Law, 2nd 

edition ... r, ; .,. 
Town Life in the Fifteenth Century 
Wharton's Law Lexicon 
Wiltshire Archceolbgical and Natural 
Wiltshire Notes and Queries. 

[Merewether, H 

. A. 

\ and 

IStephens, A. J. 



Fuller, T. 


Ramsay, Sir J. 


Reville, Andre 


[Benson, R, and 
lHatcher, H. 


Duke, E. 



Hadyn, J., con tinned 

by Ockerby, H, 


Ballard, A. 


Gross, G. 


Oman, C. W. C. 


Pollock, Sir F. i 


Maitland, F. 



Green, A. S. 


Aggs, W. H. 


history Magazine, 


2 B 





HELD AT DEVIZES MUSEUM, August 7th, 1916. 

The Committee having again decided, as in 1915, that it was 
impossible during the War to attempt the usual annual meeting 
and excursions, a general meeting — for business only — was called 
at the Museum, Devizes, on Monday, August 7th, at 2 o'clock, 
Only a few members were present, the President, Mr. W. Heward 
Bell, F.S.A., F.G.S., being in the chair. The first business was to 
receive the report, which was read by the Hon. Secretary and 
passed. After the election of five new annual members, and the 
announcement that one annual member proposed to help the 
Society's finances by becoming a life member instead, an example 
which it is to be wished might be followed by others, the officers 
of the Society were re-elected en bloc, with Mr. J. D, Crossfield as 
an additional local secretary for the Savernake neighbourhood. 
The most important business of the meeting was then discussed at 
some length. This was a recommendation passed at the last 
committee meeting that the general meeting should be asked to 
give its consent to the sale of a certain number of ethnological 
objects now exhibited at the Museum, chiefly South Sea wooden 
weapons, clubs, paddles, and other implements, as well as a few 
other foreign objects, of which the Hon. Secretary read a list 
agreed upon by the committee. A letter was read from Miss Clark, 
of Devizes, rather deprecating the proposal on the ground that 
such ethnological exhibits were of interest for comparison with 
prehistoric implements found in the county, but it was explained 
by the Hon. Secretary that it was not proposed to sell any of the 
stone implements from the South Seas or Australia, as these would 
some of them be useful as examples of methods of haf ting, &c, but 

The Sixty 'Third General Meeting. 369 

that the wooden implements had really no bearing on the ancient 
implements found in Wiltshire, and that they would be of much 
more value amongst a series in some other avowedly ethnological 
collection. At present they take up a great deal of wall space in 
the Museum, which might be far more profitably utilised in the 
better display of, Wiltshire specimens. For many years the Society 
had followed the policy of refusing, as far as possible, any exhibits 
which were not in some way connected with the county. The 
President recommended that the committee should be empowered 
to part with these objects, when a favourable opportunity arose ; 
the question of space for Wiltshire exhibits had become much more 
pressing sinceMr.Brookes' collection and his cases had been acquired 
by the Museum. There was no opposition to the proposal amongst 
the members present, and the recommendation of the Committee 
was accordingly passed and leave was given to dispose of the 
objects of which a list had been read. 

The Hon. Secretary suggested that a fresh form of invitation to 
join the Society should be drawn up and printed, and that this 
should be widely circulated through the county— perhaps at the 
end of the War — with the view of substantially increasing the 
number of members by bringing home to many who are not them- 
selves actively interested in either archaeology or natural history, 
and who do not care to join in the annual excursions, that the 
Society is doing good work in various directions and deserves far 
more support from the county at large than it at present receives. 
The Hon. Secretary was authorised to draw up such a form of 
invitation as seemed to be required. 


The following is the text of the annual report read bf the Hon. 
: Secretary : — 

The Committee beg to present the sixty-third annual report of 
'the Society for the year 1915-16. 

Members. — We have again to deplore a considerable diminution 
of members during 1 the past year. The Society began the year 

2 b 2 

370 The Sixty -Third General Meeting. 

with a total of 339, and ends it with a total of 326, 13 life and 
313 annual members; only 9 new members having been elected 
to balance 13 resignations and 9 deaths. There is thus a net loss 
of 13 members on the year, and it is increasingly difficult to. find 
new members to take their places. The War naturally makes 
many who might otherwise join the Society unwilling to commit 
themselves to any fresh subscriptions at present. 

Finance. — The Society's accounts as published in the June 
Magazine, show that on January 1st, 1915, there was a deficit on 
the General Account of £32 Is. Qd. This condition of things made 
it necessary to exercise economy in every possible way, and as the 
most effectual way of doing this it was decided not to issue a 
December number of the Magazine. This drastic step had the 
desired effect, and the year 1915 ended with a balance in hand on 
the General Fund of £56 19s. 9d. The third instalment of £13 2s. 
towards the repayment of £50 borrowed from the General Fund 
in 1912 was repaid during the year from the Museum Enlargement 
Fund, and it is hoped that the final instalment may be repaid this 
year. The Museum Maintenance Fund showed .a balance on 
January 1st, 1915, of £8 19s. lid , and on December 31st a balance 
of £7 6s. Qd. The total receipts from subscriptions during the year 
were £32 lis,, and £5 4s, Qd. from admission fees and donations 
in the box. The chief extra expenses were the payment of £7 is. 
for the prosecution of the Museum thief, and the repayment of £10 
to the General Fund on account of repairs to the roof of the Museum 
in the previous year. So far, therefore, as finance is concerned 
the Society found itself in a more satisfactory condition at the end 
of 1915 than it was at the beginning of that year. 

The Museum and Library. — The year has been marked by the 
acquisition of an addition to the Museum collections, of more im- 
portance than any single addition since the Stourhead collection 
came into the Society's possession. Mr. J. W, Brooke, of 
Marlborough, who for many years past has had great opportunities 
of collecting antiquities in the Marlborough neighbourhood, made 
an offer to the Society of the whole of the Wiltshire objects in his 
collection (with the exception of coins), together with two of the 

The Report. 3*71 

table cases containing them, for the sum of £250. The Committee 
felt it their duty, in spite of the innumerable calls of the War, to 
issue an appeal for this sum in order to save this valuable collection 
from being dispersed and lost to the county, with the unexpected 
result that within a short time £310 was received. This enabled 
the Society to purchase five additional cases from Mr. Brooke, 
which, with the collection itself, have now been removed to the 
Museum. The work of setting up these cases, which required 
some alteration to fit them for their new positions, is now com- 
pleted, and it is probable that there will be a balance in hand 
after all the expenses of removal and re-erection have been met. 
The collection itself comprises a large series of fine Neolithic flint 
implements, which will fill a gap where the Museum was previously 
weak ; another series of Palaeoliths from Knowle ; a number of fine 
bronze implements, including the founder's hoard from Man ton, 
and the unique looped and socketed sickle from Winterbourne 
Monkton, and a great number of exceedingly interesting late Celtic 
and Roman brooches and other small bronzes from the site of 
Cunetio, Aldbourne, and other localities in the Marlborough neigh- 
bourhood, as well as objects of various kinds of medieval or later 
date. The smaller Roman objects are mostly already on view, 
i thanks to the labours of Mrs. Cunnington during a short visit 
i recently to Devizes; but the remainder of the collection will have 
to wait a future opportunity for arrangement, as both the Hon. 
Curator and Mrs. Cunnington have been for the past year, and are 
still, absent from Devizes on war service. In this connection the 
Society has to thank the Rev. H. G. 0. Kendall for much help in 
1 the packing and removal of the collection. In addition to the 
Brooke collection the Museum has been enriched by the gift of a 
large sculptured stone head, supposed to be Roman, from Marl- 
borough, together with an appropriate pedestal from Mr. Shackle, 
and a small collection of interesting flint celts, together with many 
Roman coins, and two brooches, chiefly found at North Farm, 
Aldbourne, by the late Mr. W. Chandler, by whose widow they 
wore presented to the Society. The accession of these considerable 

372 The Sixty -Third General Meeting. 

provision of further space an urgent one, and the Committee, after 
careful consideration, have decided to ask the general meeting to 
empower them to sell the series of ethnological specimens; South 
Sea weapons, paddles, etc., as well as some other foreign objects, 
in order to make room for the purely Wiltshire collections, to 
which for many years past it has been the policy of the Society to 
limit the Museum. Many of these objects are valuable in them- 
selves, and may well find a home in other Museums, but they are, 
the Committee feel, increasingly out of place in what should be a 
purely local Museum. To the Library there have been, as usual; 
a considerable number of additions during the year, the most im- 
portant perhaps being a series of nine note books in which the 
late Mr. F. A. Carrington, Q.C., of Ogbourne St. George, a frequent 
writer in the earlier volumes of the Magazine, had entered a great 
quantity of notes and transcriptions bearing on the history of 
Ogbourne St. George, Marlborough, and other places in that part 
of the county. We are indebted for these to Lieut. -Colonel Banning. 
A scrap book containing autograph letters from some 300 prominent 
Wiltshiremen of the 19th and 20th eenuries has been mounted and 
indexed by the Librarian, who would be glad to receive autograph 
letters to add to the collection. 

The Bradford Barn. — Since the last report this building has 
been formally conveyed to the Society and a large amount of the 
necessary repair work has been completed under the careful 
supervision of Mr. H. Brakspear, F.S.A., who is most generously 
giving his professional services without payment. Mr. A. W. N. 
Burder, F.S.A., who has worked indefatigably in the matter, has 
succeeded, largely by personal appeals, in collecting up to date 
£396, of which ,£256 has been already spent, almost entirely on 
the roof, which has now been stripped and re-tiled throughout, the 
stone tiles being retained on both sides. It is estimated that in 
addition to the balance in hand some £40 is wanted at once for 
the remaining absolutely necessary 1 work ; including repairs to the 
timbering of the roof, the porch and gable, the erection of a wall 
and fence, arid legal expenses. This does not include the renewal 
of two of the main timbers of the roof, which are now propped up 

The Report 373 

(they are beyond repair) and must remain so. It is estimated that 
£200 would be required to renew them, and it is very desirable 
that this sum should be raised as soon as possible, and the whole 
building be thus placed in thorough structural repair for many 
years to come. The Committee desire to express the thanks of 
the Society to Mr. Burder, to whose energetic appeal the success 
of the work so far as it has gone is chiefly due; to Mr. Brakspear, 
and to many generous donors, including especially Mr. J. Moulton, 
of the Hall, Bradford-on-Avon. 

Excavations. — The diggings both at Old Sarum and at Avebury 
have been suspended during the War, and no other excavations 
have taken place in the past year. During the erection of buildings 
at the Flying School, at Upavon, a skeleton accompanied by a 
drinking cup was discovered, and the attention of the Society 
having been called to it, the Hon. Secretary visited the spot and 
obtained the bones and the fragments of the cup for the Mnseunh 
His attention was also called to a skeleton found in trench digging 
on Liddington Hill, which was dug out, but nothing was found 
with it. Another skeleton without relics was found at Durrington. 

Churchyard Inscriptions. The attention of the Society has been 
drawn by the Diocesan Church Building Society to the practice of 
laying down tombstones on the ground when work for the im- 
provement of churchyards is undertaken, whereby the inscriptions 
inevitably perish in a few years. The Committee are entirely in 
sympathy with the Church Building Society in their protest against 
this destruction of monumental inscriptions. 

Publications. As has been already stated, the conditions of the 
Society's finances made it necessary to drop the December number 
of the Magazine, so that only one number has been issued since 
the last report. It is hoped that two numbers, as usual, may be 
issued in the current year. The second part of the " Register of 
Bishop Simon of Ghent " has been issued to the subscribers. Only 
25 copies of this are printed. 

The President of the Society. — In normal times the Society would 
have appointed a new President last year, but in the present 
circumstances the Committee have asked Mr. W. Heward Bell to 

374 The Sixty -Third General Meeting. 

continue to hold that office till the end of the War, and he has 
kindly consented to do so. 

Stonehenge. — The sale of Stonehenge is a matter which cannot 
be passed over in any review of archaeological matters in Wiltshire 
during the past year. The Society has- every confidence that it 
has passed into good keeping, and that the new owner, Mr. C. H. E. 
Chubb, of Bemerton Lodge, Salisbury, who was fortunate enough 
to secure the monument for £6600 at the public sale at Salisbury, 
will take every care of it, and will after the War be willing to 
consider, under expert archaeological advice, the question of the 
necessary steps to be taken to secure the safety of the stones 
which at present are leaning dangerously. He was good enough 
to express himself in this sense to representatives of the Society 
whom he very kindly received. 

Annual Meeting. — It has again appeared to the Committee im- 
possible to attempt an ordinary meeting and excursions in war 
time, but the record of the important work done by the Society in 
several directions during the past year shows that its activities 
are by no means in abeyance, and the Committee would once more 
remind all Wiltshiremen who care for the history or antiquities of 
their county that the most obvious way of furthering the study of 
the one, and the preservation of the other, is to see that thenlem- 
bership of the Society, which for more than half-a-century lias 
stood for the furtherance of these objects, is kept up, and if possible 
increased. ':- ■< '{ ,-■- - I -'-"-'•' 

IJ'i :V~'^~7~' : ^i . '.;. j I i : :,.jv ', ■„ ■ Z:\ : ~.'lt •;; J?fL*JO -J fell;!! ?^'?Ti i'gMJD 



By C. Haskins. 

The original Bederoll of the Salisbury Tailors' Gild was included 
in a collection of ancient MSS,, mostly composed of fourteenth and 
fifteenth century wills and conveyances, which was presented to 
the Salisbury Corporation by Mr, E. Targett. It differs considerably 
from a later roll (1490) which appears in " Ancient Trade Guilds 
and Companies of Salisbury ." C. Haskins, 1912. 

The roll when found consisted of four strips of parchment joined 
together, and measured 33£in. x 5^in. The first strip (Membrane 
1) is the leading part of the original roll ; this is written in a good 
clear penmanship, black letter, with capitals touched with red 
colour, and red lines ruled between the writing. The third strip 
(Membrane 3) is in the same handwriting, though it lacks the red 
ruling; this formed the first part of a list of benefactors, and is a 
portion of the original roll, which in the first place was one strip 
of parchment, and evidently written about the year 1444, when 
the earliest regulations of the gild were drawn up. 

In support of this opinion, it will be noticed that the names of 
Richard, Duke of York, and King Edward IV. are not included 
among the benefactors that appear on Membrane III., but they are 
given on an additional strip (Membrane 2), which was interposed 
at a later date. 

The gild was indebted to Duke Richard in 1447 for a charter 
from Henry VI. which gave them licence to found a chantry in 
St. Edmund's Church, and in 1449 for another charter which re- 
voked the former one and gave them authority to establish their 
chantry in St. Thomas' Church. A few months after Edward, the 
son and heir of Duke Richard, had been proclaimed King as 
Edward IV., the gild received another charter, which is dated 
December, 1461, 

376 The Original Bederoll of the Salisbury Tailors' Gild. 

Of those whose names appear on Membrane 3, John Pynnok 
and William More died in 1420, Stephen Hendy and Robert 
Bulke were wardens in 1440, and Edward Goodyere was steward 
in the same year. 

The succeeding names, including that of William Marchi, appear 
in the books of the Tailors' Gild from 1440 to 1450. 

Apparently the lapse of time and the changes in Church and 
State necessitated alterations in the bederoll, and during the reign 
of Henry VITL, when Catherine Parr was queen (1543-47), the 
original roll was cut and certain parts were done away with, after 
which the roll was re-formed with two additional strips, one of 
them (Membrane 2) being placed between the two portions of the 
original roll that were retained and the other (Membrane 4) was 
joined on at the end. 

The parts overlap where pasted together, and on taking them 
apart it was easy to copy the five lines of the original, which had 
been obliterated (i.e., the passage marked § — j as here below printed). 

It will be seen that (Membrane 2) one of the added strips, 
includes a bidding of prayer for 

" the Kynge's moste excellent Maiestye supreme heede immediately under 
God of the sp i,u ualtye and temporalty of the same Chirche and for Quene 
Katheryne, and our noble prynce Edwarde." 

These last wordes (" our noble prynce Edwarde ") were erased, 
doubtless after the death of K. Henry VIII. , when Edward had 
ceased to be merely " prynce," so that the form which had served 
for K. Henry might be for a tyme used for his son. " Davy lewys 
henry Colston & John Mountes," benefactors whose names appear 
on Membrane 2, were members of the gild in 1533, when the 
Tailors' Hall was built. The Sub-Dean, Canon Chr. Wordsworth, 
has kindly corrected my copy of the roll, and has added the formula 
for absolution. This is written on the dorse, and had quite escaped 
my notice. 

[Membrane 1]. 
*y[70RSIPFULL masters and brethers and susters, for as moche as hit 
hathe ben laudabily acustomed of olde and awncheant tyme of 
oure predecessours be fore us this daye, and all suche daies and tymes. that 
we be gadered and assemeled in like maner, and forme, as we be at this 
tyme to a speciall prayer and recomendacon to Allmyghti God, and to oure 

By C.Haskins." a > 377 

lady Seint Mary, to Seynt John the baptiste, and to all the holi companye 
of heuen, mekeli be sechyng yat blessid lorde of his sup er habundant and 
Infinite m r cy and grace for all the brethers and sisters quyk and ded, and 
for the" goode dooers and wellwillers off this present fraternite and brethered 
of Seynt John l [§the baptiste. And in the which praier and recommendacon 
we shall mekely beseche and pray ou r blessid lorde ihu to mayntayne and 
p re f orme the faithe and pece of his only spouse 'holi chirche w th all the 
estates to the same belongyng, that is to sey]J 

[Membrane 2.] the baptiste. In the whiche p ra yer ye shall praye for the 
hole cogregacyon of Chrystes Churche and specyally for this Chirche of 
Englonde wherein firste I comende to your devoute prayours the Kynges 
moste Excellent Maiestye, 2 supreme heede immediately vnder God of the 
sp irit ualtye and temporalty of the same Chirche k for Quene Katheryne 
[ 3 and our noble prynce Edwarde.] 

Secondlye ye shall praye for the clergye, the lordes temporall and the 
comons of this realme besechynge Almyghty God to gyue euerye one of 
them g ra ce to vse them selfe in suche wise as maye be to his contentaton, 
the Kynge's honor and the welth of this realme. And in this p ar te I comede 
to your devoute p ra yer the worshyple estates Master Davy lewys which gaue 
to the buyldynge of the taylours hall. V. H in money & Master henry Colston 
which gaue to the buyldynge of the same hall .v. 11 in money. 

Thirdly ye shall praye for the soules that be departed abydyng the mercy 
of God, that it maye please hym the rather at the coteplaton of our prayours 
to grante them the fruytyon of his presence. And in this parte I do 
comende to your devoute prayer the soules of all the brethers & systers, 
bnfactours and welwyllers of this present fraternyte of Saynt John the 
baptyste & specyally for the soule of the high and myghty Duke Richerde 
late Duke of York & the right prynce Kyng Edwarde the iiij th , and for the 
soules of his p ro genytours whiche was firste fownder & granter of the same 

Ite. for the soules of John Mountes &, Ales his wiffe whiche gaue to the 
Chambre xx 8 . 

[Membrane 3. 4 ] Pro animabus. 

Johannis Pynnok. 

Stephani Hendy, et Alicie cons. [w ch gaue a ten eme "t called Shrewys Corner]. 

Willim More, et Susanne cons. 5 

Thome Danyell, et Alicie cons. 

1 § to X —this portion of ancient MS. was covered by the top of Mem. 2 
being pasted or fixed over it. 

2 In the margin : — " Kingdom Englond & of France & of Ireland and hed 
in earth, ye supreme hed." 

3 Subsequently erased. 

4 Same handwriting as that on Membrane 1. 5 Consortis, or coniugis. 

378 The Original Bederoll of the Salisbury Tailors' Gild, 

Roberti Bulke, cum uxore sua [w ch gaue x markes]. 
Johannis Asheforde, et Christine cons [wch. gaue a ten emen t called lockyers 
Edwarde Goodyere, et dionisie ux (oris). 
Nicholai Hockyn, et edithe con's [w ch gaue x markes]. 
Willm Philipps [wh ch gaue a sto n ding cuppe of syluer]. 
Henrici Gyle, et Margerie, con's [w ch gaue a basse pott of viij galons]. 
Johannis Parke. 

Thome Dudman, et ioh[ ann ]e con's [w fh gaue .x. markes]. 
Johannis ffraunces. 
Johannis Broode, et alicie Charlyng. 
Willim Tauener, & Joh ann e Mountes [w ch gaue .xx s .] 
Philippi Skynner. 

Joha nn is Perannce & Margarete cons' [w ch . gave .xiij s . iiij d .]. 
Willim Godeferay & Alicie uxoris sue cum omnibus liberis [w ch gaue v. u .]. 
Willim Garlyke cum uxore. 1 

Joha" n is Godefrey w th hys ii wyffes, whiche gafe to the brethered 
a paxe of Syluere. 

Willie] mi Marchi whiche gaffe xx s to the brethed. 

Johannis Wyly. 

[Membrane 4. 2 ] Joh aim is Wyly 

Bennet Davyd w eh . gaue .xl. s . 

Willelmi Marchy w ch . gaue .xx. s . 

Johis Godfrey w ch . gaue a syluer paxe. 

Thome Gybson, w ch . gaue .xl. s . 

Roberti Arudell w ch . gaue xx. s . 

Alicie Kynge, wydowe, w ch . gaue xx. s . 

Petri Cofyn, w ch . gaue xvj. d . & a dyaper towell. 

(M r .)_Johis Waggyn, w cl '. gaue .xx. s . 

Johane Bennet, w ch . gaue .xx. s . 

Thome Phylyppys, w cb . gaue .x. s . 

(de 3 ) Elys Poyndert, w ch . gaue .vj. s . .viij. d . , Ri !r 

Walteri Storme, w ch . gaue .iij s . .iiijd. 

(M r1 ^) Johane Peerson, w ch . gaue .xlvj. s . .viij. d . 

WilH Eston, w ch . gaue a tenement of .vj. s , .viij. d . 

Johis Bowe w eh . gaue .vj. s . .viij. d . 

(Mr.) Willi Williams, w cb . gaue to the buyldynge of the taylours hall .v. 11 . 
[and also v markes added in margin]. 

Thome Gryffyth, w ch . gaue to the Skotchyns of the light .xx. s 

Willi Middelton & Annes his wiffe w fch . gaue the blake vestmentes to 
requiem Masse. 

1 Here the original handwriting ends, near the foot of the Membrane or 
strip : but in a smaller hand was written in three lines, but subsequently 
covered by pasting over the top of strip 4, to join 3 and 4 together, 

s Same handwriting as Membrane 2. 3 ? dame. 

By C. Raskins, 379 

Here the roll, as pieced together, ended, but two entries were 
add^d at two subsequent times: — 

^ Mr. Roberti Gryffyth w ch . gaue xl s . to the buyldyng of the taylours 
John Nycholas gaue .xx. s . to the buyldyng of the taylour's hall. 

[Membrane 2, in dorso.'] On the dorse of Membrane 2 is written 
in pale ink the formula for absolution of the departed founders:— 

Absoluimus 1 quesumus, Domine, animas fundatorum benefactorum, 
nostrorum et omnium fidelium defunctorum ab omni vinculo delictorum 
vt in resurrectionis gloria inter Sanctos Et electos tuos resussitati respirent 
per xpm. dnm nrm. [i.e., per Christum Dominum nostrum.] 

Compare the conclusion of the Salisbury Cathedral " Bidding of 
the Bedes " in "Salisbury Ceremonies and Processions," ed, Chr. 
Wordsworth, Camb., 1901, p. 32. 

An error for "absolue." 



In the Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds in the Public Record 
Office (in preparing and indexing which Mr. A. Sfcory-Maskelyne 
book a considerable part), the following document is thus noticed ; 
Vol. iii. p. 318, 4to, 1900:— 

Anc. Deeds, C, 3000. 1 

[Wilts.] 2 Grant in frank almoin by Walter le Bret of Croftone, 

to the house of St. John the Baptist of Bedewynde and 

the brethren and sisters there, of a messuage, croft, 

meadow, wood, and [6 acres of] land in Croftone, part of 

the |land lying in the sand (in sabulo). Witnesses: — 

Richard de Haveringes, John de Colingeburn, 3 and others 


Through the kindness of Mr. A, Story-Maskelyne we are able 

to present the readers of this Magazine with an expanded transcript 

of the above-named document, which tells us of a Wiltshire Hospital 

unknown toLeland,Dugdale, Tanner, Browne Willis, Canon Jackson, 

and other writers on our old Religious Houses and Chapels. 

Sciant presentes et f uturi quod ego Walterus le Bret de Croftone dedi 
concessi et hac presenti carta mea confirmavi pro me et heredibus meis 
imperpetuum deo et beate Marie et domui Sancti Johannis Baptiste de 
Bedewynde et fratribus et sororibus ibidem deo servientibus in pura et 
in perpetua elemosina pro salute anime mee et antecessorum meorum 
Quoddam mesuagium cum una crofta et cum uno prato et cum uno 
bosco cum omnibus pertinenciis eorum, et sex acras terre cum omnibus 
pertinenciis suis sine ullo retenemento mini vel heredibus meis . . . 
videlicet illas sex acras terre quas tenui in villa de Croftone et in 
campis ejusdem ville cum homagiis redditibus releviis wardis [escha]etis 
et cum omnibus aliis rebus que ad me vel ad heredes meos causa 
predicti tenementi poterunt evenire in predicta villa de Croftone. de 
quibus predictis sex acris terre una acra jacet in sabulo inter terram 
quam Simon Alius Johannis tenuit et terram quam Steffanus Prikepain 
tenuit. Et una acra jacet in sabulo inter terram que fuit Ade Baudewyne 

1 The deeds in the series marked " C." belong to the Court of Chancery 
and were formerly preserved in the Tower of London and the Rolls Chapel. 
2 Misprinted " [Hants]" on p. 318, but corrected on p. x. 
3 Misprinted " Colregeburn " on p. 318, but corrected on p. x. 

A forgotten Hospital at Great Bedwyn. 381 

et terrain quam Reginaldus de Ponte tenuit. Et due acre jacent inter 
terrain quam predictus Simon tenuit in campo aquilonali et terram 
quam Willelmus Sewinus tenuit. Et due acre jacent inter terram quam 
Steffanus Prikepain tenuit et terram quam Reginaldus de Ponte tenuit. 
Habenda et tenenda omnia predicta de dominis feodi ejusdem predicte 
domui et predictis f ratribus et sororibus Hbere. quiete. integre. et in 
paceinperpetuum. Reddendo indeannuatim dominis feodi quatuor soli- 
dos argenti et unum denarium ad festum Sancti Michaelis pro omnibus 
serviciis. querelis. Sectis. et demandis. Salvo'regali servicio. Et 
ego Walterus Bret et heredes mei predictum mesuagium cum predictis 
crofta. prato. bosco. et cum predictis sex acris terre et cum omnibus 
aliis prenominatis et cum omnibus eorum pertinenciis predicte domui 
et predictis fratribus et sororibus contra omnes homines et feminas per 
predictum servicium warantizabimus. Et quia volo quod hec mea 
donacio concessio et confirmacio rata et stabilis permaneat hanc pre- 
sentem cartam impressione sigilli mei corroboravi. Hiis testibus 
Alano filio Waryn. Ricardo de Haveringes. Johanne de Colingeburn. 
Johanne de Graftone. Ricardo Boxman. Ricardo de Hareden. 
Roberto Hommeden. Willelmo Russel. Waltero Stablir. et multis 

Ancient Deeds. C. 3000. P.R.O. 











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Sale of Stonehenge and the Amesbury Abbey Estate. 

On the death of Sir Edmund Antrobus a short time after the death of 
his only son at the front, the Amesbury Abbey Estate passed to Sir 
Cosmo Antrobus, brother of the late baronet, and by his direction was 
offered for sale at Salisbury. The catalogue of the sale was as follows : 
Particulars, Plans, ... of Sale of the Domain known 
as the Amesbury Abbey Estate including Stonehenge . . 
. . 6420 acres .... by auction at the New Theatre, 

Salisbury, .... 21st Sept., 1915 Messrs. 

Knight, Frank, & Rutley. 

Folio, pp. 101. Two very large folding coloured plans in pocket, and 
key plan reduced from Ordnance on the cover. 

The first five pages are taken up with a paper by Lady Antrobus on 
"Amesbury Abbey," reprinted from Country Life, March 1st, 1902, 
and as an introduction to Lot 15, " Stonehenge, together with about 
30a. 2r. 37p. of the adjoining downland," a couple of pages of description 
of the monument are reprinted from the Programme of the visit to 
Stonehenge by the Royal Archaeological Institute in the autumn 
meeting, 1913. It is stated that the net receipts from the Is. a head 
gate-money charged for admission amount to about £320 per annum. 
The catalogue also contained the following conditions : — 

" Stonehenge is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments Protection 
Act, 1882, and is accordingly subject to the provisions of the Ancient 
Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act, 1913, and a pur- 
chaser shall buy with full notice of the effect of this Act. Lot 15 is 
also sold subject to the following stipulations, namely : 

" (1) That the public shall always be allowed to have free access 
to it on payment of such reasonable sum per head, not exceeding one 
shilling for each visit, and subject to such reasonable conditions as 
the owner for the time being may from time to time think fit : 

'* (2) That it shall so far as possible be maintained in its present 
condition, and 

" (3) That the purchaser shall in his conveyance covenant not to 
erect or permit to be erected upon any part of the said lot within 
400 yards of the milestone marked 'Amesbury 2' on the northern 
frontage thereof, any building or erection other than a pay box 
similar to the pay box already standing on the said lot. The con- 
veyance of Lot 15 shall be made in such form and shall contain such 
covenants and provisions as the vendor shall consider necessary or 
proper for giving full effect to the foregoing stipulations." 
When the intention of selling the property became known, many 
letters appeared in the press advocating the acquisition of Stonehenge 
by the Nation. A series of letters on this suggestion and on the future 
of the monument 'generally appeared in The Salisbury Journal, June 

Notes. 393 

5th, 1915, from the Dean of Salisbury, the Eev. E. H. Goddard, Dr. 
J. P. WilHams-Freemarij Mr. Heywood Sumner, Col. W. Hawley, and 
Mr. F. Stevens. Our own Society communicated with the National 
Trust, offering to icooperate with the Trust if the latter found itself 
able to take any steps to secure the structure for the Nation, and it was 
understood that the Secretary of the Trust was in communication with 
the agents of the estate and the auctioneers on the matter. Nothing 
further transpired, however, and the sale at Salisbury came on Sept. 
21st, 1915. There was no bid for the Abbey and Park, but many of the 
farms were sold, Normanton Farm going to Lord Glenconner for £7,200, 
Countess Farm, to Mr. A. C. Young for £8,900, Ratfyn to the same 
bidder for £9,500, Red House Farm to a Salisbury Syndicate for £5,600 
and West Amesbury to Mr. I. Crook for £4,450. Full accounts of the 
sale appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 23rd, and Salisbury Journal, 
Sept. 25th, 1915, the Salisbury Times giving also a portrait of Mr. 
Chubb, and photos of the High Street, The Old Lock-Up, and Cold- 
harbour, at Amesbury. Lot 15 comprised Stonehenge and the 30 acres 
of downland adjoining it, now enclosed within the wire fence. Started 
at £5,000 it advanced slowly by bids of £100 to £6,600, at which price 
it was knocked down to Mr. C. H. E. Chubb, who, as he stated, had 
attended the sale without any intention of buying, but seeing that the 
sale appeared to hang, started bidding, and was more surprised than 
anyone else when he found himself the owner at the abovementioned 

The National Trust was not represented at the sale, and Lord 
Eversley wrote a letter to the Times in the early days of October, 
explaining why it was not. The Trust had, he says, asked the agents 
at what price the owner was willing to sell Stonehenge to a public body 
like the Trust. The reply was £10,000. The Trust regarded this as 
altogether excessive, and very shortly before the sale wrote to the agents 
saying so. The auctioneers replied that the reserve price at the 
auction would be "thousands of pounds below the amount mentioned 
in our previous letter " (£10,000), and suggesting that the National Trust 
should be represented at the auction. Unfortunately it was then too 
late to make arrangements for the finding of the necessary purchase 
money in time, and the opportunity of securing Stonehenge for the 
Trust was lost. Lord Eversley states that at the time of the action 
brought against the late Sir Edmund Antrobus in 1901, 'we' [pre- 
sumably the National Trust] ' offered to purchase the monument and 
a few acres of down land surrounding it for the sum of £10,000.' Sir 
Edmund "did not object to a sale, but he said his price was £50,000. 
For this sum he had already offered the monument to the Government, 
and when it was rejected, on the ground that it was altogether 
exorbitant, he threatened to sell the stones to an American millionaire, 
who would ship them across the Atlantic. The then Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, to whom the offer and threat were verbally made, very 
properly replied that if an attempt was made to remove the monument 
he would send a regiment from the camp on Salisbury Plain to prevent 
it." [Surely this must have been merely a joke.] 

394 Notes. 

To this letter the auctioneers replied in iheTimes of Oct.7th, 1 9 1 5,saying 
that Sir Cosmo Antrobus was sorry that the National Trust had not 
been represented at the sale, that the fact that it was not so represented 
was not their fault, and that on the day before the sale they had 
telephoned to the Trust that if they were prepared to pay £6,000 they 
had better be represented at the sale. Mr. Chubb also wrote on the 
same date saying that though it was true that he had no intention of 
buying when he entered the sale room, he certainly did not buy the 
monument as an investment, as Lord Eversley had stated. He had 
not, he said, as yet formed any plans as to the future. " I am not eager 
to sell Stonehenge either to the National Trust or to anyone else." 
Further letters appeared, iand on i January 28th, 1916, Lord Eversley 
returned to the charge in a long letter in the Salisbury Times, reprinted 
in full in the Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 3rd, reiterating at length his, view 
of the negociations between the National Trust and the auctioneers, 
and printing a letter which he had addressed to Mr. Chubb on Oct. 
9th, 1915, asking whether he would re-sell the monument " with a view 
to its being placed under the permanent protection of a public body, 
and the public being admitted free of charge " ; and Mr. Chubb's reply 
of Oct. 12th, in which he says "at present I am not disposed to sell 
the ancient monument, but you may rest assured that it will be as 
carefully looked after as it has been heretofore." Lord Eversley says 
that had Mr. Chubb been willing to hand over his purchase, the National 
Trust was now in a position, owing to several generous offers of help, 
to repay him the purchase money, plus 10 per cent., and take possession, 
and he proceeds to criticise the new owner's refusal to accept, in no 
measured terms. Throughout his long statement Lord Eversley clearly 
shows that the object he has really at heart is the throwing open of the 
monument to the public free of charge rather than its preservation. 

The Salisbury Times of the same date commenting on the letter in 
an article, expresses the opinion that short of the monument becoming 
national property, it could not have fallen into better hands than Mr. 
Chubb's, and that it " can see no sign of there being much local sympathy 
with any effort to dispossess him." 

The new owner, Mr. C. H. E. Chubb, of Bemerton Lodge, Salisbury, 
was formerly a master at the Bishop's School, Salisbury, graduating 
afterwards in double first class honours (Science and Law) at Christ's 
College, Cambridge. He was subsequently called to the bar, but never 
practised, as he undertook the control of Fisherton House Asylum, the 
property of Mrs. Chubb, to whom it was left, as the adopted daughter 
of the late Dr. Finch. He has also recently purchased from Lord 
Furness the Berwick St. James Estate. He took formal possession of 
Stonehenge in January, 1916, and at once reduced the admission fee 
for entrance from Is. to 3<i. for all men in uniform. He very courteously 
received the President and Secretary of the Wilts Archaeological 
Society, who called on him with the object especially of pointing out 
the danger menacing the stones of the circle, which are now leaning 
outwards, and expressed his intention, after the war, of taking counsel 
with the Society of Antiquaries as to what ought to be done to secure 
the stones now leaning from further danger. 

Notes.' 395 

" MS. Collections for Wilts," by C. H. P. Wyndham. 

Mr. It. S. Newall, of Fisberton Delamere House, recently (Feb., 1916) 
purchased from Gregory, of Bath, a Book of MS. Notes by H. P. 
Wyndham bearing the above title. It is a folio volume bound in 
vellum, measuring 15in. X 10in., and consisting of 562 pages, the large 
majority of which, however, are blank. A note on the fly-leaf in the 
handwriting of Sir R. C. Hoare states " The Manuscript Book was 
presented to me by my worthy friend and countryman, C. H. F. 
Wyndham, Esq., of the College, Salisbury, durante vita, to which I 
have added a few particulars, as they occurred. R. C. Hoare." 

The Notes are arranged alphabetically under the names of places, 
fifty-two in all, and consist in a few cases of a short and general de- 
scription of the Church, in others of a mere reference to the Gentleman's 
Magazine, or other source of information, but in the majority of in- 
stances, of more detailed descriptions of camps, or the opening of 
barrows, in which apparently Mr. Wyndham assisted Mr. Cunnington. 
Sir R. C. Hoare's additions are not extensive Many of Mr. Wyndham's 
notes are dated " Oct., 1800." Mr. Newall has very kindly allowed me 
to see the book and to extract from it what seemed of interest for the 

Of Avebury Church Mr. Wyndham writes : — " The antient part or 
body of the Church is not more than 36 feet square, the roof of which 
is supported by four, wide, unornamented Norman arches of a very 
early period, dividing the pavement into a sort of nave and two lies, 
all of which are of the same length and breadth. This part was 
probably built in the reign of Henry the first, when it was given, as a 
cell to the monks of St. George of Boscharville, in Normandy. The 
Font is of the same age. . . . The South door is also coeval with 
the building. . . . 

Of the stone circle he says (Oct., 1800) : " I could not perceive more 
than 12 or 14 of the huge stones of the Temple now remaining within 
the ring." Of the Sarsen stones he writes : " They must have been 
carried from the downy vallies of this neighbourhood, thousands of 
which sort are still visible, sometimes appearing single, and sometimes 
in crowded natural heaps promiscuously lying together in every kind 
of direction. The largest of these stones have anciently been selected 
for Abury and Stonehenge, and that will account why there are now so 
few in these vallies of equal dimensions. It is observable that none of 
these masses are to be found on the hills, except that they were 
manifestly carried thither, but always in the vallies." This latter 
statement is worthy of note in view of the fact that it has sometimes 
been supposed that the sarsens once lay as thickly on the top of Hackpen 
Hill as they do in the vallies leading down from it. Clearly this was 
not the case in 1800, and they could hardly have been cleared away 
before that date. 

Of Amesbury he writes : " No part of the original Monastic Church 
now remains." Under " Beauchampstoke " he dwells on the curious 
earthworks and the vast barrow (now completely destroyed), and from 

396 Notes. 

the fact that the ditch is on the inside of the rampart, concludes that 
the purpose of the structure must have been the same as that of 
Avebury. No details, however, are given which are not to be found 
in Ancient Wilts. 

Of Berwick St. John Church Sir R. C. Hoare writes : " A square 
embattled turret to the Church supported by four massive arches under 
which the pulpit has been very injudiciously placed. The Church has 
two'tiau septs each of which contains a cross-legged knight, that on the 
north side under a plain arch : that on the south side, under one much 
richer. This effigy bears on his arm a shield on which are armorial 
bearings . . . The northern chapel was once probably a chantry 
founded by the personage whose "effigy there exists. On the roof or 
ceiling, which is in a very dilapidated state, there is a tablet engraved 
in old letters. Qy. " Dominus Johes Beke," On another tablet is 
an escutcheon of arms. . . . Font modern. Many sepulchral 

Of Great Bedwyn Church Mr. Wyndham says: "The Church is 
large and built in the form of a cross, having a handsome Tower, a 
wide Nave, two lies, and a cross He, all the walls of which are of small 
smooth-headed flints strongly cemented together. The nave is divided 
from the lies, by four arches on each side, supported by round Norman 
pillars of stone, crowned .with large projecting capitals in perfect 
preservation and varying in their designs every one from the others. 
The arches are pointed, the double mouldings of which are all uniform 
and exhibit a very bold and deeply indented zigzag facing. The chancel 
is of the same age with the Church and has five uniform lancet windows 
on each side, tho' two of them have been defaced in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, to give space on the wall for the monument of a Duke of 
Somerset ; many of the original tiles, of a mosaic pattern, still serve, 
tho' in confusion, as part of its [the chancel's] pavement. In the south 
cross He are two antient mural monuments under Gothic arches, one 
of them is of a cross-legged knight in armour & of full length, bearing 
a large shield with a bend between six birds, 3 & 3. The sexton said 
the monument was of an Adam de Stoke, but could advance no farther. 
The other appears to be of some Abbot or Bishop, having a long cross 
upon its slab, formerly inlaid with brass, but long since taken away, 
with an inscription round its margin, so deeply engraven in large 
Gothick characters, that, if the letters were cleaned, they would be 
easily legible." 

Of Berwick St. Leonard Sir R. C. Hoare notes that it was " formerly 
th\3 residence of the Howe family, some of whom are there buried. 
Afterwards it became, by marriage, the property of Henry Lee Warner, 
Esq., of Walsingham Abbey, Co. Norfolk. From him it came to his 
relation, — Woodward, Esq., who sold it to John Benet, of Pythouse, 

Mr. Wyndham was present with Mr. W. Cunnington when one of 
the Roman villas at Pitmead, between Bishopstrow and Norton, was 
examined in 1800, and he gives an account of what was found, which, 
however, does little to supplement that given in Ancient Wilts, II., 111. 

Notes. 397 

Of Bulford he writes : " The Church is very antient, being entirely 
built with flints, except where it has been visibly repaired with bricks ; 
the i walls are very thick, and the original windows small, narrow, & 
few. The Tower is founded on a very broad square, and is so low, that 
its height is not double of its breadth. The door opens into the Church, 
on the south side, thro' this Tower, under a semicircular arch with 
plain mouldings." " A Church somewhat similar to this is to be seen 
at Wilsford — built with the same materials. The Tower of Wilsford 
Church is at the west end, and a Norman door-case, now stopt up, 
antiently led thro' the Tower into the Body. A flat monument of 
stone lies under a Gothic arch, in the north wall of the Chancel, ap- 
parently of Edwd. 1st time. 1 

At Chisenbury (in Enford) he notes within the area of the intrench- 
ments round the Grove mansion two circular barrows which are not 
shown or mentioned by Hoare in Ancient Wilts, I., 193, Map of Station 
VI., and are not included in the "List of Prehistoric Antiquities," 
Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxviii., 252. 

He describes the first opening by W. Cunnington in 1801 of Barrow 
No. I. of the Ashton Valley group in Codford St. Peter ( Wilts Arch. 
Mag., xxxviii., 228), but adds nothing of moment to the account in 
Ancient Wilts, I., 78. 

" Near the Church of Chiltern (sic) All Saints are large remains of 
a very antient Mansion, now converted to a Farm House. Many of 
the doors and windows, both within and without, have plain pointed 
arches of very early Gothick architecture. These are formed of stone 
but the building is a mixture of stone with flints, tho' I observed a 
large piece of wall entirely of flint, strongly cemented together and 4 feet 
in thickness which may probably have been part of the original mansion, 
appearing to have been erected so early as in the 13th century. Another 
Farm House, immediately opposite on the other side of the road, ex- 
hibits broad collegiate oblong windows of the time of Jas. 1st." 

Of Clarendon Palace in 1800 he writes: " The present appearance 
of the ruins occupies a space of about six acres ; they consist of large 
masses of strongly cemented flints, scattered about in the most irregular 
manner, rising in some spots to a considerable elevation, and in others 
fallen into deep cavities, but the whole is so closely covered with thorns 
and briars that few of them are visible to the eye without an accurate 
inspection. Consequently, no plan of the building can be even surmised. 
One lofty blank wall of flint only remains upright, and towers above 
the rest of the ruins, which, from its breadth, & triangular slopes from 
its summit, appears to have been the end of some great room, like the 
Hall of a College, the height of which was terminated by the roofing. 
The only remains of an arch, which I could discover, are over a deep 
and wide excavation, intended perhaps for a cellar. It is not perfect, 
but the springs of part of the vault are still apparent, which are formed 
with a single stone below tfc then covered with cemented flints. The 

1 Wilsford Church was rebuilt in 1858, except the Tower. 

398 Notes. 

depth and obscurity of this arch, which appears to have been circular, 
may, probably, have preserved it from total destruction. A high pitched 
bank, which was formerly walled, surrounds the ruins, and incloses an 
oblong square of about 60 or 70 acres ; this was, I should suppose, the 
Home Park of the Forest ; the Palace stood at the S.E. angle of this 
great inclosure." 

Of Cley Hill (in Oorsley), near Warminster, he mentions, curiously 
enough, that there is no camp on its top, and that the appearance of a 
ditch round it is really due to lynchets. Of the larger of the two bar- 
rows, on its summit he remarks that it : " has a cavity on its top, in 
which is placed a square stone 3ft. \ in height & breadth, and probably 
weighs 2 tons. This stone may be coeval with the barrow : in the 
middle of the upper fiat square, a hollow square has been cut of 15 
inches to each side, and of 12 inches in depth. This gives it, upon a 
cursory view, the appearance of having sustained a cross ; but part of 
this stony tumulus has, formerly, been torn from it & now lies close 
to its foot, and in the centre of this is also excavated a square, of seven 
inches in depth, but not perforating the fragment. They doubtless 
once formed the appearance of a single stone, the parts of each visibly 
agreeing with each other, and in that intention the hollow square within, 
19 inches deep, could not have been suspected or even conceived to be 
in a solid block of stone. The tradition of the Parish is, that the 
discovery was made, many ages since, by the force of lightning. May 
not this great cavity have originally contained the ashes of the person 
to whose memory the barrow and stone had been raised ? " 

Of Enford Sir R. C. Hoare has this entry : " The Church of this 
Parish, on Sunday 2 March, 1817, was visited by a most severe Thunder- 
storm. The Lightening struck the spire of the Church, which im- 
mediately fell with a tremendous crash, forcing its way thro' the roofs 
of the body of the Church, and the side aisles. It has been so ruined 
by this accident, that it has been: deemed necessary to rebuild the 
Church entirely, 1 and the expense has been estimated at £2500, which 
the inhabitants of the parish cannot raise, and have therefore set on 
foot a subscription. I think that Enford is the Edensfordesmere 
mentioned in ancient records." 

In Figheldean Church Mr. Wyndham notes that " two large figures 
of Crusade Knights have been removed from the body of the Church, 
and are now set upright against the S. wall of the Chancel. They are 
bedaubed with whitewash, but there does not appear any vestige of 
arms on either of their shields." 2 

He has some interesting notes on barrows which he opened or assisted 
in opening. Of the Long Barrow in Heytesbury North Field (List 

1 Happily the Church still retains much old work and has not been 
literally " rebuilt." 

2 These effigies have of late years been placed in the porch, and the 
"Little Guide" to Wiltshire by F. R. Heath, 1911, states that "they were 
discovered in a field at Milston " ! 

Notes. 399 

of Long Barrows, Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxviii., 3.92. " Heytesbury 4." 
Ancient Wilts, L, 71.) He says : " It appeared to have been formerly 
opened in many places, but always from the top but never had been 
digged to a depth sufficient for discoveries. I employed therefore (Sept., 
1800) some men to intersect the Barrow, by dividing its length into two 
equal parts, & to pursue the excavation on a level with the original sur- 
face of the soil. We had not proceeded more than five feet, before we 
observed a narrow stratum of a very black substance ... As we 
proceeded towards the centre, this black stratum gradually increased in 
depth, and when we advanced as far as 26 feet, it was no less than 18 
inches thick. The chalk that covered this part was six feet high . . . 
We found a few pieces of human bones, scattered here and there, in 
different parts of this black animal earth which extends itself thro' the 
whole length & breadth of the tumulus . . . Before the Barrow 
was finally closed, we widened our original section towards the south, 
and, within a few feet, found a piece of a stag's horn, 5 inches & £ long, 
and two small bits of pottery, of a better quality than what formed the 
urn in Knook barrow, tho' these bits were never parts of an urn." l 

" We opened another barrow about f of a mile N.E. from the above. 
The form was oblong, but only 91 feet long, <fc 33 wide. The strata of 
this were different from the former, the uppermost was the common 
accumulated earth <k turf, 18 inches thick. Under this, three inches 
of a sort of marie, like lime-mortar, (perhaps the original finishing of 
the barrow), and below this 12 inches of earth mixed with flints, and 
in this layer many bones, apparently of sheep, deer, and birds. Here 
were no ashes nor marks of fire, nor could we discover, as far as we 
went, which was only seven feet, any signs or remains of human bones. 
Tho' probably, some human body had been interred here and the 
animals, before mentioned, been sacrificed on the occasion. The form 
itself of this Barrow was much more correct, than that of the other, 
and was surrounded with a small oval ditch, no appearance of which 
was visible around the former." 2 

He describes the opening of " King Barrow" (Warminster 14), but 
adds nothing of consequence to Hoare's account (Ancient Wilts, I., 72). 

Of the opening of one of the group of barrows on the down half-way 
between Scratchbury and Cotley Hill (Norton Bavant 5 — 10) Wilts 
Arch. Mag., xxxviii., 297 ; Ancient Wilts, I., 71), which Hoare dismisses 
in a few words, he gives a fuller account : " One of them, opened in 
1801, was what is called, of a beautiful bell-shape, and a third part had 
lately been cut away for the sake of the materials for mending the 
roads, which made our enquiries the less troublesome. From the top 
to the depth of 18 inches, was turf &, vegetable earth ; under this a 

1 This is clearly a fuller and more accurate account of the first opening of 
his barrow in 1800 which in Ancient Wilts, L, 71, is said to have been 
lade by Mr. Cunnington, who " at a depth of twelve feet discovered a little 
round of black earth which extended along the middle of the barrow, but 
othing was found except some pieces of stags' horns." 

2 It is not clear which barrow this refers to. 
0L. XXXIX. — NO. CXXV. 2 D 

400 Notes. 

thin stratum of white marl about 4 inches thick, covering the whole 
barrow, <fc below to the bottom, was black mould, intermixed with 
char'd wood, bones of sheep, swine, and other animals. On the bottom, 
which was level with the surrounding ground, we found char'd wood 
and ashes, with a few animal bones nearly two inches deep. We cleared 
these away and came apparently to the natural soil of marl ; but on 
moving part of it, we discovered a circular cavity cut into the solid 
marl about 3 feet wide & 18 inches deep, in which were black ashes, 
char'd wood, & human bones that had suffered the fire. One thigh 
bone was black with the fire, but other bones were found at the bottom 
quite white & calcined by the fire, while some others, tho' white, were 
firm. The sides of this aperture had been made red with the fire. 

He describes the first opening of Bowl's Barrow (Heytesbury 1.), in 
1801, almost in the same words as Hoare, (Ancient Wilts, I., 87). but 
says that parts of more than twenty skeletons were found. Of the 
second attempt, in 1803, eastward of the first cutting, he says : " At the 
depth of 10 feet we found the slough of the horns of 7 oxen, joined to 
the front of the skulls, some others of these sloughs appeared to have 
been burned. Several bones of oxen also appeared to have passed the 
fire. One foot lower was a cist nearly 3 feet deep, extending towards 
the west, and many heads of skeletons near it extending towards the 
east." At this point the excavations ceased owing to the fall of stones 
which he expressly says were sarsens. "None of the black animal 
earth which we observed in some other Long Barrows, appeared in this." 

Describing the opening of the small barrow [Knook 3, Wilts Arch. 
Mag., xxxviii., 274 ; Ancient Wilts, I., 83] opened in 1800, he adds 
several details not given in Hoare's short account. The barrow was in 
a corn field and had been much ploughed down. On the original sur- 
face, the large urn was found inverted, was perfect when found, but 
fell to pieces on removal ; the base measured 5f in. in diameter, the rim 
about 1ft. Both in shape and ornament it resembled that figured by 
Stukeley (Abury, p. 70, Tab. xxxvi). It was therefore of the "over- 
hanging rim " type. It contained black mould, " a few pieces of human 
bones, and great part of a skull with many very small bones, not 
human, but of birds or other small animals." Also " 2 inches of the 
extreme pointed part of a copper two edged spear or dagger, the polish 
of which though covered with verdegris was as smooth as the most 
refined steel from a cutler's shop, and its sharpness equal to the edge 
& point of a penknife." It was \\ inches broad. 

At Norton Bavant Church he notices the inscriptions on fiat stones | 
in the south chapel. Thomas Benet, ob. 1653. Elizabeth, his wifej 
1681. John Thomas Benet, 1657. Thomas, s. of Thomas and Elizabeth j 
Benet, 1720. Another son, 1711. John Benet, 1706. William Benet, aj 
barrister, 1707. Thomas Benet, aged 62, 1754. Mrs. Ethelbert Benet, 
his widow, d. of Archbishop Wake, aged 68, 1766. " Among the above 
is an old flat stone, with signs of six figures of plates in brass, many of) 
which have long since been taken away ; it appears to have been laidj 
in the fifteenth century and has two separate coats of arms, still re 
maining in brass on its upper part." One bore a merchant's cross wit. 

Notes. 401 

the initials W.B. ; the other two open shears crossing each other. A 
brass plate in the chancel to John Turnor, gentleman, who died 1645 . 
The above brasses are not mentioned in Kite's Brasses of Wiltshire. 

The opening of the Long Barrow at Tilshead, on the north edge of 
Old Ditch [Tilshead 2,WUts Arch. Mag., xxxviii , 401], in 1802, is des- 
cribed in the same terms as by Hoare {Ancient Wilts, L, 90). 

The same may be said of the opening of " White Barrow " [Tilshead 4] 
and " Tilshead Lodge Barrow " [Tilshead 5] and of the Golden Barrow 
at Upton Lovell [Upton Lovell (2e)]. A sepia drawing of the gold 
ornaments found in the latter is given. 

In these accounts of barrow diggings Mr. Wyndham uses the plural 
" we," but only once mentions Mr. Cunnington's name, though it is 
evident from Ancient Wilts that the latter was present at the open- 
ing of all these barrows. 

The layer of intensely black greasy mould which occurs in so many 
of the Long Barrows is a constant puzzle to Mr. Wyndham, as indeed it 
remains to other archaeologists to this day — and he propounds various 
theories to account for it, e.g., Fire, or the Fermentation caused by the 
Decomposition of numbers of bodies. He, however, adds this note to 
the account of the Tilshead barrows : — 

" I ought to observe, that the above described black mold was 

analysed by Dr. Gibbs of Bath, and Charles Hatchett, Esq., F.R.S., 

in 1784, and that they both concluded that there was no appearance 

of animal substance to be discovered in it . . . that it could 

not proceed from Fire, as the mold must then have worn a very 

different complexion." 

The following note of Roman remains at Yarnbury Castle (in Steeple 

Langford) : " In the year 1800 the bones of a body were found under 

the area of this castle, with two brass rings on its fingers, the rings are 

in the possession of Mr. Cunnington, of Heytesbury." 

The above extracts comprise almost everything not recorded else- 
where which occurs in Mr. Wyndham's notes. 

Ed. H. Goddard. 

2 d 2 



Notes on Wiltshire Bats. Since the publication of my paper 
on "The Mammals of Wiltshire" (Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxix., p. 15), 
several interesting discoveries have been made in connection with the 
distribution of Bats in the county. 

On February 20th, 1916, Mr. R. S. Newall was kind enough to visit 
the Quarries at Chilmark for me, and there he found a dozen Greater 
Horseshoe Bats {Rfiinolophus ferrum-equinum), nine Batterer's 
Bats (Myotis natter eri), one Long-Eared (Plecotus auritus), and 
some Pipistrelles (Pipistrellus pipistrellus). In the paper referred 
to above I wrote of Batterer's Bat: "Absolutely no records for 
Wilts but almost certainly there"; however, in addition to these 
Chilmark t examples, I have recently come across a specimen (in the 
Blackmore Museum, at Salisbury) which was killed in that city on 
November 14th, 1859, and I think we may presume that it will even- 
tually turn up in other parts of the county. 

Another addition to the county list is Datjbenton's Bat {Myotis 
daubentonii), which the Rev. D. P. Harrison found in a hollow tree in 
Lydiard Park on October 6th, 1914. He caught six, and sent some 
living specimens to me for identification, but owing to the fact that 
I was away on Service they were released at home unidentified. 
Luckily, however, Mr. Harrison found some more later, with Pipistrelles 
and two Lesser Horseshoes {Rhinolophus hipposideros). I also came 
across one of the latter at Clyffe Pypard on January 16th, 1916. 

Mr. H. W. Robinson discovered a large colony of Barbastelles 
(Barbastella harbastellus) at Sherston, near Malmesbury, in August, 
1915, and caught some alive there in October, 1915. An account of 
these was published in the Zoologist, 1916, p. 74. 

Although, as will be seen from the above notes, a very considerable 
addition has been made during the last year or so to our knowledge 
of the bats of the county,, it is still far from complete, and I shall be 
very grateful for any information on the subject. 

G. Bathurst Hony. 

Slack Tern. Mr. W. S. Medlicott, of the Northumberland Hussars, 
stationed at Larkhill Camp, observed a Black Tern feeding on worms 
in the soapsud sewage from the camp, May 6th, 1916, and made a series 
of water colour studies of the bird in various attitudes. 

White Starling". On June 22nd, 1915, I saw at Hilmarton a pure 
white Starling associating with a number of ordinary Starlings. I had 
a good view of the bird flying within half-a-dozen yards, and there 
could be no doubt as to what it was. E. H. Goddard. 

Natural History Notes. 403 

Guillemot. A specimen of this bird caught alive in the allotments at 
Warminster in May, 1916, was fortunate enough to fall into the hands 
of captors who took it down to the sea and turned it loose a day or two 

GlOSSy Ibis. A Glossy Ibis {Plegadis f. falcinellus) was shot by the 
keeper at Burderop (near Swindon) in September, 1915, and has been 
set up by Paisey of Swindon. General Calley has kindly given me the 
following particulars : " My keeper saw it one morning, at the beginning 
of September last, in a grass field near a brook, within 100 yards of his 
house, and promptly shot it. I severely rated him for having done so. 
There was another seen, about the same time, at Draycott, near the 
camp, but I hope and believe that that escaped the usual fate of rare 
birds in this country." Draycott is quite close to Burderop. [This 
note was printed in British Birds, ix., p. 252.] 

G. Bathuest Hony. 

Little Owl in Wiltshire. The first record of the Little Owl 
(Athene n. noctua) in Wiltshire in recent years was of one shot near 
Avebury, in November, 1907 {Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Report). 
No more were recorded till January 8th, 1910, when a pair was shot on 
the Hampworth Estate in south-east Wiltshire (Brit. B., III., p. 375). 
On December 16th, 1911, Dr. H. P. Blackmore wrote that five had been 
killed during the previous six weeks within eighteen miles of Salisbury, 
and about the same time Dr. Hinton wrote that he had seen it near 
Imber. Four were obtained at Totterdown (near Marlborough) during 
1911 and 1912 (Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Report). Mr. M. 
Vaughan saw it at Milton in 1913 ; and one of the keepers at White- 
parish saw one or two during that year. During the present year 
(1915) it has been seen by the keeper at West Woods (near Marl- 
borough), by the keeper at Lydiard Millicent on October 14th, and Dr. 
Penrose tells me that he knew personally of three pairs nesting in the 
parish of Downton. Dr. Penrose's keeper thinks that it is supplanting 
the Barn Owl, as one pair has got possession of a nesting-hole for many 
years occupied by a pair of these birds. 

It will be noticed that all the above records are from the eastern 
, half of the county, and that the bird is more firmly established in South 
than in North Wiltshire. It is to be hoped that other notes on the 
distribution of this species will be forthcoming. 

[The above note was printed in British Birds, ix., p. 21]. 

I have heard of three new breeding places in 1816 : — at Collingbourne 
Ducis (Capt. Ashley, t R.A.M.C.) ; at Winterbourne Dauntsey (Mr. 
Gater ; and at Lydiard Park (Rev. D. P. Harrison). Paisey, the bird 
stuffer of Swindon, received three specimens from that neighbourhood 
to stuff during last winter, and one was shot at Dogdean near Salisbury 
on October 26th, 1916. 

G. Bathurst Hony. 

[Capt. H. A. Gilbert also notes a pair of these birds seen near 
Roundway Down, Sept. 23rd, 1916.— Ed.] 

404 Natural History Notes. 

Common Curlew {Numenius arquata). In British Birds, vol. x., 
No. 2, July 1st, 1916, p. 44, Mr. G. B. Hony has a note on the nesting of 
the Common Curlew in Wilts, in which he discusses the origin of all 
the notices of nests of this species in the county as given by Mr. im 
Thurn, the Rev. A. C. Smith, and the Rev. A. P. Morres, and concludes 
that in all probability in every case the bird was really not the Common 
Curlew, but the Stone Curlew {Burhinus oedicnemus), and that the 
former ought not to be included amongst the species known to have 
nested in the county. In the following number of British Birds, vol. 
x., No. 3, Aug. 1, 1916, p. 67, however, Mr. Hony has a second note : 
" On Sunday, July 2nd, 1916, while walking on Salisbury Plain, about 
a mile from Tidworth, I heard a pair of Curlew calling, and on ap- 
proaching them I was convinced from their behaviour that they had 
young, but after watching for over an hour I was obliged to leave un- 
satisfied. On July 4th Captain Ashley, R.A.M.C., and I rode to the 
spot, and though no Curlew were to be seen there, we eventually located 
one bird about a quarter of a mile away. Captain Ashley hid himself, 
while I led the two horses away, but though he watched for some time 
he failed to find any young. We were on the point of giving up the 
search when my dog found and killed a young Curlew of about a week 
old, thus effectually proving that the bird does, at least occasionally, 
nest in Wiltshire. . . . It is rather a curious coincidence that 1 
should find this bird the day after I had published my disbelief in the 
nesting of the Curlew in Wiltshire." 

Slack GrOUSe {Lyrurus t. britannicus). Mr. G. B. Hony has also 
notes in British Birds, vol. x., Nos. 2 and 3, July and August, 1016, 
on the fact that this bird is still given in authorities like the Manual, 
Hand List, and the new B.O.U. List, as existing in Wiltshire, whereas 
Smith's Birds of Wilts can quote only stragglers from the New Forest 
or Somerset in 1818, 1819, 1866, and 1880, and absolutely the last 
specimen seen in Wilts was a Greyhen killed against wire near War- 
minster in 1906. 

JVIarsll "Warbler (Acrocephalus palustris). Two nests of this species 
in the near neighbourhood of many nests of A. streperus, were found 
close to Calne on May 27th, 1916. It is inadvisable to state exactly 
the locality. As this is the only occasion on which the writer has had 
any acquaintance with this rare bird, it would be well not to accept the 
identification as exact. Suffice to say that eggs, nests, birds and their 
song, and locality of nests, seemed to be distinctive from A. streperus, 
according to various books. The nests were situated in a dense dry 
thicket of scrub willow, bramble, coarse grass, etc., and one of them 
contained a cuckoo's egg. Quail (Coturnix coturnix). A single 
bird was flushed from wheat stubble on Roundway Down, Sept. 28th, 
1916. Merlill (Falco cesalon). A single bird (evidently of the year) 
haunted Roundway Down from Sept. 16th— Sept. 26th, 1916. It had 
no fear of man and was several times observed in pursuit of larks and 
finches— one lark when closely pressed taking refuge in a small thorn 
hedge. H. A. Gilbert. 

Natural History Notes. 405 

Quail, Mr. Gater, of Winterbourne Dauntsey, tells me that he shot two 
Quail (Coturnix cotumix) in that district at the beginning of September, 

G. Bathurst Hony. 

Crucian Carp. In August, 1916, a large number of small fish were 
caught by schoolboys in a small field pond at Bushton in the parish of 
Clyffe Pypard. Some were brought to me, and as I was not sure what 
they were I sent one to Mr. G. Bathurst Hony, of the 4th Reserve Regt. 
of Cavalry, stationed at Tidworth. He wrote in answer : "I sent the 
fish up to the B.M., to make certain that it was a young Carp, as I 
thought. They replied that it was a Crucian Carp (Cyprinus carassius). 
Curiously enough the day it arrived here (Tidworth) I was shown some 
other small fish like it, which a sergeant here had rescued from the 
mud in a drying up dew pond. He had them in a glass bowl and has 
now turned them out in another pond. I also sent one of them to the 
B.M. and it was a Crucian Carp too." It appears that the fish were 
placed in the pond at Bushton many years ago. They may possibly 
have come from the Lyneham Reservoir. E. H. Goddard. 

Reptiles. Mr. F. Stevens says that Dr. Blackmore has taken the 
Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca) at Alderbury, and believes that 
the Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis) is found there too. The Smooth 
Snake has not been previously recorded from the county. 

G. Bathurst Hony. 

Sisymbrium irio (London Rocket). Mrs. Ruddle writes from 
Durrington on July 25th, 1916 : " As I see that S. irio is only admitted 
as a Wiltshire plant under protest in the " Flowering Plants of Wilts," 
and is only recorded from two localities, it may be of interest to record 
that last week I found several specimens growing in a field here." 


Henry Edmonstoiie Medlicott, died, Sept. 5th, aged 76. 

Buried at Potterne. S. of Bev. Stephen Medlicott, ordained in Salisbury 
Cathedral as Curate of All Cannings, 1827, afterwards Curate, 1830, 
and Vicar, 1 837 — 71, of Potterne. Whilst curate he lived at " Sandfield,'' 
where his son, H. E. Medlicott, was born January 18th, 1840, and where 
he died. His mother was Dionysia Meliora Long, d. of Richard 
Godolphin Long, of Rood Ashton. He was educated at a private 
school at Hardenhuish, at Harrow, 1854, and Wadham College, Oxon, 
1858. He rowed in the College Eight for three years, and in the Oxford 
Eight against Cambridge in 1861. B.A. 1862 ; M.A. 1865. Called to 
the Bar at the Middle Temple, 1866. In 1871 he undertook the agency 
of the Rood Ashton Estate for his cousin, Bichard Long, an office which 
he held for twenty-seven years, resigning it in ] 898, when he was pre- 
sented with a silver soup tureen and address by the tenants. In 1899 
he took over the agency of the Erlestoke Estate, which he held until 
the sale of a large part of the estate in 1907 and 1910, resigning in 1911, 
when the tenants marked their appreciation of his tenure of office by 
an illuminated address and other gifts. He continued to manage two 
smaller Wiltshire properties, those of Mr. Gaisford St. Lawrence and 
Mr. Basil E. Peto, M.P., until this year (1916). J. P. for Wilts 1876. 
He represented the Potterne Division on the County Council from the 
origin of the council in 1888 until he retired in 1898, acting for many 
years as Chairman of the Asylum Committee, and as Vice- Chairman 
of the Standing Joint Committee until his death. Of the Potterne 
Parish Council he had been chairman from its first establishment in 
1894. Of the Wiltshire Friendly Society he was appointed a member 
of the Administrative Committee in 1876, and in 1880 he became 
Treasurer. He was the Chairman of the Devizes Bural Tribunal in 
connection with the war at the time of his death. In 1881 he succeeded 
Mr. C. H. Talbot, as one of the Hon. Secretaries of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society, in conjunction with the Rev. A. C. Smith, and 
until his resignation in 1904 he was chiefly responsible for the organi- 
sation of the annual meetings and excursions, and he served on the 
Stonehenge Committee. In the Salisbury Diocesan Synod he repre- 
sented Potterne Deanery from the origin of the Synod under Bishop 
Moberly in 1871 until his death, serving on many of the Synod Com- 
mittees and being one of the most regular attendants at the annual 
meetings. He was also Chairman of the Wilts Area Committee of the 
Voluntary Schools Association, and for thirty-nine years churchwarden 
of Potterne. A strong Conservative he took a prominent part in 
political matters, and had acted as Vice-Chairman and Chairman of the 
Committee of the East Wilts Constitutional Association. 

He married, April 9th, 1874, Kate, D'Oyley Gale, eldest daughter of 
Alexander R. Gale, of Stanton Lodge, Suffolk. His four sons were : 

Wilts Obituary. 407 

George Godfrey, died Sept., 1883; Walter Sandfield, a Lieutenant in 
the Northumberland Hussars ; Henry Edward, now Major, A.A., and 
Q.M.G. Indian Cavalry ; and Stephen, Flight Lieutenant in the Royal 
Naval Flying Corps, who was killed in a flying accident in 1915. His 
only daughter, Kate Josephine, married Capt Henry Paton Rogers, of 
the Wiltshire Regiment, who died during the South African War. 

The above particulars, chiefly taken from the long and excellent 
obituary notices in the Wiltshire Gazette of Sept. 7th and 14th, 
sufficiently indicate the prominent place occupied by Henry Medlicott 
in the public life of Wiltshire, and especially of Central Wiltshire, for 
more than half a century. Few Wiltshiremen have given a long life 
more completely to the service of their county in numberless directions 
of usefulness than did he. 

In his own parish "He was the father of the parishioners, to whom 
they went for counsel and assistance in every perplexity and trouble." 
No trouble was too great for him to take to help the Church or parish 
of Potterne. Whatever he did was characterised in public and in 
private life alike, by a very remarkable degree of level headedness aud 
common sense, and by an entire absence of anything like self seeking 
or self advertisement. As an appreciation of him by the Rt. Hon. 
W. H. Long {Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 14th, 1916) most truly says, "The 
predominant feature of his character was his absolute, undeviating 
rectitude. His first and last thought was always ' what is the right 
and straight thing to do 1 ' and it is this special trait that I believe will 
be found the foundation of the great influence for good which he 
exercised during a long and busy life upon all with whom he came 
in contact." Few men were better known in all Central Wilts, and 
certainly no man was more repeated, by everybody who knew him, no 
matter how greatly their political or religious outlook might differ 
from his. And with those who really knew him it was not merely 
respect, but a warm and affectionate esteem, with which he was regarded. 

To our own Archaeological Society he remained to the last not merely 
one of its Vice-Presidents, but a friend who was keenly interested in 
every thing that concerned its welfare, and one of the most regular 
attendants at our quarterly committee meetings. His work as a 
devoted Churchman is dwelt upon in an obituary notice in The 
Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, October, 1916, by W. H. Kewley, (Vicar 
of Potterne). 

By his death the county loses one of the best Wiltshiremen of this 
generation — who leaves behind him the record of a long life of entirely 
upright and unselfish usefulness, as an example and a guide to those 
who come after. 

Earl St, Aldwyn, died April 30th, 1916. Sir Michael Edward 
Hicks-Beach, 9th Baronet, b. 1 837, married, first, the dau. of J. H. Elwes 
Colesborne Park, Gloucester ; secondly, 1 874, Lady Lucy Catherine, dau. of